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Full text of "The anatomy of melancholoy, what it is, with all the kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, and several cures of it. In three partitions. With their several sections, members and subsections, philosophically, medically, historically, opened and cut up. By Democritus Junior. With a satirical preface, conducing to the following discourse"

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II 'luil it is. with all Ihe kinds, causes, 
synifitoms./troantistifs k several cures of it 

In tlmv I'. trillions. with thi-ir si'vt-ral 
Sections, numbers & subjections. 

lli.tlitrifiillij ii/iniril \ nil nji. 

Ih'rnocritus Jujunr 

With a Siitijiiiiil I'rrliiiY (i 

li> //if li'llimiini 
The Si.r/h Kililinii a>rrr<-tf<l mill 

Illllllllflllfll III! lilf All/In'/' 

Hnnif Inlit iiiitn-liiiii ii ni niif-ruit uliif flulri 

K o &er T D ur1"o n C *** 












VOL. I. 


















'T*HE work now restored to public 
notice has had an extraordinary 
fate. At the time of its original publi 
cation it obtained a great celebrity, 
which continued more than half a cen 
tury. During that period few books 
were more read, or more deservedly 
applauded. It was the delight of the 
learned, the solace of the indolent, and 
the refuge of the uninformed. It passed 
through at least eight editions, by which 
the bookseller, as WOOD records, got an 
estate; and, notwithstanding the objec 
tion sometimes opposed against it, of a 
quaint style, and too great an accumu 
lation of authorities, the fascination of 
its wit, fancy, and sterling sense, have 
borne down all censures, and extorted 
praise from the first writers in the Eng 
lish language. The grave JOHNSON has 
praised it in the warmest terms, and the 


ludicrous STERNE has interwoven many 
parts of it into his own popular perform 
ance. MILTON did not disdain to build 
two of his finest poems on it ; and a 
host of inferior writers have embellished 
their works with beauties not their own, 
culled from a performance which they 
had not the justice even to mention. 
Change of times, and the frivolity of 
fashion, suspended, in some degree, that 
fame which had lasted near a century; 
and the succeeding generation affected 
indifference towards an author, who at 
length was only looked into by the 
plunderers of literature, the poachers 
in obscure volumes. The plagiarisms 
of Tristram Shandy, so successfully 
brought to light by Dr. FERRIAR, at 
length drew the attention of the public 
towards a writer, who, though then little 
known, might, without impeachment of 
modesty, lay claim to every mark of re 
spect ; and inquiry proved, beyond a 
doubt, that the calls of justice had been 
little attended to by others, as well as 
the facetious YORICK. WOOD observed, 
more than a century ago, that several 
authors had unmercifully stolen matter 


from BURTOIST without any acknowledg 
ment. The time, however, at length 
arrived, when the merits of the An 
atomy of Melancholy were to receive 
their due praise. The book was again 
sought for and read, and again it became 
an applauded performance. Its excel 
lences once more stood confessed, in the 
increased price which every copy offered 
for sale produced ; and the increased de 
mand pointed out the necessity of a 
new edition. This is now presented to 
the public in a manner not disgraceful 
to the memory of the author; and the 
publisher relies with confidence, that so 
valuable a repository of amusement and 
information, will continue to hold the 
rank to which it has been restored, 
firmly supported by its own merit, and 
safe from the influence and blight of 
any future caprices of fashion. To open 
its valuable mysteries to those who have 
not had the advantage of a classical 
education, translations of the countless 
quotations from ancient writers which 
occur in the work, are now for the first 
time given, and obsolete orthography is 
in all instances modernised. 


ROBERT BURTON was the son of Ralph Burton, of an ancient 
and genteel family at Lindley, in Leicestershire, and was born 
there on the 8th of February, 1576.* He received the first rudi 
ments of learning at the free school of Sutton Coldfield, in War 
wickshire^ from whence he was, at the age of seventeen, in the 
long vacation, 1593, sent to Brazen Nose College, in the condition 
of a commoner, where he made a considerable progress in logic 
and philosophy. In 1599 he was elected student of Christ Church, 
and, for form sake, was put under the tuition of Dr. John Ban 
croft, afterwards Bishop of Oxford. In 1614 he was admitted to 
the reading of the Sentences, and on the 29th of November, 1616, 

* His elder brother was William Bur 
ton, the Leicestershire antiquary, born 
24th August, 1575, educated at Sutton 
Coldfield, admitted commoner, or gentle 
man commoner, of Brazen Nose College, 
1591 ; at the Inner Temple, 20th May, 
1593; B.A. 22d June, 1694; and after 
wards a barrister and reporter in the 
Court of Common Pleas. "But his 
natural genius," says Wood, " leading 
him to the studies of heraldry, genealo 
gies, and antiquities, he became excellent 
iu those obscure and intricate matters; 
and, look upon him as a gentleman, was 
accounted, by all that knew him, to be 
the beat of nil time for those studies, w 

may appear by his ' Description of Leices 
tershire.' " His weak constitution not 
permitting him to follow business, he re 
tired into the country, and his greatest 
work, " The Description of Leicester 
shire," was published in folio, 1622. He 
died at Falde, after suffering much in 
the civil war, 6th April 1645, and was 
buried in the parish church belonging 
thereto, called Hanbury. 

t This is Wood's account. His will 
says, Nuneaton; but a passage in this 
work [vol. ii. p. 159,] mentions Sutton 
Coldfleld : probably he may have been at 
both schools. 

8 Account of the Author. 

had the vicarage of St. Thomas, in the west suburb of Oxford, 
conferred on him by the dean and canons of Christ Church, which, 
with the rectory of Segrave, in Leicestershire, given to him in 
the year 1636, by George, Lord Berkeley, he kept, to use the 
words of the Oxford antiquary, with much ado to his dying day. 
He seems to have been first beneficed at Walsby, in Lincolnshire, 
through the munificence of his noble patroness, Frances, Count 
ess Dowager of Exeter, but resigned the same, as he tells us, for 
some special reasons. At his vicarage he is remarked to have 
always given the sacrament in wafers. Wood's character of him 
is, that " he was an exact mathematician, a curious calculator of 
nativities, a general read scholar, a thorough-paced philologist, and 
one that understood the surveying of lands well. As he was by 
many accounted a severe student, a devourer of authors, a melan 
choly and humorous person ; go by others, who knew him well, a 
person of great honesty, plain dealing and charity. I have heard 
some of the ancients of Christ Church often say, that his com 
pany was very merry, facete, and juvenile ; and no man in his 
time did surpass him for his ready and dexterous interlarding his 
common discourses among them with verses from the poets, or 
sentences from classic authors ; which being then all the fashion 
in the University, made his company the more acceptable." He 
appears to have been a universal reader of all kinds of books, and 
availed himself of his multifarious studies in a very extraordinary 
manner. From the information of Hearne, we learn that John 
Bouse, the Bodleian librarian, furnished him with choice books for 
the prosecution of his work. The subject of his labour and amuse 
ment, seems to have been adopted from the infirmities of his own 
habit and constitution. Mr. Granger says, " He composed this 
book with a view of relieving his own melancholy, but increased 
it to such a degree, that nothing could make him laugh, but going 
to the bridge-foot and hearing the ribaldry of the bargemen, which 
rarely failed to throw him into a violent fit of laughter. Before 
he was overcome with this horrid disorder, he, in the intervals of 
his vapours, was esteemed one of the most facetious companions in 
the University." 

His residence was chiefly at Oxford ; where, in his chamber in 
Christ Church College, he departed this life, at or very near the 
time which he had some years before foretold, from the calculation 
of his own nativity, and which, says Wood, " being exact, several 

Account of the Author. 


of the students did not forbear to whisper among themselves, that 
rather than there should be a mistake in the calculation, he sent 
up his soul to heaven through a slip about his neck." Whether 
this suggestion is founded in truth, we have no other evidence 
than an obscure hint in the epitaph hereafter inserted, which was 
written by the author himself, a short time before his death. His 
body, with due solemnity, was buried near that of Dr. Robert 
Weston, in the north aisle which joins next to the choir of the 
Cathedral of Christ Church, on the 27th of January, 1639-40. 
Over his grave was soon after erected a comely monument, on 
the upper pillar of the said aisle, with his bust, painted to the 
life. On the right hand is the following calculation of his 
nativity : 

10 Account of the Author. 

and under the bust, this inscription of his own composition : 

Faucis notus, paucioribos ignotus, 

Hio jacet Denwcrittu junior 

Cui vitam dedit et mortem 

Ob. 8 Id. Jan. A. G. MDCZZXIZ. 

Arms: Azure on a bend O. between three dogs' heads O. a 
crescent G. 

A few months before his death, he made his will, of which the 
following is a copy : 


In Nomine Dei Amen, August 16 th One thousand six hundred thirty 
nine because there be so many casualties to which our life is subject 
besides quarrelling and contention which happen to our Successors after 
our Death by reason of unsettled Estates I Robert Burton Student of 
Christchurch Oxon. though my means be but small have thought good 
by this my last Will and Testament to dispose of that little which I have 
and being at this present I thank God in perfect health of Bodie and Mind 
and if this Testament be not so formal according to the nice and strict 
terms of Law and other Circumstances peradventure required of which I 
am ignorant I desire howsoever this my Will may be accepted and stand 
good according to my true Intent and meaning First I bequeath Animam 
Deo Corpus Terrse whensoever it shall please God to call me I give my 
Land in Higham which my good Father Ralphe Burton of Lindly in the 
County of Leicester Esquire gave me by Deed of Gift and that which I 
have annexed to that Farm by purchase since, now leased for thirty-eight 
pounds per Ann. to mine Elder Brother William Burton of Lindly Esquire 
during his life and after him to his Heirs I make my said Brother William 
likewise mine Executor as well as paying such Annuities and Legacies 
out of my Lands and Goods as are hereafter specified I give to my nephew 
C&ssibilan Burton twenty pounds Annuity per Ann. out of my Land in 
Higham during his life to be paid at two equall payments at our Lady 
Day in Lent and Michaelmas or if he be not paid within fourteen Days 
after the said Feasts to distrain on any part of the Ground on or any of 
my Lands of Inheritance Item I give to my sister Katherine Jackson dur 
ing her life eight pounds per Ann. Annuity to be paid at the two Feast* 
equally as above said or else to distrain on the Ground if she be not paid 
after fourteen days at Lindly as the other tome is out of the said Land 
Item I give to my Servant John Upton the Annuity of Forty Shillings out 
of my said Farme during his life (if till then my Servant) to be paid on 
Michaelmas day in Lindley each year or else after fourteen days to dis 
train Now for my goods I thus dispose them First I give an C"> pounds to 

Account of the Author. 11 

Christ Church in Oxford where I have BO long lived to buy five pounds 
Lands per Ann. to be Yearly bestowed on Books for the Library Item I 
give an hundredth pound to the University Library of Oxford to be be- 
etowed to purchase five pound Land per Ann. to be paid out Yearly on 
Books as Mrs. Brooks formerly gave an hundred pounds to buy Land to 
the same purpose and the Rent to the same use I give to my Brother 
George Burton twenty pounds and my watch I give to my Brother Ralph 
Burton five pounds Item I give to the Parish of Seagrave in Leicestershire 
where I am now Rector ten pounds to be given to certain Feoffees to the 
perpetual good of the said Parish Oxon # Item I give to my Niece Eugenia 
Burton One hundredth pounds Item I give to my Nephew Richard Burton 
now Prisoner in London an hundredth pound to redeem him Item I give 
to the Poor of Higham Forty Shillings where my Land is to the Poor of 
Nuneaton where I was once a Grammar Scholar three pound to my Cousin 
Pnrfey of Wadlake [Wadley] my Cousin Purfey of Calcott my Cousin 
Hales of Coventry my Nephew Bradshaw of Orton twenty shillings a piece 
for a small remembrance to Mr. Whitehall Rector of Cherkby myne own 
Chamber Fellow twenty shillings I desire my Brother George and my 
Cosen Purfey of Calcott to be the Overseers of this part of my Will I give 
moreover five pounds to make a small Monument for my Mother where 
she is buried in London to my Brother Jackson forty shillings to my Ser 
vant John Upton forty shillings besides his former Annuity if he be my 
Servant till I die if he be till then my Servant f ROBERT BURTON 
Charles Russell Witness John Pepper Witness. 

An Appendix to this my Will if I die in Oxford or whilst I am of Christ 
Church and with good Mr. Paynes August the Fifteenth 1639. 

I Give to Mr. Doctor Fell Dean of Christ Church Forty Shillings to the 
Eight Canons twenty Shillings a piece as a small remembrance to the poor 
of St. Thomas parish Twenty Shillings to Brasenose Library five pounds 
to Mr. Rowse of Oriell Colledge twenty Shillings to Mr. Heywood axes, to 
Dr. Metcalfe axes, to Mr. Sherley xxa. If I have any Books the University 
Library hath not, let them take them If I have any Books our own Library 
hath not, let them take them I give to Mrs. Fell all my English Books of 
Husbandry one excepted to her Daughter Mrs. Kathe- 

rine Fell my Six Pieces of Silver Plate and six Silver Spoons to Mrs lies 
my Gerards Herball to Mrs. Morris my Country Farme Translated out of 
French 4. and all my English Physick Books to Mr. Whistler the Recorder 
of Oxford I give twenty shillings to all my fellow Students M of Arts a 
Book in fol. or two a piece as Master Morris Treasurer or Mr Dean shall 
appoint whom I request to be the Overseer of this Appendix and give him 
for his pains Atlas Geografer and Ortelius Theatrum Mond' I give to John 
Fell the Dean's Son Student my Mathematical Instruments except my 
two Crosse Staves which I give to my Lord of Donnol if he be then of the 
House To Thomas lies Doctor lies his Son Student Salnntch on Paurrhelia 

So in th Register. t So in the Register. 

12 Account of the Author. 

and Lncian's Works in 4 Tomes If any books be left let my Executors dis 
pose of them with all such Books as are written with my own hands and 
half my Melancholy Copy for Crips hath the other half To Mr. Jones 
Chaplin and Chanter my Surveying Books and Instruments To the Ser 
vants of the House Forty Shillings BOB. BURTON Charles Russell 
Witness John Pepper Witness This Will was shewed to me by the 
Testator and acknowledged by him some few days before his death to 
be his last Will Ita Tester John Morris S Th D. Prebendari' Eccl Chri' 
Oxon Feb. 8, 1639. 

Probatum fuit Testamentum suprascriptum, &c. 11 1640 Juramento 
Willmi Burton Fris' et Executoris cui &c. de bene et fideliter ad- 
ministrand. &c. coram Mag'ris Nathanaele Stephens Rectore Eccl. 
de Drayton, et Edwardo Farmer, Clericis, vigore commissionis, 

The only work our author executed was that now reprinted, 
which probably was the principal employment of his life. Dr. 
Ferriar says, it was originally published in the year 1617; but 
this is evidently a mistake ; * the first edition was that printed in 
4to, 1621, a copy of which is at present in the collection of John 
Nichols, Esq., the indefatigable illustrator of the History of Leices 
tershire ; to whom, and to Isaac Reed, Esq., of Staple Inn, this 
account is greatly indebted for its accuracy. The other impres 
sions of it were in 1624, 1628, 1632, 1638, 1651-2, 1660, and 1676, 
which last, in the title-page, is called the eighth edition. 

The copy from which the present is reprinted, is that of 1651-2 : 
at the conclusion of which is the following address : 


u Be pleased to know (Courteous Reader) that since the last Impression 
of this Book, the ingenuous Author of it is deceased, leaving a Copy of it 
exactly corrected, with several considerable Additions by his own hand ; 
this Copy he committed to my care and custody, with directions to have 
those Additions inserted in the next Edition; which in order to his com 
mand, and the Pnblicke Good, is faithfully performed in this last Impres 

H. a (i. e. HEN. CRIPPS.) 

Originating, perhaps, in a note, p. 448, printed In 1676, there seems very little 
6th edit. (TO!, ill, p. '29, of the present), tn reason to doubt that, in the note aboT 
which a book is quoted as haying been alluded to. either 1624 has been a mis- 
" printed at Paria, 1624, teven yean after print for 1628, or seven years for three 
Barton's first edition." As, however, yean. The numerous typographical cr 
ib* editions after that of 1621, are regu- rata in other parts of the work strongly 
larly marked in succession to the eighth, aid this latter supposition. 

Account of the Author. 13 

The following testimonies of various authors will serve to show 
the estimation in which this work has been held : 

1 The ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY, wherein the author hath piled up 
variety of much excellent learning. Scarce any book of philology in 
our land hath, in so short a time, passed so many editions." Fuller's 
Worthies, fol. 16. 

" 'Tis a book so fall of variety of reading, that gentlemen who have 
lost their time, and are put to a push for invention, may furnish them 
selves with matter for common or scholastical discourse and writing." 
Wood's Athenas Oxoruensis, vol. i. p. 628, 2d edit. 

" If you never saw BURTON UPON MELANCHOLY, printed 1676, 1 pray 
look into it, and read the ninth page of his Preface, ' Democritus to 
the Reader.' There is something there which touches the point we are 
upon; but I mention the author to you, as the pleasantest, the most 
learned, and the most full of sterling sense. The wits of Queen Anne's 
reign, and the beginning of George the First, were not a little beholden to 
him." Archbishop Herring's Letters, 12mo, 1777, p. 149. 

"BURTON'S ANATOMY or MELANCHOLY, he (Dr. Johnson) said, was 
the only book that ever took him out of bed two hours sooner than he 
wished to rise." BosweWs Life of Johnson, vol. i. p. 680, 8vo. edit. 

" BURTON'S ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY is a valuable book," said Dr. 
Johnson. " It is perhaps, overloaded with quotation. But there is great 
spirit and great power in what Burton says when he writes from his own 
mind." Ibid. vol. ii. p. 826. 

" It win be no detraction from the powers of Milton's original genius 
and invention, to remark, that he seems to have borrowed the subject 
of V Allegro and II Penseroso together with some particular thoughts, 
expressions, and rhymes, more especially the idea of a contrast between 
these two dispositions, from a forgotten poem prefixed to the first edition 
of BURTON'S ANATOMY OF MELANCHOLY, entitled, ' The Author's Ab 
stract of Melancholy; or, A Dialogue between Pleasure and Pain.' Here 
pain is melancholy. It was written, as I conjecture, about the year 1600. 
I will make no apology for abstracting and citing as much of this poem 
as will be sufficient to prove, to a discerning reader, how far it had taken 
possession of Milton's mind. The measure will appear to be the same ; 
and that our author was at least an attentive reader of Burton's book, may 
be already concluded from the traces of resemblance which I have inci 
dentally noticed in passing through the ' Allegro and 77 Penseroso." 
After extracting the lines, Mr. Warton adds, " as to the very elaborate 
work to which these visionary verses are no unsuitable introduction, the 
writer's variety of learning, his quotations from scarce and curious books, 
his pedantry sparkling with rude wit and shapeless elegance, miscella- 

14 Account of the Author. 

neons matter. Intermixture of agreeable tales and illustrations, and, 
perhaps, above all, the singularities of his feelings, clothed in an on 
common quaintness of style, have contributed to render it, even to modern 
readers, a valuable repository of amusement and information." Wartori 1 ! 
Milton, 2d edit. p. 94. 

" THB ANATOMY OF MELANIMOLY Is a book which has been univer 
sally read and admired. This work is, for the most part, what the author 
himself styles it, 4 a cento;' but it is a very ingenious one. His quota 
tions, which abound in every page, are pertinent; but if he had made 
more use of his invention and less of his commonplace-book, his work 
would perhaps have been more valuable than it is. He is generally fre 
from the affected language and ridiculous metaphors which disgrace most 
of the books of his time." Granger't Biographical History. 

" BUBTON'B ANATOMY OP MELANCHOLY a book once the favourite of 
the learned and the witty, and a source of surreptitious learning, though 
written on a regular plan, consists chiefly of quotations: the author hat 
honestly termed it a cento. He collects, under every division, the opin 
ions of a multitude of writers, without regard to chronological order, and 
has too often the modesty to decline the interposition of his own senti 
ments. Indeed the bulk of his materials generally overwhelms him. 
In the course of his folio he has contrived to treat a great variety of 
topics, that seem very loosely connected with the general subject; and, 
like Bayle, when he starts a favourite train of quotations, he does not 
scruple to let the digression outrun the principal question. Thus, from 
the doctrines of religion to military discipline, from inland navigation to 
the morality of dancing-schools, everything is discussed and determined." 
Fcrriar't Illustrations of Sterne, p. 68. 

" The archness which BURTON displays occasionally, and his indul 
gence of playful digressions from the most serious discussions, often give 
his style an air of familiar conversation, notwithstanding the laborious 
collections which supply his text. He was capable of writing excellent 
poetry, but he seems to have cultivated this talent too little. The Eng 
lish verses prefixed to his book, which possess beautiful imagery, and 
great sweetness of versification, have been frequently published. His 
Latin elegiac verses addressed to his book, show a very agreeable turn for 
raillery." 7d p. 68. 

" When the force of the subject opens his own rein of prose, we discover 
valuable sense and brilliant expression. Such is his account of the first 
feelings of melancholy persons, written, probably, from his own experi 
ence." [See p. 161, of the present edition.] Ibid. p. 60. 

"During a pedantic age, like that in which BURTON'S production 
appeared, it must have been eminently serviceable to writers of many 
descriptions. Henon the unlearned might furnish themselves with appro- 

Account of the Author. 15 

priate scraps of Greek and Latin, whilst men of letters would find their 
inquiries shortened, by knowing where they might look for what both 
ancients and moderns have advanced on the subject of human pas 
sions. I confess my inability to point out any other English author 
who has so largely dealt in apt and original quotation." Mamucrip. 
note of the late George Sleevent, Eiq., M AM copy qf THE ANATOMY or 



VADB liber, qualis, non ansim dicere, fcelix, 

Te nisi fcelicem fecerit Alma dies, 
Vade taraen quocunque lubet, quascunque per oras, 

Et Geniutn Domini fac imitere tui. 
I blandas inter Gbarites, mystamque saluta 

Musarum quemvis, si tibi lector erit. 
Bura colas, urbem, subeasve palatia regam, 

Submisse, placide, te sine dente geras. 
Nobilis, aut si quis te forte inspexerit heros, 

Da te morigerum, perlegat usque lubet. 
Est quod Nobilitas, est quod desideret heros, 

Gratior hoec forsan charta placere potest. 
Si quis morosus Cato, tetricusque Senator, 

Hunc etiam librum forte videre velit, 
Sive magistratus, turn te reverenter habeto; 

Sed nullus; muscas non capiunt Aquike. 
Non vacat bis tempus fugitivum impendere nngis, 

Nee tales cnpio ; par mihi lector erit. 
Si matrona gravis casu diverterit istnc, 

Illustris domina, ant te Comitissa legat : 
Est quod displiceat, placeat quod forsitan illis, 

Ingerere his noli te modb, pande tamen. 
At si virgo tuas dignabitur inclyta chartas 

Tangere, sive scbedis hsereat ilia tnis: 
Da modo te facilem, et qusedam folia esse memento 

Conveniant oculis quse magis apta suis. 
Si generosa ancilla tuos aut alma puella 

Visura est ludos, annue, pande lubens. 
Die utinam nunc ipse mens * (nam diligit istas) 

In prsesens esset conspiciendus herus. 
Ignotus notusve mihi de gente togata 

Sive aget in ludis, pulpita sive colet, 

* Hsec comic6 dicta oave ne malA oftpiM. 
I. 2 

18 Democritus Junior ad Librum Suum. 

Sive in Lycceo, et nugas evolverit istas, 
Si quasdam mendas viderit inspiciens, 
Da veniam Author!, dices ; nam plurima vellet 

Expungi, quse jam displicuisse sciat. 
Sive Melancholicus quisquam, sea blandus Amator, 

Aulicus aut Givis, seu bene comptus Eques 
Hue appellat, age et tuto te crede legenti, 

Malta istic forsan non mal& nata leget. 
Quod fugiat, caveat, quodque arnplexabitur, ista 

Pagina fortassis promere multa potest. 
At si quis Medicos coram te sistet, amice 
Fac circumspecte, et te sine labe geras: 
Inveniet namque ipse meis quoque plurima script!*, 

Non leve subsidium qua sibi forsan erunt. 
Si qnis Causidicos chartas impingat in istas, 

Nil in ih i vobiacnm, pessima turba vale; 
Sit nisi vir bonns, et juris sine fraude peritus, 

Turn legat, et forsan doctior inde siet. 
Si quis cordatus, facilis, lectorque benignus 

Hue oculoa vertat, quae velit ipse legat; 
Gandidns ignoscet, metuas nil, pande libenter, 

Offensus mendis non erit ille tuis, 
Landabit nonnulla. Venit si Rhetor ineptus, 

Limata et tersa, et qui ben6 cocta petit, 
Claude citus librum; nulla hie nisi ferrea verbs, 
Offendent stomachum quse minus apta suum. 
At si quis non eximius de plebe poeta, 

Annue; namque istic plurima ficta leget. 
Nos sumus e nnmero, nullus mihi spiral Apollo, 

Grandiloquus Vates quilibet esse nequit. 
Si Criticus Lector, tumidus Censorque molestus, 

Zoilus et Momus, si rabiosa cohors : 
Binge, freme, et noli turn pandere, turba malignis 

Si occurrat sannis invidiosa suis: 
Fac fugias; si nulla tibi sit copia enndi, 

Contemnes, tacite scommata quseque feres. 
Frendeat, allatret, vacuas gannitibus auras 
Impleat, baud cures; his nefas. 
Verum age si forsan divertat purior hospes, 

Cuique sales, ludi, displiceantque joci, 
Objiciatque tibi sordes, lascivaque: dices, 
Lasciva est Domino et Musa jocosa tuo, 
Nee lasciva tamen, si pensitet omne; sed esto; 

Sit lasciva licet pagina, vita proba est. 
Barbarus, indoctusque rudis spectator in istam 

Si messem intrudat, fuste fugabis eum, 
Fungum pelle procul ( jubeo) nam quid mihi fungo? 
Conveniunt stomacho non minus ista suo. 

Democritus Junior ad Librum Suum. 19 

Sed nee pelle tamen; lasto omnes accipe vultn, 

Qnos, quas, vel quales, inde vel unde viros. 
Gratns erit quicunque venit, gratissimus hospes 

Quisquis erit, facilis difficUisque mihi. 
Nam si cnlparit, quasdam culpasse juvabit, 

Culpando faciet me meliora sequi. 
Sed si laudarit, neque laudibus efferar nllia, 

Sit satis hisce mails opposuisse bonum. 
HSBO sont qn nostro placuit mandare libflllo, 

Et qu dimittens dicere jussit Hems. 



Go forth my book into the open day; 

Happy, if made so by its garish eye. 
O'er earth's wide surface take thy vagrant way, 

To imitate thy master's genius try. 
The graces three, the Muses nine salute, 

Should those who love them try to con thy lore. 
The country, city seek, grand thrones to boot, 

With gentle courtesy humbly bow before. 
Should nobles gallant, soldiers frank and brave 

Seek thy acquaintance, hail their first advance: 
From twitch of care thy pleasant vein may save, 

May laughter cause or wisdom give perchance. 
Some surly Cato, Senator austere, 

Haply may wish to peep into thy book: 
Seem very nothing tremble and revere : 

No forceful eagles, butterflies e'er look. 
They love not thee : of them then little seek, 

And wish for readers tri tiers like thyself. 
Of ludeful matron watchful catch the beok, 

Or gorgeous countess full of pride and pelf. 
They may say " pish I " and frown, and yet read on; 

Cry odd, and silly, coarse, and yet amusing. 
Should dainty damsels seek thy page to con, 

Spread thy best stores: to them be ne'er refusing: 
Say, fair one, master loves thee dear as life; 

Would he were here to gaze ou thy sweet look. 
Should known or unknown student, free'd from strito 

Of logic and the schools, explore my book: 
Cry mercy critic, and thy book withhold: 

Be some few errors pardon'd though observ'd: 
An humble author to implore makes bold. 

Thy kind indulgence, even nndeserv'd 

Democritus Junior to his Book. 21 

Should melancholy wight or pensive lover, 

Courtier, snug cit, or carpet knight so trim 
Our blossoms cull, he'll find himself in clover, 

Gain sense from precept, laughter from our whim. 
Should learned leech with solemn air unfold 

Thy leaves, beware, be civil, and be wise: 
Thy volume many precepts sage may hold, 

His well fraught head may find no trifling prize. 
Should crafty lawyer trespass on our ground, 

Caitiffs avaunt ! disturbing tribe away ! 
Unless (white crow) an honest one be found; 

He'll better, wiser go for what we say. 
Should some ripe scholar, gentle and benign, 

With candour, care, and judgment thee peruse : 
Thy faults to kind oblivion he'll consign; 

Nor to thy merit will his praise refuse. 
Thou may'st be searched for polish'd words and verse; 

By flippant spouter, emptiest of praters : 
Tell him to seek them in some mawkish verse: 

My periods all are rough as nutmeg graters. 
The doggrel poet, wishing thee to read, 

Reject not ; let him glean thy jests and stories. 
His brother I, of lowly sembling breed: 

Apollo grants to few Parnassian glories. 
Menac'd by critic with sour furrowed brow, 

Momus or Troilus or Scotch reviewer: 
Ruffle your heckle, grin and growl and vow: 

Ill-natured foes yon thus will find the fewer. 
When foul-mouth'd senseless railers cry thee down, 

Reply not; fly, and show the rogues thy stern: 
They are not worthy even of a frown : 

Good taste or breeding they can never learn; 
Or let them clamour, turn a callous ear, 

As though in dread of some harsh donkey's bray 
If chid by censor, friendly though severe, 

To such explain and turn thee not away. 
Thy vein, says he perchance, is all too free: 

Thy smutty language suits not learned pen. 
Reply, Good Sir, throughout, the context see : 

Thought chastens thought; so prithee judge again 
Besides, although my master's pen may wander 

Through devious paths, by which it ought not stray 
His life is pure, beyond the breath of slander: 

So pardon grant ; 'tis merely but his way. 
Some rugged ruffian makes a hideous rout 

Brandish thy cudgel, threaten him to baste; 
The filthy fungus far from thee cast out ; 

Such noxious banquets never suit my taste. 

22 Democritus Junior to his Book. 

Yet, calm and cautious moderate thy ire, 

Be ever courteous should the case allow 
Sweet malt is ever made by gentle fire: 

Warm to thy friends, give all a civil bow. 
Even censure sometimes teaches to improve, 

Slight frosts have often cured too rank a crop, 
So candid blame my spleen shall never move, 

For skilful gard'ners wayward branches lop, 
Go then, my book, and bear my words in mind; 
Guides safe at once and oleasant them you'll find. 


TEX distinct Squares here seen apart, 
Are joined in one by Cutter's art. 

Old Democritug under a tree, 
Sits on a stone with book on knee ; 
About him hang there many features, 
Of Cats, Dogs, and such like creatures, 
Of which he makes anatomy, 
The seat of black choler to see. 
Over his head appears the sky, 
And Saturn Lord of melancholy. 

To the left a landscape of Jealousy, 
Presents itself unto thine eye. 
A Kingfisher, a Swan, an Hern, 
Two fighting-cocks you may discern, 
Two roaring Bulls each other hie, 
To assault concerning Tenery. 
Symbols are these ; I say no more, 
Conceive the rest by that's afore. 

The next of solitariness, 
A Portraiture doth well express, 
By sleeping dog, cat : Buck and Doe, 
Hares, Conies in the desart go : 
Bats, Owls the shady bowers over, 
In melancholy darkness hover. 
Mark well : If 't be not as't should be, 
Blame the bad Cutter, and not me. 


I* th' under column there doth stand 
Inamorato with folded hand ; 
Down hangs his head, terse and polite, 
Some ditty sure he doth indite. 
His lute and books about him lie, 
As symptoms of his vanity. 
If this do not enough disclose, 
To paint him, take thyself by th' nose. 

Hypoeondriaeut leans on his arm, 
Wind in his side doth him much harm, 
And troubles him full sore, Qod knows, 
Much pain he hath and many woes. 
About him pots and glasses lie, 
Newly brought from's Apothecary. 
This Saturn's aspects signify, 
Tou see them portray ! d in the sky. 

Beneath them kneeling on his knee, 
A superstitious man you see : 
He fasts, prays, on his Idol fixt, 
Tormented hope and fear betwixt : 
For hell perhaps he takes more pain, 
Than thou dost heaven itself to gain 
Alas poor soul, I pity thee, 
What stars incline thee so to be ? 

But see the madman rage downright 
With furious looks, a ghastly sight 
Naked in chains bound doth he lie, 
And roars amain he knows not why ! 
Observe him ; for as in a glass, 
Thine angry portraiture it was 
His picture keeps still in thy presence ; 
'Twixt him and thee, there's no difference 


Borage and HeUebor fill two scenes, 
Sovereign plants to purge the veins 
Of melancholy, and cheer the heart, 
Of those black fumes which make it smart ; 
To clear the brain of misty fogs, 
Which dull our senses, and Soul clogs. 
The best medicine that e'er God made 
For this malady, if well assay 'd. 

Now last of all to fill a place, 
Presented is the Author's face ; 
And in that habit which he wears, 
His image to the world appears. 
His mind no art can well express, 
That by his writings you may guess. 
It was not pride, nor yet vain glory, 
(Though others do it commonly,) 
Made him do this : if you must know, 
The Printer would needs have it so. 
Then do not frown or scoff at it, 
Deride not, or detract a whit. 
For surely as thou dost by him, 
He will do the same again. 
Then look upon't, behold and see, 
As thou like'st it. so it likes thee. 
And I for it will stand in view, 
Thine to command, Reader, adieu. 

* These verses refer to the Frontispiece, which is divided into ten compartment* 
that are here severally explained. The author's portrait, mentioned in the tenth 
stanza, is copied in page 7. 


WHIN I go musing all alone, 
Thinking of divers things fore-known, 
When I build rustics in the air, 
Void of sorrow and void of fear, 
Pleasing myself with phantasms sweet, 
Methinks the time runs very fleet. 
All my Joys to this are folly, 
Naught so sweet as melancholy. 
When I lie waking all alone, 
Recounting what I have ill done, 
My thoughts on me then tyrannize, 
Fear and sorrow me surprise, 
Whether I tarry still or go, 
Methinks the time moves very slow. 
All my griefs to this are jolly, 
Naught so sad as melancholy. 
When to myself I act and smile, 
With pleasing thoughts the time beguile, 
By a brook side or wood so green, 
Unheard, unsought for, or unseen, 
A thousand pleasures do me bless, 
And crown my soul with happiness. 
All my joys besides are folly, 
None so sweet as melancholy. 
When I lie, sit, or walk alone, 

I sigh, I grieve, making great mone, 
In a dark grove, or irksome den, 
With discontents and Furies then, 
A thousand miseries at onc 

Mine heavy heart and soul ensconce, 
All my griefs to this are jolly, 
None so sour as melancholy. 
Methinks I hear, methinks I see, 
Sweet music, wondrous melody, 
Towns, palaces, and cities fine ; 
Here now, then there ; the world is mine, 
Kare beauties, gallant ladies shine, 
Whate'er Is lovely or divine. 
All other joys to this are folly, 
None so sweet as melancholy. 
Methinks I hear, methinks I see 

I 1 hosts, goblins, fiends ; my fantasy 
Presents a thousand ugly shapes, 
Headless bears, black men, and apes, 
Doleful outcries, and fearful sights, 
My sad and dismal soul affright*. 

All my griefs to this are jolly, 
Mone so damn'd as melancholy. 

Methinks I court, methinks I kiss, 
Methinks I now embrace my mistress. 

blessed days, sweet content, 
In Paradise my time is spent. 

Such thoughts may still my fancy move, 
So may I ever be in love. 
All my joys to this are folly, 
Naught so sweet as melancholy. 
When I recount love's many frights, 
My sighs and tears, my waking nights, 
My jealous fits ; mine hard fate 

1 now repent, but 'tis too late. 
No torment is so bad as love, 
So bitter to my soul can prove. 

All my griefs to this are jolly, 
Naught so harsh as melancholy. 
Friends and companions get you gone, 
"Tis my desire to be alone ; 
Ne'er well but when my thoughts and I 
Do domineer in privacy. 
No (it-ill, no treasure like to this, 
'Tis my delight, my crown, my bliss. 
All my joys to this are folly, 
Naught so sweet as melancholy. 
Tis my sole plague to be alone, 
I am a beast, a monster grown, 
I will no light nor company, 
I find it now my misery. 
The scene is turn'd, my joys are gone, 
Fear, discontent, and sorrows come. 
All my griefs to this are jolly, 
Naught so fierce as melancholy. 
I'll not change life with any King, 
I ravisht am : can the world bring 
More joy, than still to laugh and smite 
In pleasant toys time to beguile ? 
Do not, do not trouble me, 
So sweet content I feel and see. 
All my joys to this are folly, 
None so divine as melancholy. 
I'll change my state with any wretch, 
Thou canst from jail or dunghill fetch 
My pain's past cure, another hell, 
I may not in this torment dwell ! 
Now desperate I hate my life, 
Lend me a halter or a knife; 
All my griefs to this are jolly. 
Naught so damn'd as melancholy. 



GENTLE Reader, I presume thou wilt be very inquisitive 
to know what antic or personate actor this is, that so inso 
lently intrudes upon this common theatre, to the world's 
view, arrogating another man's name ; whence he is, why he 
doth it, and what he hath to say ; although, as 1 he said, 
Primum si noluero, non respondebo, quis coacturus est? I 
am a free man born, and may choose whether I will tell ; 
who can compel me ? If I be urged, I will as readily reply 
as that Egyptian in * Plutarch, when a curious fellow would 
needs know what he had in his basket, Quum vides velatam, 
quid inquiris in rem absconditam ? It was therefore "overed, 
because he should not know what was in it. Seek not after 
that which is hid ; if the contents please thee, " * and be for 
thy use, suppose the Man in the Moon, or whom thou wilt to 
be the Author ; " I would not willingly be known. Yet in 
some sort to give thee satisfaction, which is more than I 
need, I will show a reason, both of this usurped name, title, 
and subject. And first of the name of Democritus; lest 
any man, by reason of it, should be deceived, expecting a 
pasquil, a satire, some ridiculous treatise (as I myself should 
have done), some prodigious tenet, or paradox of the earth's 

i Seneca in livlo in mortem Claudii Cae- htec tibl nsni sint, quemris a'ictorem 
Mris. a Lib. de Uuriositate. * Mod6 gito. Weckcr. 

26 Democrittis to the Header. 

motion, of infinite worlds, in infinite vacuo, ex fortuitd ato~ 
morum coUisione, in an infinite waste, so caused by an acci 
dental collision of motes in the sun, all which Democritus 
held, Epicurus and their master Lucippus of old maintained, 
and are lately revived by Copernicus, Brunus, and some 
others. Besides, it hath been always an ordinary custom, as 
4 Gellius observes, " for later writers and impostors, to broach 
many absurd and insolent fictions, under the name of so 
noble a philosopher as Democritus, to get themselves credit, 
and by that means the more to be respected," as artificers 
usually do, Novo qui marmori ascribunt Praxatilem suo. 
Tis not so with me. 

* Non hie Centauros, non Gorgonaa, Harpyasque 
Invenies, hominem pagina nostra sapit. 

No Centaurs here, or Gorgons look to find, 
My subject is of man and human kind. 

Thou thyself art the subject of my discourse. 

8 Quicquid agnnt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, 
Gaudia, discursus, nostri farrago libelli. 

Whate'er men do, vows, fears, in ire, in sport, 
Joys, wand'rings, are the sum of my report. 

My intent is no otherwise to use his name, than Mercurius 
Gullobelgicus, Mercurius Britannicus, use the name of Mer 
cury, * Demoeritus Christianus, &c. ; although there be some 
other circumstances for which I have masked myself under 
this vizard, and some peculiar respect which I cannot so 
well express, until I have set down a brief character of this 
our Democritus, what he was, with an Epitome of his life. 

Democritus, as he is described by 'Hippocrates and "Laer- 
tius, was a little wearish old man, very melancholy by 
nature, averse from company in his latter days, 7 and much 
given to solitariness, a famous philosopher in his age, *cocevus 
with Socrates, wholly addicted to his studies at the last, and 

1 Lib. 10, c. 12. Multa a mate feriatls sen edit. Colonia), 1616. Hip. Epist. 

in Democriti nomine commenta data, no- Damegct. Laert lib. 9. 7 Hortulo 

billtatis, anctoritattsque ejus perfugio sihi oellulam aeligeng, ibique seipsuta 

ntontibu*. Mnrtinlis. lib. 10, eplgr. includen*, visit nolitarius. Floruit 

14. * JUT. Sat. 1. Auth. Pet. Bea- Olympiads 80 ; 700 anuU post Troiam. 

Democritus to the Reader. 27 

to a private life ; wrote many excellent works, a great divine, 
according to the divinity of those times, an expert physician, 
a politician, an excellent mathematician, as 1 Diacosmus and 
the rest of his works do witness. He was much delighted 
with the studies of husbandry, saith a Columella, and often I 
find him cited by * Constantinus, and others treating of that 
subject. He knew the natures, differences of all beasts, 
plants, fishes, birds ; and, as some say, could 4 understand the 
tunes and voices of them. In a word, he was omnifariam 
doctus, a general scholar, a great student ; and to the intent 
he might better contemplate, 6 1 find it related by some, that 
he put out his eyes, and was in his old age voluntarily blind, 
yet saw more than all Greece besides, and 'writ of every 
subject, Nihil in toto opifido natures, de quo non scripsit. 1 
A man of an excellent wit, profound conceit ; and to attain 
knowledge the better in his younger years he travelled to 
Egypt and 8 Athens, to confer with learned men, * " admired 
of some, despised of others." After a wandering life, he 
settled at Abdera, a town in Thrace, and was sent for thither 
to be their lawmaker, recorder, or town-clerk, as some will ; 
or, as others, he was there bred and born. Howsoever it 
was, there he lived at last hi a garden in the suburbs, wholly 
betaking himself to his studies and a private life, 10 " saving 
that sometimes he would walk down to the haven, u and 
laugh heartily at such variety of ridiculous objects, which 
there he saw." Such a one was Democritus. 

But in the mean time, how doth this concern me, or upon 
what reference do I usurp this habit ? I confess, indeed, that 
to compare myself unto him for aught I have yet said, were 
both impudency and arrogancy. I do not presume to make 

> Diacoa. quod cunctis operibus facile ica, liberales disciplinaa, artiumque om- 

eicellit. Laert. * Col. lib. I.e. 1. nium peritiam callebat. 1 Nothing in 

' Const, lib. de agric. passim. * Voltt- nature's power to contrive of which ha 

cram voces et linguas intelligere se dicit has not written. 8 Veni Athenas, et 

Abderitans Ep. Hip. * Sabellicus ex- nemo me no vit . Idem contemptui et 

empl. lib. 10. Oculis se privavit, ut me- admiration! habitus. w Solebat ad por- 

lias contemplation! operam daret. sub- tarn ainbulare, et inde, &c. Hip. Kp. 

limi rir ingenio. profundae cogitationis, Dameg. u Perpetuo risu pulmonem 

fcc. * Naturalia, moralia, uiathemat- agitare solebat Democritus. JUT. St 7 

28 Democritus to the Reader. 


any parallel, Antistat mihi mittibus trecentis, 1 parvus sum, 
nullus sum, aliurn nee spiro, nee spero. Yet thus much I 
will say of myself, and that I hope without all suspicion of 
pride, or self-conceit, I have lived a silent, sedentary, solitary, 
private life, mihi et musis in the University, as long almost as 
Xenocrates in Athens, ad senectam fere to learn wisdom as 
he did, penned up most part in my study. For I have been 
brought up a student in the most flourishing college of 
Europe, 3 augustissimo collegia, and can brag with 8 Jovius, 
almost, in ed luce domicilii Vaticani, totius orbis celeberrimi, 
per 37 annos multa opportunaque didici ; " for thirty years 
I have continued (having the use of as good * libraries as 
ever he had) a scholar, and would be therefore loth, either 
by living as a drone, to be an unprofitable or unworthy mem 
ber of so learned and noble a society, or to write that which 
should be any way dishonourable to such a royal and ample 
foundation. Something I have done, though by my profes 
sion a divine, yet turbine raptus ingenii, as 6 he said, out of a 
running wit, an unconstant, unsettled mind, I had a great 
desire (not able to attain to a superficial skill in any) to have 
some smattering in all, to be aliquis in omnibus, nullus in 
ringulisf which T Plato commends, out of him 8 Lipsius ap 
proves and furthers, "as fit to be imprinted in all curious 
wits, not to be a slave of one science, or dwell together in 
one subject, as most do, but to rove abroad, centum puer 
artium, to have an oar in every man's boat, to * taste of 
every dish, and sip of every cup," which, saith 10 Montaigne, 
was well performed by Aristotle, and his learned countryman 
Adrian Turnebus. This roving humour (though not with 
like success) I have ever had, and like a ranging spaniel, 
that barks at every bird he sees, leaving his game, I have 
followed all, saving that which I should, and may justly 

1 Non inm dlgnns praeatare mate] la. cupidisetcurlosis ingonii? imprimendum, 

Mart. * Christ Church In Oxford. nt sit tails qul null! rel seiriat, aut ex- 

1 Pnefat. hist. Keeper of our college acte unum allquld elaboret, alia negli- 

library, lately revived by Otho Ntcolson, gens, ut artifices, &c. Dellbare gra- 

Enquire. Scallger. Somebody In turn de quocunque clbo, et pitisare d 

everything, nobody In each thing. 'In quocunque dolio jucundum. 10 Essays, 

Thmt. Phil. Stoic. 11. dlff. 8. Dogma lib. 8. 

Democritus to the Reader. 29 

complain, and truly, qui ubique est, nusquam est, 1 which 
8 Gesner did in modesty, that I have read many books, but 
to little purpose, for want of good method ; I have confusedly 
tumbled over divers authors in our libraries, with small profit 
for want of art, order, memory, judgment. I never travelled 
but in map or card, in which my unconfined thoughts have 
freely expatiated, as having ever been especially delighted 
with the study of cosmography. 'Saturn was lord of my 
geniture, culminating, &c., and Mars principal significator of 
manners, in partile conjunction with my ascendant ; both for 
tunate in their houses, &c. I am not poor, I am not rich ; 
nihil est, nihil deest, I have little, I want nothing: all my 
treasure is in Minerva's tower. Greater preferment as I 
could never get, so am I not in debt for it, I have a compe 
tence (Ictus Deo) from my noble and munificent patrons, 
though 1 live still a collegiate student, as Democritus in his 
garden, and lead a monastic life, ipse mihi theatrum, seques 
tered from those tumults and troubles of the world, Et tan- 
quam in specula positus ( 4 as he said), in some high place 
above you all, like Stoicus Sapiens, omnia scectila, preeterita 
presentiaque videns, uno velut intuitu, I hear and see what is 
done abroad, how others 6 run, ride, turmoil, and macerate 
themselves in court and country, far from those wrangling 
lawsuits, aulce vanitatem, fori ambitionem, ridere mecum soleo. 

1 laugh at all, 'only secure lest my suit go amiss, my ships 
perish, corn and cattle miscarry, trade decay, I have no wife 
nor children good or bad to provide for. A mere spectator 
of other men's fortunes and adventures, and how they act 
their parts, which methinks are diversely presented unto me 
as from a common theatre or scene. I hear new news every 
day, and those ordinary rumours of war, plagues, fires, inun 
dations, thefts, murders, massacres, meteors, comets, spec- 

1 He that Is everywhere la nowhere, strepitum, conteutionea, &e. Gyp. 

2 Praefat. bibliothec. 3 Ambo fortes et ad Donat. Unice securus, ne excidam in 
fortunati, Mars idem magisterii dominus foro, aut la marl Indico bonis elua, de 
juxta primam Leovittii regulam. dote filiae, patrfmonio filii non gum solici- 
* Hensius. 5 Calide ambientes, solicite tua. 

Utigantes, ant misere excidentes, yoces. 

30 Democritus to the Reader. 

trums, prodigies, apparitions, of towns taken, cities besieged 
in France, Germany, Turkey, Persia, Poland, &c., daily mus 
ters and preparations, and such like ; which these tempestuous 
times afford, battles fought, so many men slain, monomachies, 
shipwrecks, piracies, and sea-fights; peace, leagues, strata 
gems, and fresh alarms. A vast confusion of vows, wishes, 
actions, edicts, petitions, lawsuits, pleas, laws, proclamations, 
complaints, grievances, are daily brought to our ears. New 
books every day, pamphlets, currantoes, stories, whole cata- 
logues of volumes of all sorts, new paradoxes, opinions, 
schisms, heresies, controversies in philosophy, religion, &c. 
Now come tidings of weddings, maskings, mummeries, enter 
tainments, jubilees, embassies, tilts and tournaments, trophies, 
triumphs, revels, sports, plays ; then again, as in a new shifted 
scene, treasons, cheating tricks, robberies, enormous villainies 
in all kinds, funerals, burials, deaths of princes, new discov 
eries, expeditions, now comical, then tragical matters. To 
day we hear of new lords and officers created, to-morrow of 
some great men deposed, and then again of fresh honours 
conferred ; one is let loose, another imprisoned ; one pur- 
chaseth, another breaketh ; he thrives, his neighbour turns 
bankrupt; now plenty, then again dearth and famine; one 
runs, another rides, wrangles, laughs, weeps, &c. Thus I 
daily hear, and such like, both private and public news, 
amidst the gallantry and misery of the world ; jollity, pride, 
perplexities and cares, simplicity and villainy; subtlety, 
knavery, candour, and integrity, mutually mixed and offering 
themselves ; I rub on privus privatus ; as I have still lived, 
BO I now continue, statu quo prius, left to a solitary life, and 
mine own domestic discontents ; saving that sometimes, ne 
quid mentiar, as Diogenes went into the city, and Democritus 
to the haven to see fashions, I did for my recreation now and 
then walk abroad, look into the world, and could not choose 
but make some little observation, non tarn sagax observator 
ae simplex recitator, 1 not as they did, to scoff or laugh at all. 
but with a mixed passion. 

i Not K> cagaciouj an obMrrer M simple a narrator. 

Democritus to the Reader. 31 

1 " Bilera saep6, jocum vestri movfire tumultus." 

Ye wretched mimics, whose fond heats have been, 
How oft! the objects cf my mirth and spleen. 

I did sometime laugh and scoff with Lucian, and satiri 
cally tax with Menippus, lament with Heraclitus, sometimes 
again I was *petulanti splene cachinno, and then again, 
*urere bilisjecur, I was much moved to see that abuse which 
I could not mend. In which passion howsoever I may sym 
pathize with him or them, 'tis for no such respect I shroud 
myself under his name ; but either in an unknown habit to 
assume a little more liberty and freedom of speech, or if you 
will needs know, for that reason and only respect which Hip 
pocrates relates at large in his Epistle to Damegetus, wherein 
he doth express, how coming to visit him one day, he found 
Democritus in his garden at Abdera, in the suburbs, 4 under 
a shady bower, 6 with a book on his knees, busy at his study, 
sometimes writing, sometimes walking. The subject of his < 
book was melancholy and madness ; about him lay the car 
casses of many several beasts, newly by him cut up and 
anatomized ; not that he did contemn God's creatures, as he 
told Hippocrates, but to find out the seat of this atra bili$, or 
melancholy, whence it proceeds, and how it was engendered 
in men's bodies, to the intent he might better cure it in him 
self, and by his writings and observations 'teach others how 
to prevent and avoid it Which good intent of his, Hippoc 
rates highly commended ; Democritus Junior is therefore 
bold to imitate, and because he left it imperfect, and it is now 
lost, quasi succenturiator Democriti, to revive again, pros 
ecute, and finish in this treatise. 

You have had a reason of the name. If the title and in 
scription offend your gravity, were it a sufficient justification 
to accuse others, I could produce many sober treatises, even 

1 Hor. Ep. lib. 1, six 20. * Per. A posite considebat, super genna yolumen 

laugher with a petulant spleen. * Hor. habens, et utrinque alia patentia parata, 

lib. 1, sat. 9. * Secundum moenia locus dissectaque animalia cumulathn strata, 

erat froudosis populis opacus, ritibusqne quorum viscera rimabatur. * Cum 

ipoute natis, teuuis prope aqua defluebat, mundus extra se sit, et mente eaptus sit, 

plaoide murmurans, ubi sedile et domns et nesciat se languere, ut medelam adhih- 

Democriti conspiciebatur 6 Ipse com- eat. 

32 Democritus to the Reader. 

sermons themselves, which in their fronts carry more fantas 
tical names. Howsoever, it is a kind of policy in these days, 
to prefix a fantastical title to a book which is to be sold ; for, 
as larks come down to a day-net, many vain readers will 
tarry and stand gazing like silly passengers at an antic pic 
ture in a painter's shop, that will not look at a judicious 
piece. And, indeed, as * Scaliger observes, " nothing more 
invites a reader than an argument unlocked for, unthought 
of, and sells better than a scurrile pamphlet," turn maxime 
cum novitas excitat * palatum. " Many men," saith Gellius, 
" are very conceited in their inscriptions," " and able (as 
* Pliny quotes out of Seneca) to make him loiter by the way 
that went in haste to fetch a midwife for his daughter, now 
ready to lie down." For my part, I have honourable * prece 
dents for this which I have done: I will cite one for all, 
Anthony Zara, Pap. Episc., his Anatomy of Wit, in four 
sections, members, subsections, &c., to be read in our libra 

If any man except against the matter or manner of treat 
ing of this my subject, and will demand a reason of it, I can 
allege more than one ; I write of melancholy, by being busy 
to avoid melancholy. There is no greater cause of melan 
choly than idleness, " no better cure than business," as 
4 Rhasis holds ; and howbeit, stultus labor est ineptiarum, to 
be busy in toys is to small purpose, yet hear that divine 
Seneca, aliud agere qitam nihil, better do to no end, than 
nothing. I wrote, therefore, and busied myself in this play 
ing labour, otiosaq. diligentid lit vitarem torpor em feriandi 
with Vectius m Macrobius, atq. otium in utile verterem nego- 

Simul et jucunda et idonea dicere vitse, 
Lectorem delectando simul atque monendo. 

1 Scaliger. Bp. ad Patisonem. Nihil trioein parturient! flliae aecersentl moram 

magis lectorem inyitat quani Inopln&tum Injicere possunt. * Anatomy of Popery, 

argumentum, neque vendibilior merx est Anatomy of Immortality, Angelas Baku), 

quim petulans liber. Lib. zx. o. 11. Anatomy of Antimony, &c. * Cont. 

Minui sequuntur inscriptionutn festivita- 1. 4, e. 9. Non eat cura mellor quam 

tM. * Prw&t. Nat. Hist. Patri obsto- labor. * Hor. De Arte Poet 

Democritus to the Reader. 33 

Poets would profit or delight mankind, 

And with the pleasing have th' instructive join'd. 

Profit and pleasure, then, to mix with art, 
T' inform the judgment, nor offend the heart, 
Shall gain all votes. 

To this end I write, like them, saith Lucian, that " recite 
to trees, and declaim to pillars for want of auditors ; " as 

1 Paulus JEgineta ingenuously confesseth, " not that anything 
was unknown or omitted, but to exercise myself," which 
course if some took, I think it would be good for their bodies, 
and much better for their souls ; or peradventure as others 
do, for fame, to show myself (Scire tuum nihil est, nisi te 
scire hoe sciat alter). I might be of Thucydides's opinion, 

2 " to know a thing and not to express it, is all one as if he 
knew it not." When I first took this task in hand, et quod 
ait *itte, impeUente genio negotium suscepi, this I aimed at ; 
* vel ut lenirem animum scribendo, to ease my mind by writ 
ing ; for I had gravidum cor, fcetum caput, a kind of impos- 
thume in my head, which I was very desirous to be unladen 
of, and could imagine no fitter evacuation than this. Besides, i 

I might not well refrain, for ubi dolor, ibi digitus, one must I 1^ 
needs scratch where it itches. I was not a little offended 
with this malady, shall I say my Mistress " melancholy," my 
JEgeria, or my malus genius ? and for that cause, as he that 
is stung with a scorpion, I would expel clavum clavo, 6 com 
fort one sorrow with another, idleness with idleness, ut ex 
viperd Theriacum, make an antidote out of that which was 
the prime cause of my disease. Or as he did, of whom 
'Felix Plater speaks, that thought he had some of Aris- 
tophanes's frogs in his belly, still crying Brecc, ckex, coax, 
coax, oop, oop, and for that cause studied physic seven years, 
and travelled over most part of Europe to ease himself 
To do myself good I turned over such physicians as our 

1 Non quod de noYO quid addere, aut a si nesciret. * Jovius Praef. Hist. 

re te rib us prsetennissum, sed p reprise ex- * Erasmus. 5 Otium otio dolorem d- 

etcitationis causa. - Qui novit, neque lore sum solatus. Obaerrat. 1. 1. 
Id quod sen tit exprimit, perinde est ac 

VOL. I. 8 

84 Democritus to the Reader. 

libraries would afford, or my l private friends impart, and 
have taken this pains. And why not ? Cardan professeth 
he wrote his book, " De Consolatione " after his son's death, 
to comfort himself; so did Tully write of the same subject 
with like intent after his daughter's departure, if it be his at 
least, or some impostor's put out in his name, which Lipsius 
probably suspects. Concerning myself, I can peradventure 
affirm with Marius in Sallust, a " that which others hear or 
read of, I felt and practised myself; they get their knowl 
edge by books, I mine by melancholizing." Experto crede 
Roberto. Something I can speak out of experience, cerum- 
nabilis eocperientia me docuit; and with her in the poet, 
* Hand ignara malt miseris succurrere disco ; I would help 
others out of a fellow-feeling ; and, as that virtuous lady did 
of old, 4 " being a leper herself, bestow all her portion to 
build an hospital for lepers," I will spend my time and 
knowledge, which are my greatest fortunes, for the common 
good of all. 

Yea, but you will infer that this is 6 actum agere. an un 
necessary work, cramben bis coctam apponere, the same again 
and again in other words. To what purpose ? 6 " Nothing 
is omitted that may well be said," so thought Lucian in the 
like theme. How many excellent physicians have written 
just volumes and elaborate tracts of this subject ? No news 
here ; that which I have is stolen from others, 7 Dicitque mihi 
mea pagina, fur es. If that severe doom of 8 Synesius be 
true, " it is a greater offence to steal dead men's labours, than 
their clothes," what shall become of most writers ? I hold 
up my hand at the bar among others, and am guilty of felony 
in this kind, habes confttentem reum, I am content to be 
pressed with the rest. 'Tis most true, tenet insanabik multoi 

1 M. Job. Rons, our Protobib. Oxon. I learn to pity them." * Cam den, Ipsi 

M. Hopper, M. Guthridge, &c. * Qua elephantiasi correpta elephantiasis hos- 

1111 audlre et legere sclent, eornm partlm plcium construxit. * Iliada post Home- 

ridi egomet. alia gessl, quw 1111 literls, rum. Nihll praetenninHuin quod I 

go militando didicl, none TOB ezistlmate quoris die! possit. ' Martlalis. 

beta an dicta pluris sint. * DldoVirg. Magis impium mortuorum lucubra 

' Taught by that Power that pities me, tiones, quim restes furari. 

Democritus to the Reader. 85 

tcribendi cacoethes, and lu there is no end of writing of books," 
as the Wise-man found of old, in this 2 scribbling age, especial 
ly, wherein 8 " the number of books is without number, (as a 
worthy man saith,) presses be oppressed," and out of an itch 
ing humour that every man hath to show himself, 4 desirous 

of fame and honour (scribimus indocti doctique ), he will 

write no matter what, and scrape together it boots not whence. 
*" Bewitched with this desire of fame, etiam mediis in morbis, 
to the disparagement of their health, and scarce able to hold 
a pen, they must say something, 6 " and get themselves a 
name," saith Scaliger, " though it be to the downfall and ruin 
of many others." To be counted writers, scriptores ut salu- 
tentur, to be thought and held Polumathes and Polyhistors, 
apud imperitum vulgus ob ventosce nomen artis, to get a paper 
kingdom : nulld spe qucestus sed ampld famee, in this precip 
itate, ambitious age, nunc ut est seeculum, inter immaturam 
eruditionem, ambitiosum et prceceps ('tis 7 Scaliger's censure) ; 
and they that are scarce auditors, vix auditores, must be mas 
ters and teachers, before they be capable and fit hearers. 
They will rush into all learning, togatam armatam, divine, 
human authors, rake over all indexes and pamphlets for 
notes, as our merchants do strange havens for traffic, write 
great tomes, Gum non sint re verd doctiores, sed loquaciore*, 
whereas they are not thereby better scholars, but greater 
praters. They commonly pretend public good, but as 8 Ges- 
ner observes, 'tis pride and vanity that eggs them on; no 
news or aught worthy of note, but the same in other terms. 
Ne feriarentur fortasse typography, vel ideo scribendum est 
aliquid ut se vixisse testentur. As apothecaries we make new 
mixtures every day, pour out of one vessel into another ; and 
as those old Romans robbed all the cities of the world, to set 

1 Eccl. nit * Libros Eunuchi gig- Baronius. Ex minis alienae exi?tima- 

nunt, steriles pariunt. 3 D. King prae- tionis sibi gradum ad famam struunt. 

fat. lect. Jonas, the late right reverend 1 Exercit. 288. 8 Omnes sibi famam 

Lord B. of London. * Homines famelici quserunt et quovis modo in orbem spargt 

gloriae ad ostentationera ernditionls nn- contendnnt, at novae alicnjns rei habean- 

diqne congerunt. Buchananus = gf- tor auctores. Praef. biblioth. 
faciuati etiam laudis amore, &c Justus 

36 Democritus to the Header. 

out their bad-sited Rome, we skim off the cream of other 
men's wits, pick the choice flowers of their tilled gardens to 
set out our own sterile plots. Castrant olios ut libros suos per 
se graciks alieno adipe sujfarciant (so * Jovius inveighs). 
They lard their lean books with the fat of other's works. 
Ineruditi fures, &c. A fault that every writer finds, as I do 
now, and yet faulty themselves, 1 Tnum literarum homines, 
all thieves : they pilfer out of old writers to stuff up their 
new comments, scrape Ennius's dunghills, and out of 2 De- 
mocritus's pit, as I have done. By which means it comes to 
pass, * " that not only libraries and shops are full of our putrid 
papers, but every close-stool and jakes, Scribunt carmina qua 
legunt cacantes ; they serve to put under pies, to * lap spice 
in, and keep roast-meat from burning. " With us in France," 
saith * Scaliger, " every man hath liberty to write, but few 
ability. 8 Heretofore learning was graced by judicious schol 
ars, but now noble sciences are vilified by base and illiterate 
scribblers," that either write for vainglory, need, to get 
money, or as parasites to flatter and collogue with some 
great men, they put out 7 burros, quisquiliasque ineptiasque. 
'Amongst so many thousand authors you shall scarce find 
one, by reading of whom you shall be any whit better, but 
rather much worse, quibus inficitur potiiis quam perficitur, 
by which he is rather infected than any way perfected. 

Qui talia legit, 
Quid didicit tandem, quid scit nisi somnia, nugas ? 

So that oftentimes it falls out (which Callimachus taxed of 
old) a great book is a great mischief. 10 Cardan finds fault 
with Frenchmen and Germans, for their scribbling to no 
purpose, non inquit ab edendo deterreo, modo novum aliquid 
inveniant, he doth not bar them to write, so that it be some 

* Praefat. hist 1 Plautus. * E sordent ob homines. * Ana. pac. 

Democriti pnteo. * Non tarn refertae * Inter tot mille yolumina vix unus 

Mbliotheoe quam cloaca. * Et quic- cujus lectione quis mellor evadat, immc 

quid cartis amicitur ineptis. 5 Kpist. pot ins non pejor. * Palingenius. What 

M Petal, in regno Franciae omnibus acri- does any one, who reads such works, learn 

tend! datur libertas, paucis facultas. or know but dreams and trifling things 

* Ollm literae ob homines in precio, nunc 1 Lib. 6, de Sap 

Democritus to the Reader. 37 

new invention of their own ; but we weave the same web 
still, twist the same rope again and again ; or if it be a new 
invention, 'tis but some bauble or toy which idle fellows write, 
for as idle fellows to read, and who so cannot invent ? l " He 
must have a barren wit, that in this scribbling age can forge 
nothing. 2 Princes show their armies, rich men vaunt their 
buildings, soldiers their manhood, and scholars vent theii 
toys;" they must read, they must hear whether they will or no. 

8 Et quodcunque serael chartis illeverit, omnes 
Gestiet a forno redeuntes scire lacuque, 
Et pueros et anus 

What once is said and writ, all men most know, 
Old wives and children as they come and go. 

* What a company of poets hath this year brought out," as 
Pliny complains to Sossius Sinesius. * " This April every 
day some or other have recited." What a catalogue of new 
books all this year, all this age (I say), have our Frankfort 
Marts, our domestic Marts brought out? Twice a year, 
' " Proferunt se nova ingenia et ostentant, we stretch our wits 
out, and set them to sale, magno conatu nihil agimus. So 
that which 6 Gesner much desires, if a speedy reformation 
be not had, by some Prince's Edicts and grave Supervisors, 
to restrain this liberty, it will rim on in infinitum. Quis tarn 
avidus librorum heUuo, who can read them ? As already, we 
shall have a vast chaos and confusion of books, we are 7 op 
pressed with them, 8 our eyes ache with reading, our fingers 
with turning. For my part I am one of the number nos numertu 
surma (we are mere ciphers) : I do not deny it, I have only 
this of Macrobius to say for myself, Omne meum, nihil meum, 
'tis all mine and none mine. As a good housewife out of 
divers fleeces weaves one piece of cloth, a bee gathers wax 

1 Sterile oportet esse ingeninm quod in arguantur auctorum furta et millics rep- 
hoc scripturientum pruritus, &c. etita tollantur, et temere scribendi li- 
> Cardan, praef. ad Consol. * Hor. lib. 1, bido coerceatur, aliter in infinitum pro 
sat. 4. 4 Epist. lib. 1. Magnum poeta- gressura. 7 Onerabuntur ingenia, nemo 
rum prorentum annus hie attulit, mense legendis sufficit. 8 Libris obruimur 
April! nullus fere dies quo non aliquis re- oculi legendo, manus volitando dolent 
citavit. Idem. Principibua et Fam. Strada Momo. Lucretiua. 
doctoribug deliberandum relinquo, at 

38 Democritiis to the Reader. 

and honey out of many flowers, and makes a new bundle of 
all, Floriferis ut apes in saltibus omnia libant, I have labori 
ously l collected this Cento out of divers writers, and that 
sine injurid, I have wronged no authors, but given every 
man his own ; which a Hierom so much commends in Nepo- 
tian ; he stole not whole verses, pages, tracts, as some do 
nowadays, concealing their authors' names, but still said this 
was Cyprian's, that Lactantius, that Hillarius, so said Minu- 
tius Felix, so Victorinus, thus far Arnobius : I cite and quote 
mine authors (which, howsoever some illiterate scribblera 
account pedantical, as a cloak of ignorance, and opposite to 
their affected fine style, I must and will use) sumpsi, non 
Burripui ; and what Varro, lib. 6, de re rust, speaks of bees, 
minime makfica nuttius opus vetticantes faciunt deterius, 1 
can say of myself, Whom have I injured ? The matter is 
theirs most part, and yet mine, apparet unde sumptum sit 
(which Seneca approves), aliud tamen qudm unde sumptum 
sit apparet, which nature doth with the aliment of our bodies 
incorporate, digest, assimilate, I do concoquere quod hausi, dis 
pose of what I take. I make them pay tribute, to set out this 
my Maceronicon, the method only is mine own, I must usurp 
that of * Wecker e Ter. nihil dictum quod non dictum priug, 
methodus sola artificem ostendit, we can say nothing but what 
hath been said, the composition and method is ours only, and 
shows a scholar. Oribasius, .^Esius, Avicenna, have all out of 
Galen, but to their own method, diverso stilo, non diversd fide. 
Our poets steal from Homer ; he spews, saith JElian, they lick 
it up. Divines use Austin's words verbatim still, and our story 
dressers, do as much ; he that comes last is commonly best. 

donee quid grandins setas 
Postera sorsque ferat melior. * 

Though there were many giants of old in Physic and Philos- 

1 Quioquid ubique bene dictum facio illnd Gyp. hoc Lact. Hind Hilar. est, ita 

meuni. et illnd nunc nieis a'l compendi- Victorinus, in hunc modum loquutus eft 

am, nanc ad fidcm et auctoritatem alienis Arnobius, &c. ' Praef. ad Syntax med 

ezprimo verbis, omneg auctores meos cli- * Until a later age and a happier lot pity 

nntea ease arbitror. &c. Sarisburiensis dace something more truly grand. 
d Polycrat. prol. ' * In Epitaph. Nep. 

Democritus to the Readet. 39 

ophy, yet I say with l Didacus Stella, " A dwarf standing on 
the shoulders of a giant may see farther than a giant him 
self;" I may likely add, alter, and see farther than my 
predecessors ; and it is no greater prejudice for me to indite 
after others, than for ^Elianus Montaltus, that famous physi 
cian, to write de mortis capitis after Jason Pratensis, Heur- 
nius, Hildesheim, &c., many horses to run in a race, one 
logician, one rhetorician, after another. Oppose then what 

thou wilt, 

Allatres licet usque nos et usque, 
Et Gannitibus improbis lacessas. 

1 solve it thus. And for those other faults of barbarism, 

2 Doric dialect, extemporanean style, tautologies, apish imita 
tion, a rhapsody of rags gathered together from several dung 
hills, excrements of authors, toys and fopperies confusedly 
tumbled out, without art, invention, judgment, wit, learning, 
harsh, raw, rude, fantastical, absurd, insolent, indiscreet, ill- 
composed, indigested, vain, scurrile, idle, dull, and dry ; I 
confess all ('tis partly affected), thou canst not think worse 
of me than I do of myself. 'Tis not worth the reading, I 
yield it, I desire thee not to lose time in perusing so vain a 
subject, I should be peradventure loth myself to read him or 
thee so writing ; 'tis not opera pretium. All I say is this, 
that I have 8 precedents for it, which Isocrates calls perfugium 
Us qui peccant, others as absurd, vain, idle, illiterate, &c. 
Nonnutti alii idem fecerunt ; others have done as much, it 
may be more, and perhaps thou thyself, Novimus et qui te, 
&c. We have all our faults ; scimus, et hanc veniam, &c. ; 
4 thou censurest me, so have I done others, and may do thee, 
Cedimus inque vicem,&c., 'tis lex taliones, quid pro quo. Go 
now, censure, criticize, scoff, and rail. 

6 Nasutus sis usque licet, sis de'nique nasus: 
Non potes in nugas dicere plura meas, 
Ipse ego quam dixi, &c. 

1 In Luc. 10, torn. 2. Pigmei Qigantum apes. Lipsius adversus dialogist. * Uno 

huiueria impositi plusquam ipsi Gigantes absnrdo dato mille sequuntur. * Noa 

vidcnt. 2 Nee aranearum textua ideo dubito multos lectores hie fore stulto*. 

melior quia ex Be flla gignuntur, nee nos- * Martial, 13, 2. 
tor ideo vilior, quia ex alieuis libamus ut 

40 Democritus to the Reader. 

Wert thou all scoffs and flouts, a very Momns, 
Than we ourselves, thou canst not say worse of us. 

Thus, as when women scold, have I cried whore first, and 
in some men's censures I am afraid I have overshot myself, 
Laudare se vani, vituperare stulti, as I do not arrogate, I will 
not derogate. Primus vestrum non sum, nee tmus, I am none 
of the best, I am none of the meanest of you. As I am an 
inch, or so many feet, so many parasangs, after him or him, I 
may be peradventure an ace before thee. Be it therefore as 
it is, well or ill, I have essayed, put myself upon the stage ; 
I must abide the censure, I may not escape it It is most 
true, stylus virum arguit, our style bewrays us, and as * hunt 
ers find their game by the trace, so is a man's genius descried 
by his works, Multo melius ex sermone quam lineamentis, de 
moribus hominum judicamus ; it was old Cato's rule. I 
have laid myself open (I know it) in this treatise, turned 
mine inside outward : I shall be censured, I doubt not ; for, 
to say truth with Erasmus, nihil morosius hominum judiciig, 
there is naught so peevish as men's judgments ; yet this is 
some comfort, utpalata, sicjudicia, our censures are as vari 
ous as our palates. 

9 Tres mihi convive prope dissentire videntur, 
Poscentes vario multum diversa palato, &c. 

Three guests I have, dissenting at my feast, 
Requiring each to gratify his taste 
With different food. 

Our writings are as so many dishes, our readers guests, our 
books like beauty, that which one admires another rejects ; so 
are we approved as men's fancies are inclined. Pro captu 
lectoris habent suafata libelli. That which is most pleasing 
to one is amaracum sui, most harsh to another. Quot homines, 
tot sententiee, so many men, so many minds ; that which thou 
condemnest he commends. * Quod petis, id sane est invisurr 

1 Ut venatorw feram 6 yestlglo impreeso, virum scriptiuncula Lipa. < Hor 

* Hor. 

Democritus to the Reader. 41 

actdumque duobus. He respects matter, thou art wholly for 
words ; he loves a loose and free style, thou art all for neat 
composition, strong lines, hyperboles, allegories ; he desires a 
fine frontispiece, enticing pictures, such as * Hieron. Natali 
the Jesuit hath cut to the Dominicals, to draw on the reader's 
attention, which thou rejectest; that which one admires, 
another explodes as most absurd and ridiculous. If it be not 
point blank to his humour, his method, his conceit, *si quid 
forsan omissum, quod is animo conceperit, si qua dictio, &c. 
If aught be omitted, or added, which he likes, or dislikes, 
thou art mancipium paucee lectionis, an idiot, an ass, nuttus 
et, or plagiarius, a trifler, a trivant, thou art an idle fellow ; 
or else it is a thing of mere industry, a collection without wit 
or invention, a very toy. 2 Facilia sic putant omnes quce jam 
facta, nee de salebris cogitant ubi via strata; so men are 
valued, their labours vilified by fellows of no worth them 
selves, as things of nought, who could not have done so much. 
Unusquisque abundat sensu suo, every man abounds in his 
own sense ; and whilst each particular party is so affected, 
how should one please all ? 

Quid dem? quid non dem? Renuis tu qnod jubet ille. 

What courses must I choose? 
What not ? What both would order yon refuse. 

How shall I hope to express myself to each man's humoui 
and * conceit, or to give satisfaction to all ? Some understand 
too little, some too much, qui similiter in legendos libros, atque 
in salutandos homines irruunt, non cogitantes quales, sed qui- 
bus vestibus induti sint, as 'Austin observes, not regarding 
what, but who write, *orexin habet auctoris celebritas, not 
valuing the metal, but stamp that is upon it, Cantharum as- 
piciunt, non quid in eo. If he be not rich, in great place, 
polite and brave, a great doctor, or full fraught with grand 
titles, though never so well qualified, he is a dunce ; but, as 

* Antwerp, fol. 1607. 1 Muretns. Muretus. B Lib. 1, de ord.. cap 11 

1 Lipsius. 3 Hor. * Fieri non potest, Erasmus. 
at quod qiiisque cogitat, dicat unus. 

42 Democritus to the Reader. 

* Baronius hath it of Cardinal Caraffa's works, he is a mere 
nog that rejects any man for his poverty. Some are too par 
tial, as friends to overween, others come with a prejudice to 
carp, vilify, detract, and scoff (qui de me forsan, quicquid 
est, omni contemptu contemptius judicant) ; some as bees for 
honey, some as spiders to gather poison. What shall I do in 
this case ? As a Dutch host, if you come to an inn in Germa 
ny, and dislike your fare, diet, lodging, &c., replies in a surly 
tone, 1 " aliud tibi quceras diversorium" if you like not this, 
get you to another inn : I resolve, if you like not my writing, 
go read something else. I do not much esteem thy censure, 
take thy course, it is not as thou wilt, nor as I will, but when 
we have both done, that of a Plinius Secundus to Trajan will 
prove true, " Every man's witty labour takes not, except the 
matter, subject, occasion, and some commending favourite 
happen to it." If I be taxed, exploded by thee and some 
such, I shall haply be approved and commended by others, 
and so have been (Expertus loquor), and may truly say with 

* Jovius in like case, (absit verbo jactantia) heroum quorun- 
dam, pontificum, et virorum nobilium familiaritatem et amici- 
tiam, gratasque gratias, et multorum 4 bene laudatorum laudes 
sum inde promeritus, as I have been honoured by some wor 
thy men, so have I been vilified by others, and shall be. At 
the first publishing of this book, (which 6 Probus of Persius's 
satires), editum librum continuo mirari homines, atque avide 
deripere coeperunt, I may in some sort apply to this my work. 
The first, second, and third editions were suddenly gone, 
eagerly read, and, as I have said, not so much approved by 
some, as scornfully rejected by others. But it was Democ 
ritus his fortune, Idem admirationi et f irrisioni habitus. 
'Twas Seneca's fate, that superintendent of wit, learning, 
judgment, ' ad stuporem doctus, the best of Greek and Latin 
writers, in Plutarch's opinion ; " that renowned corrector of 

* Anna). Tom. 8, ad annum 860. Est fautor, occasio, commendatorque contln- 

porcus ille qui sacerdotem ex amplltudine gat. * Prsef. hist. * Laudari a laudato 

redituum sordide demetitur. 1 Erasm. laus est. * yit. Persii. t Minuet 

dial. 2 Epist. lib. 6. Cujusque inge- praesentia famam Lipsius Judic. da 

niuni noo statiin emurgit, nisi materiaa Seneca. 

Democritus to the Reader. 43 

vice," as * Fabius terms him, " and painful omniscious philos 
opher, that writ so excellently and admirably well," could not 
please all parties, or escape censure. How is he vilified by 
8 Caligula, Agellius, Fabius, and Lipsius himself, his chief 
propugner ? In eo pleraque pernitiosa, saith the same Fabius, 
many childish tracts and sentences he hath sermo ittaboratus, 
too negligent often and remiss, as Agellius observes, oratio 
vulgaris et protrita, dicaces et ineptce sententia, eruditio ple- 
beia, an homely shallow writer as he is. In portions spinas 
et fastidia habet, saith * Lipsius ; and, as in all his other 
works, so especially hi his epistles, (dice in argutiis et ineptiis 
occupantur, intricatus alicubi, et parum compositus, sine copid 
rerum hoc fecit, he jumbles up many things together imme- 
thodically, after the Stoics' fashion, parum ordinavit, multa 
accumulavit, &c. If Seneca be thus lashed, and many famous 
men that I could name, what shall I expect ? How shall 1 
that am vix umbra tanti philosophy hope to please ? u No 
man so absolute ( 8 Erasmus holds) to satisfy all, except an 
tiquity, prescription, &c., set a bar." But as I have proved in 
Seneca, this will not always take place, how shall I evade? 
'Tis the common doom of all writers, I must (I say) abide it; 
I seek not applause ; *Non ego ventosce venor suffragia plebis ; 
again, non sum adeo informis, I would not be 6 vilified. 

laudatus abunde, 
Non fastiditus si tibi, lector, ero. 

I fear good men's censures, and to then* favourable acceptance 
I submit my labours, 

' et linguas mane ipiorum 

As the barking of a dog, I securely contemn those malicious 

1 Lib. 10. Plurimnm studii, multam temporis prsescriptio, semota judicand] 

rerum cognitionem, omnem studiorum libertate, religione quadam animos occu- 

materiam, &c., multa in eo probanda, pint. < Hor. Ep. 1, lib. 19. * JSquA 

multa adiniranda. * Snet. Arena sine turpe frigidfe laudari ac insectanter vitu- 

ealce. * In trod net. ad Sen. 3 Judic. perari. Phavorinus A.Gel. lib. 19, cap 2 

de Sen. Viz aliquis tarn absolutug, ut 6 Ovid, trist. 11, eleg. 6. ' Juvou. sat.5 
alter! per omiiia satisfaciat nM longa 

44 Democritus to the Reader. 

and scurrile obloquies, flouts, calumnies of railers and de 
tractors ; I scorn the rest. What therefore I have said, pro 
tenuitate med, I have said. 

One or two things yet I was desirous to have amended if 
I could, concerning the manner of handling this my subject, 
for which I must apologize, deprecari, and upon better advice 
give the friendly reader notice : it was not mine intent to 
prostitute my muse in English, or to divulge secreta Minervce, 
but to have exposed this more contract in Latin, if I could 
have got it printed. Any scurrile pamphlet is welcome to 
our mercenary stationers in English ; they print all, 

cuduntque libellos 
In quorum foliis vix simia nuda cacaret: 

But in Latin they will not deal ; which is one of the reasons 
1 Nicholas Car, in his oration of the paucity of English writ 
ers, gives, that so many flourishing wits are smothered in 
oblivion, lie dead and buried in this our nation. Another 
main fault is, that I have not revised the copy, and amended 
the style, which now flows remissly, as it was first conceived ; 
but my leisure would not permit ; fed nee quod potui, nee 
quod volui, I confess it is neither as I would, nor as it should 


1 Cum relego scripsisse pudet, quia plnrima cerno 
Me quoque quse fuerant judice digna lini. 

When I peruse this tract which I have writ, 
I am abash' d, and much I hold unfit. 

Ei quod gravissimum, in the matter itself, many things I dis 
allow at this ptfesent, which, when I writ, * Non eadem est 
eetas, non mens ; I would willingly retract much, &c., but 'tis 
too late, I can only crave pardon now for what is amiss. 
I might indeed, (had I wisely done) observed that precept 

of the poet, nonumque prematur in annum, and have 

taken more care : or, as Alexander the physician would have 

> Ant artls tnsctl ant quswtui magls Lond. Exeus. 1676. * Ovid, d* pout 

qU H& Uterls student, hab. Cantab, et Eleg. 1, 6. * Hor. 

Democritus to the Reader. 45 

done by lapis lazuli, fifty times washed before it be used 1 
should have revised, corrected, and amended this tract ; but 1 
had not (as I said) that happy leisure, no amanuenses or as 
sistants. Pancrates hi 1 Lucian, wanting a servant as he 
went from Memphis to Coptus in Egypt, took a door-bar, and 
after some superstitious words pronounced (Eucrates the re- 
lator was then present) made it stand up like a serving-man, 
fetch him water, turn the spit, serve in supper, and what work 
he would besides; and when he had done that service he 
desired, turned his man to a stick again. I have no such 
skill to make new men at my pleasure, or means to hire 
them ; no whistle to call like the master of a ship, and bid 
them run, &c. I have no such authority, no such benefac 
tors, as that noble * Ambrosius was to Origen, allowing him 
six or seven amanuenses to write out his dictates ; I must for 
that cause do my business myself, and was therefore enforced, 
as a bear doth her whelps, to bring forth this confused lump ; 
I had not time to lick it into form, as she doth her young 
ones, but even so to publish it, as it was first written, quic- 
quid in buccam venit, in an extemporean style, as a I do 
commonly all other exercises, effudi quicquid dictavit genius 
meus, out of a confused company of notes, and writ with as 
small deliberation as I do ordinarily speak, without all affec 
tation of big words, fustian phrases, jingling terms, tropes, 
strong lines, that like t Acestes' arrows caught fire as they 
flew, strains of wit, brave heats, elogies, hyperbolical exorna- 
tions, elegances, &c., which many so much affect I am 
1 aquae potor, drink no wine at all, which so much improves 
our modern wits, a loose, plain, rude writer, fawn voco ficum, 
et ligonem ligonem, and as free, as loose, idem calamo quod in 
mente, * I call a spade a spade, animis heec scribo, non auribus^ 
I respect matter, not words ; remembering that of Cardan, 
verba propter res, non res propter verba: and seeking with 

1 Tom. 3. Philopseud. accepto pea- uno, as he made verses. f Virg. 

gnlo, quum carmen quoddam dixisset, Non eadem a summo expectes, mini* 

effecit ut ambularet, aqnam hauriret, moque poeta. * Stylus hie nullus 

uraam pararet, &c. * Euseblus, pneter parrhesiam. 

eeelM. hist. Ub. 6. * Stans pede iu 

46 Democntus to the Header. 

Seneca, quid scribam, non quemadmodum, rather what than 
how to write : for as Philo thinks, " l He that is conversant 
about matter, neglects words, and those that excel in this art 
of speaking, have no profound learning, 

2 Verba nitent phaleris, at nullas verba medullas 
Intus habent 

Besides, it was the observation of that wise Seneca, " * when 
you see a fellow careful about his words, and neat in his 
speech, know this for a certainty that man's mind is busied 
about toys, there's no solidity in him. Non est omamentum 
virile concinnitas: as he said of a nightingale, vox es, prceterea 
nihil, &c. I am therefore in this point a professed disciple 
of * Apollonius a scholar of Socrates, I neglect phrases, and 
labour wholly to inform my reader's understanding, not to 
please his ear ; 'tis not my study or intent to compose neatly, 
which an orator requires, but to express myself readily and 
plainly as it happens. So that as a river runs sometimes pre 
cipitate and swift, then dull and slow ; now direct, then per 
ambages; now deep, then shallow; now muddy, then clear; 
now broad, then narrow ; doth my style flow : now serious, 
then light ; now comical, then satirical ; now more elaborate, 
then remiss, as the present subject required, or as at that 
time I was affected. And if thou vouchsafe to read this 
treatise, it shall seem no otherwise to thee, than the way to 
an ordinary traveller, sometimes fair, sometimes foul ; here 
champaign, there inclosed ; barren in one place, better soil in 
another: by woods, groves, hills, dales, plains, &c. I shall 
lead thee per ardua montium, et lubrica vallium, et roscida 
cespitum, et * glebosa camporum, through variety of object" 
that which thou shalt like and surely dislike. 

1 Qui rebus se ezereet, rerba negligft, dum. Epist. lib. 1, 21. 4 Philostra- 

et qui callet artera dicendi, nullam dis- ttu, lib. 8, Tit. Apol. Negllgebat orato- 

clplinam habet recognitam. * Pallln- riam facnltatem, et penitns aspernabatnr 

gpnius. Words may be resplendent with ejus professores, quod linguam duntaxat, 

ornament, bat they contain no marrow non autom mentem redderent erudltio- 

within. > Oujusounque oratlonem rem. * Hie enim, quod Seneca da 

rides politam et aolicltam, scito animum Ponto, bos herbam, ciconla larlsam, canls 

Ut pusUlig occupatum, In scriptia nil soli- leporem, yirgo florem legat. 

Democritus to the Header. 47 

For the matter itself or method, if it be faulty, consider I 
pray you, that of Columetta, Nihil perfectum, awt d singulari 
consummatum mdustrid, no man can observe all, much is de 
fective no doubt, may be justly taxed, altered, and avoided 
in Galen, Aristotle, those great masters. Boni venatoris 
(* one holds) plures /eras capere, non omnes ; he is a good 
huntsman, can catch some, not all ; I have done my endeav 
our. Besides, I dwell not in this study, Non hie sulcos dud- 
mm, non hoc pulvere desudamus, I am but a smatterer, I con 
fess, a stranger, 2 here and there I pull a flower ; I do easily 
grant, if a rigid censurer should criticize on this which I have 
writ, he should not find three sole faults, as Scaliger in Te 
rence, but three hundred. So many as he hath done in 
Cardan's subtleties, as many notable errors as 8 Gul. Laurem- 
bergius, a late professor of Kostocke, discovers in that anat 
omy of Laurentius, or Barocius the Venetian in Sacro boscus. 
And although this be a sixth edition, in which I should have 
been more accurate, corrected all those former escapes, yet 
it was magni laboris opus, so difficult and tedious, that as 
carpenters do find out of experience, 'tis much better build 
a new sometimes, than repair an old house ; I could as soon 
write as much more, as alter that which is written. If aught 
therefore be amiss (as I grant there is), I require a friendly 
admonition, no bitter invective, * Sint musis socii Charites, 
Furia omnis abesto, otherwise, as in ordinary controversies 
funem contentionis nectamus, sed cui bono? We may con 
tend, and likely misuse each other, but to what purpose ? We 
are both scholars, say, 

Arcades am bo, 
Et cantare pares, et respondere parati. 

Both young Arcadians, both alike inspir'd 
To sing and answer as the song requir'd. 

If we do wrangle what shall we get by it? Trouble and 

1 Pet. Natmitts not. in HOT. * Non nt canis Nilmn lambens. * Supra bit 
We colonus domicilium habeo, sed topi- mille notabiles errores Laurentii demon 
aril In morem, hinc inde florem velllco, stravi, &o. * Philo da Con. 

48 Democritus to the Header. 

wrong ourselves, make sport to others. If I be convict of 
an error, I will yield, I will amend. Si quid bonis moribus, 
si quid veritati dissentaneum, in sacris vel humanis literis a 
me dictum sit, id nee dictum esto. In the mean time I re 
quire a favourable censure of all faults omitted, harsh com 
positions, pleonasms of words, tautological repetitions (though 
Seneca bear me out, nunquam nimis dicitur, quod nunquam 
satis dicitur) perturbations of tenses, numbers, printers' 
faults, &c. My translations are sometimes rather paraphrases 
than interpretations, non ad verbum, but as an author, I use 
more liberty, and that's only taken which was to my purpose. 
Quotations are often inserted in the text, which makes the 
style more harsh, or in the margin as it happened. Greek 
authors, Plato, Plutarch, Athenaeus, &c., I have cited out of 
their interpreters, because the original was not so ready. I 
nave mingled sacra prophanis, but I hope not profaned, and 
in repetition of authors' names, ranked them per accidens, not 
according to chronology; sometimes Neoterics before An 
cients, as my memory suggested. Some things are here al 
tered, expunged in this sixth edition, others amended, much 
added, because many good 'authors in all kinds are come 
to my hands since, and 'tis no prejudice, no such indecorum, 
or oversight. 

1 Nunquam ita quicquam bene subducta rations ad vitaiu fait, 
Quin res, setas, usus, semper aliquid apportent novi, 
Aliquid moneant, ut ilia quoe scire te credas, nescias, 
Et qua; tibi putaris priraa, in exercendo at repudias. 

Ne'er was aught yet at first contrived so fit, 
Bat use, age, or something would alter it; 
Advise thee better, and, upon peruse, 
Make thee not say, and what thou takest refuse. 

But I am now resolved never to put this treatise out again, 
Ne quid nimis, I will not hereafter add, alter, or retract ; I 
have done. The last and greatest exception is, that I, being 
a divine, have meddled with physic, 

Frambesarius, Sennertna, Ferandu*, &c. 1 Tar. Adelph. 

Democritus to the Header. 49 

i Tantumne est ab re tua otii tibi, 
Aliena ut cures, eaque nihil quas ad te attinent? 

Which Menedemus objected to Chremes ; have I so much 
leisure, or little business of mine own, as to look after other 
men's matters which concern me not ? What have I to do 
with physic ? Quod medicorum est promittant medici. The 
* Lacedemonians were once in counsel about state matters, a 
debauched fellow spake excellent well, and to the purpose, 
his speech was generally approved : a grave senator steps 
up, and by all means would have it repealed, though good, 
because dehonestabatur pessimo auctore, it had no better an 
author; let some good man relate the same, and then it 
should pass. This counsel was embraced, factum est, and it 
was registered forthwith. Et sic bona sententia mansit, ma~ 
Iw auctor mutatus est. Thou sayest as much of me, stoma- 
chosus as thou art, and grantest, peradventure, this which I 
have written in physic, not to be amiss, had another done it, 
a professed physician, or so ; but why should I meddle with 
this tract ? Hear me speak. There be many other subjects, 
I do easily grant, both in humanity and divinity, fit to be 
treated of, of which had I written ad ostentationem only, to 
show myself, I should have rather chosen, and in which I 
have been more conversant, I could have more willingly lux 
uriated, and better satisfied myself and others ; but that at 
this time I was fatally driven upon this rock of melancholy, 
and carried away by this by-stream, which, as a rillet, is de 
ducted from the main channel of my studies, in which I have 
pleased and busied myself at idle hours, as a subject most 
necessary and commodious. Not that I prefer it before divin 
ity, which I do acknowledge to be the queen of professions, 
and to which all the rest are as handmaids, but that in divin 
ity I saw no such great need. For had I written positively, 
there be so many books in that kind, so many commentators, 
treatises, pamphlets, expositions, sermons, that whole teams 
of oxen cannot draw them ; and had I been as forward and 

1 Heaut Act 1, seen. 1. * Gellius, lib. 18, cap. 3. 
*^TOL. I. 4 

50 Democritus to the Header. 

ambitious as some others, I might have haply printed a ser 
mon at Paul's Cross, a sermon in St. Marie's Oxon, a sermon 
in Christ-Church, or a sermon before the right honourable, 
right reverend, a sermon before the right worshipful, a ser 
mon in Latin, in English, a sermon with a name, a sermon 
without, a sermon, a sermon, &c. But I have been ever as 
desirous to suppress my labours in this kind, as others have 
been to press and publish theirs. To have written in contro 
versy had been to cut off an hydra's head, l lis litem general, one 
begets another, so many duplications, triplications, and swarms 
of questions. In sacro betto hoc quod still mucrone agitur, 
that having once begun, I should never make an end. One 
had much better, as a Alexander, the sixth pope, long since 
observed, provoke a great prince than a begging friar, a 
Jesuit, or a seminary priest, I will add, for inexpugnabik 
genus hoc hominum, they are an irrefragable society, they 
must and will have the last word ; and that with such eager 
ness, impudence, abominable lying, falsifying, and bitterness 
in their questions they proceed, that, as he 8 said, furorne 
ccecus, an rapit vis acrior, an culpa, responsum date ? Blind 
fury, or error, or rashness, or what it is that eggs them, I 
know not, I am sure many times, which * Austin perceived 
long since, tempestate contentionis serenitas charitatis obnubi- 
latur, with this tempest of contention, the serenity of charity 
is overclouded, and there be too many spirits conjured up 
already in this kind in all sciences, and more than we can 
tell how to lay, which do so furiously rage, and keep such a 
racket, that as 6 Fabius said, " It had been much better for 
some of them to have been born dumb, and altogether illit 
erate, than so far to dote to their own destruction." 

At melius fuerat non scribere, namque tacere * 
Tutum semper erit, 

1 Et inde catena quaedam fit, quae has- * Lib. 12, cap. 1. Mutos nascl, et omul 

redes etiam ligat. Cardan. Heiisius. gcicutia egere satius fuisset, quam sic in 

* Malle Be bellum cum magno principe propriam perniciem insanire. * But it 

gerere. quam cum uno ex fratrum men- would be better not to write, for eilenc* 

dicaritium ordine * Hor. epol. lib. is the safer course. 
od. 7 Epist. 86, ad Caaulam presb. 

Democritus to the Reader. 51 

Tis a general fault, so Severinus the Dane complains Mn 
physic, " unhappy men as we are, we spend our days in 
unprofitable questions and disputations," intricate subtleties, 
de land caprind, about moonshine in the water, " leaving in 
the mean time those chiefest treasures of nature untouched, 
wherein the best medicines for all manner of diseases are to 
be found, and do not only neglect them ourselves, but hinder, 
condemn, forbid, and scoff at others, tnat are willing to in 
quire after them." These motives at this present have 
induced me to make choice of this medicinal subject 

If any physician in the mean time shall infer, Ne sutor 
ultra crepidam, and find himself grieved that I have intruded 
into his profession, I will tell him in brief, I do not otherwise 
by them, than they do by us. If it be for their advantage, I 
know many of their sect which have taken orders, in hope 
of a benefice, 'tis a common transition ; and why may not a 
melancholy divine, that can get nothing but by simony, pro 
fess physic ? Drusianus an Italian (Crusianus, but corruptly, 
Trithemius calls him) 2 " because he was not fortunate in his 
practice, forsook his profession, and writ afterwards in divin 
ity." Marcilius Ficinus was semel et simul ; a priest and a 
physician at once, and 8 T. Linacer, in his old age, took orders. 
The Jesuits profess both at this time, divers of them permissu 
superiorum, chirurgeons, panders, bawds, and midwives, &c. 
Many poor country vicars, for want of other means, are 
driven to their shifts ; to turn mountebanks, quacksalvers, 
empirics, and if our greedy patrons hold us to such hard 
conditions, as commonly they do, they will make most of us 
work at some trade, as Paul did, at last turn taskers, malt 
sters, costermongers, graziers, sell ale as some have done, or 
worse. Howsoever in undertaking this task, I hope I shall 
commit no great error or indecorum, if all be considered 

1 Infelix mortalitas inutilibus quaes- et alios prohibemus, impedimus. con- 

tionibus ac disceptationibus vitam tradu- demuamus, ludibriigque afnciinus. 

cinuis, naturae principes thesauros, in * Quod in praxi minime fortunatus esset. 

quibus gravissimae morborum medicines medicinam reliquit, et ordinibus initiatu 

collo-atae sunt, interim intactos relinqui- in Tbeologia postmodum scripsit. Ge 

mug. Nee ipsi solum relinquimus, sed ner Bibliotheca. P. Jovius. 

62 Dcmocritus to the Header. 

aright, I can vindicate myself with Georgius Braunus, and 
Hieronymus Hemingius, those two learned divines ; who (to 
borrow a line or two of mine * elder brother) drawn by a 
" natural love, the one of pictures and maps, prospectives 
and chorographical delights, writ that ample theatre of cities ; 
the other to the study of genealogies, penned theatrum ge- 
nealofficum." Or else I can excuse my studies with a Lessius 
the Jesuit in like case. It is a disease of the soul on which I 
am to treat, and as much appertaining to a divine as to a phy 
sician, and who knows not what an agreement there is betwixt 
these two professions ? A good divine either is or ought to 
be a good physician, a spiritual physician at least, as our Sa 
viour calls himself, and was indeed, Mat iv. 23 ; Luke, v. 
18 ; Luke, vii. 8. They differ but in object, the one of the 
body, the other of the soul, and use divers medicines to cure ; 
one amends animam per corpus, the other corpus per ani- 
mam, 8 as our Regius Professor of physic well informed us in a 
learned lecture of his not long since. One helps the vices 
and passions of the soul, anger, lust, desperation, pride, pre 
sumption, &c., by applying that spiritual physic ; as the oiher 
uses proper remedies in bodily diseases. Now this being a 
common infirmity of body and soul, and such a one that hath 
as much need of spiritual as a corporal cure, I could not find 
a fitter task to busy myself about, a more apposite theme, so 
necessary, so commodious, and generally concerning all sorts 
of men, that should so equally participate of both, and re 
quire a whole physician. A divine in this compound mixed 
malady can do little alone, a physician in some kinds of met 
ancholy much less, both make an absolute cure. 

* Altering sic altera poscit opera. 

when in friendship join'd 
A mutual succour in each other find. 

> M. W. Burton, preface to his deacrip- allena riderl debet a theologo, fcc., agitut 

tton of Leicestershire, printed at London de morbo animse. * D. Clayton in eo> 

by W. Jaggard, for J. White, 1022. * In mitiis, anno 1021 Hor 
HygiaiUcon, neque enim tueo tracUtio 

Democntus to the Reader. 53 

And 'tis proper to them both, and I hope not unbeseeming 
me, who am by my profession a divine, and by mine inclina- 
tion a physician. I had Jupiter in my sixth house ; I say 
with l Beroaldus, non sum medians, nee medicines prorsug ex 
pers, in the theory of physic I have taken some pains, not 
with an intent to practice, but to satisfy myself, which was a 
cause likewise of the first undertaking of this subject. 

If these reasons do not satisfy thee, good reader, as Alex 
ander Munificus, that bountiful prelate, sometimes bishop of 
Lincoln, when he had built six castles, ad invidiam operis 
eluendam, saith a Mr Cambden, to take away the envy of his 
work (which very words Nubrigensis hath of Roger the rich 
bishop of Salisbury, who in king Stephen's time built Shir- 
burn castle, and that of Devizes), to divert the scandal or 
imputation, which might be thence inferred, built so many 
religious houses. If this my discourse be over-medicinal, or 
savour too much of humanity, I promise thee that I will 
hereafter make thee amends in some treatise of divinity. 
But this I hope shall suffice, when you have more fully con 
sidered of the matter of this my subject, rem substratam, mel 
ancholy, madness, and of the reasons following, which were 
my chief motives : the generality of the disease, the necessity 
of the cure, and the commodity or common good that will 
arise to all men by the knowledge of it,"as shall at large ap 
pear in the ensuing preface. And I doubt not but that in 
the end you will say with me, that to anatomize this humour 
aright, through all the members of this our Microcosmus, is 
as great a task, as to reconcile those chronological errors in 
the Assyrian monarchy, find out the quadrature of a circle, 
the creeks and sounds of the northeast, or northwest pas 
sages, and all but as good a discovery as that hungry * Span 
iard's of Terra Australis Incognita, as great trouble as to 
perfect the motion of Mars and Mercury, which so crucifies 

* Lib. depestll. * In Newark, in coenobia, et collegia religioeis implevit 

Nottinghamshire. Cum duo ediflcSsset * Ferdinando de Quir. anno 1612. An 

eaatella, ad tollendam structionis inridi- sterdatni impress. 
am, eteipiandam maculam, duo instituit 

54 Democritus to the Reader. 

our astronomers, or to rectify the Gregorian Kalender. I am 
BO affected for my part, and hope as 1 Theophrastus did by 
his characters, " That our posterity, friend Policies, shall 
be the better for this which we have written, by correcting 
and rectifying what is amiss in themselves by our examples, 
and applying our precepts and cautions to their own use." 
And as that great captain Zisca would have a drum made cf 
his skin when he was dead, because he thought the very 
noise of it would put his enemies to flight, I doubt not but 
that these following lines, when they shall be recited, or 
hereafter read, will drive away melancholy, (though I be 
gone) as much as Zisca's drum could terrify his foes. Yet 
one caution let me give by the way to my present, or my 
future reader, who is actually melancholy, that he read not 
the a symptoms or prognostics in this following tract, lest by 
applying that which he reads to himself, aggravating, appro 
priating things generally spoken, to his own person (as mel 
ancholy men for the most part do), he trouble or hurt him 
self, and get in conclusion more harm than good. I advise 
them therefore warily to peruse that tract, Lapides loquitur 
(so said 8 Agrippa de occ. Phil.) et caveant lectores ne cere 
brum Us excutiat. The rest I doubt not they may securely 
read, and to their benefit. But I am over-tedious, I pro 

Of the necessity and generality of this which I have said, 
if any man doubt, I shall desire him to make a brief survey 
of the world, as 4 Cyprian adviseth Donat, " supposing him 
self to be transported to the top of some high mountain, and 
thence to behold the tumults and chances of this wavering 
world, he cannot choose but either laugh at, or pity it." S. 
Hierom, out of a strong imagination, being in the wilderness, 
conceived with himself, that he then saw them dancing in 

1 Praefat. ad Characters* : Spero nlm turn. Panlisper te crede rabdnci In ardni 

fO Policies) Hhros nontros meliores inde montia vertieem celaiorem, speculate ind 

futures, quod istiugmodi memoriae man- rerum jacentium facies, et oculis in di* 

data reliquerimuR, ex preceptis et exem- versa porrectis, fluctuantls mundi tur 

plii nofttria ad Tit am accommodate, ut ae bines Intuerl, jam siinul ant ridebls ant 

Inde corrigant. * Part 1, sect. 8. misereberis, &o 
Pnrf. lectori. Ep. 2. 1, 2. ad Don*. 

Democritus to the Header. 55 

Rome ; and if thou shalt either conceive, or climb to see, 
thou shalt soon perceive that all the world is mad, that it is 
melancholy, dotes ; that it is (which Epichthomus Cosmopo^ 
lites expressed not many years since in a map) made like a 
fool's head (with that motto, Caput hellebore dignum) a 
crazed head, cavea stultomm, a fool's paradise, or as ApolU>- 
nius, a common prison of gulls, cheaters, flatterers, &c., and 
needs to be reformed. Strabo, in the ninth book of his geog 
raphy, compares Greece to the picture of a man, which com 
parison of his, Nic. Gerbelius, in his exposition of Sophia- 
nus's map, approves ; the breast lies open from those Acroce- 
raunian hills in Epirus, to the Sunian promontory in Attica ; 
Pagae and Magaera are the two shoulders ; that Isthmus of 
Corinth the neck ; and Peloponnesus the head. If this allu 
sion holds 'tis sure a mad head ; Morea may be Moria, and 
to speak what I think, the inhabitants of modern Greece 
swerve as much from reason and true religion at this day, as 
that Morea doth from the picture of a man. Examine the 
rest in like sort, and you shall find that kingdoms and prov 
inces are melancholy, cities and families, all creatures, veg 
etal, sensible, and rational, that all sorts, sects, ages, condi 
tions, are out of tune, as in Cebes's table, omnes errorem 
Ubunt, before they come into the world, they are intoxicated 
by error's cup, from the highest to the lowest have need of 
physic, and those particular actions in * Seneca, where father 
and son prove one another mad, may be general ; Porcius 
Latro shall plead against us all. For indeed who is not a 
fool, melancholy, mad ? * Qui nil molitur inepte, who is not 
brain-sick ? Folly, melancholy, madness, are but one disease, ^\ 
Delirium is a common name to all. Alexander, Gordonius, f 
Ja&on Pratensis, Savanarola, Guianerius, Montaltus, confound 
them as differing secundum magis et minus ; so doth David, 
Psal. xxxvii. 5. "I said unto the fools, deal not so madly," 
and 'twas an old stoical paradox, omnes stultos insanire, * all 

" Contror. 1, 2, cont. 7, & 1, 6, coot. Damasippus Stoicus probat omues stalto* 
Horatius. * Idem, Hor. 1,2. Satyra3. insanire. 

56 Democritus to the Header. 

fools are mad, Ihough some madder than others. And who 
is not a fool, who is free from melancholy? Who is not 
touched more or less in habit or disposition ? If in disposi 
tion, " ill dispositions beget habits, if they persevere," saith 
1 Plutarch, habits either are, or turn to diseases. 'Tis the 
same which Tully maintains in the second of his Tusculans, 
omnium insipientum animi in morbo sunt, et perturbatorum, 
fools are sick, and all that are troubled in mind ; for what is 
sickness, but as 3 Gregory Tholosanus defines it, " A dissolution 
or perturbation of the bodily league, which health com 
bines ; " and who is not sick, or ill-disposed ? in whom doth 
not passion, anger, envy, discontent, fear and sorrow reign ? 
Who labours not of this disease ? Give me but a little leave, 
and you shall see by what testimonies, confessions, argu 
ments, I will evince it, that most men are mad, that they 
had as much need to go a pilgrimage to the Anticyrae (as in 
* Strabo's time they did) as in our days they run to Compos- 
tella, our Lady of Sichem, or Lauretta, to seek for help ; that 
it is like to be as prosperous a voyage as that of Guiana, and 
that there is much more need of hellebore than of tobacco. 

That men are so misaffected, melancholy, mad, giddy- 
headed, hear the testimony of Solomon, Eccl. ii. 12. "And 
I turned to behold wisdom, madness and folly," &c. And 
ver. 23 : " All his days are sorrow, his travel grief, and his 
heart taketh no rest in the night." So that take melancholy 
in what sense you will, properly or improperly, in disposition 
or habit, for pleasure or for pain, dotage, discontent, fear, sor 
row, madness, for part, or all, truly, or metaphorically, 'tis all 
one. Laughter itself is madness according to Solomon, and 
as St. Paul hath it, " Worldly sorrow brings death." " The 
hearts of the sons of men are evil, and madness is in their 
hearts while they live," Eccl. ix. 3. " Wise men themselves 
are no better," Eccl. i. 18. " In the multitude of wisdom is 

1 Tom. 2, Symprm. lib. 5, e. 6. Animi ftederis in corpora existentte, aicut t 

affectionea, it diutius inhrreant, pravos ganitaa est consentient!* bene corporU 

generant habitus. * Lib. 28, cap. 1, consummatio quaedam. * Lib. 9 

Bynt. art. mir. Morbtu nihil est aliud Oeogr. Plural olim genteg Bafigabant 

quam dlsso'utio quaedam ac perturbatio llluo sanltati* cauaft. 

Democritus to the Reader. 57 

much grief, and he that increaseth wisdom increaseth sorrow,* 
chap. ii. 17. He hated life itself, nothing pleased him ; he 
hated his labour, all, as ihe concludes, is "sorrow, grief, 
vanity, vexation of spirit." And though he were the wisest 
man in the world, sanctuarium sapientice, and had wisdom in 
abundance, he will not vindicate himself, or justify his own 
actions. " Surely I am more foolish than any man, and have 
not the understanding of a man in me," Prov. xxx. 2. Be 
they Solomon's words, or the words of Agur, the son of 
Jakeh, they are canonical. David, a man after God's own 
heart, confesseth as much of himself, Psal. xxxvii. 21, 22. 
" So foolish was I and ignorant, I was even as a beast before 
thee." And condemns all for fools, Psal. liii. ; xxxii. 9 ; 
xlix. 20. He compares them to " beasts, horses, and mules, 
in which there is no understanding." The Apostle Paul 
accuseth himself in like sort, 2 Cor. xi. 21. "I would you 
would suffer a little my foolishness, I speak foolishly." " The *- ' 
whole head is sick," saith Esay, " and the heart is heavy," 
cap. i. 5. And makes lighter of them than of oxen and 
asses, " the ox knows his owner," &c. : read Deut. xxxii. 6 ; 
Jer. iv. ; Amos, iii. 1 ; Ephes. v. 6. " Be not mad, be not 
deceived, foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you ? " 
How often are they branded with this epithet of madness and 
folly ? No word so frequent amongst the fathers of the 
Church and divines ; you may see what an opinion they had 
of the world, and how they valued men's action. 

I know that we think far otherwise, and hold them most 
part wise men that are in authority, princes, magistrates, 
2 rich men, they are wise men born, all politicians and 
statesmen must needs be so, for who dare speak against 
them ? And on the other, so corrupt is our judgment, we 
esteem wise and honest men fools. Which Democritus well 
signified in an epistle of his to Hippocrates : * the " Abde- 
rites account virtue madness," and so do most men living. 

1 Kccle*. i. 24. * Jure hseredltario * Apud quo? virtus, insania et furor MUM 
pen jubentur Eupbormio Satyr. dicitur. 

58 Democritui to the Reader. 

Shall I tell you the reason of it? ' Fortune and Virtue, 
Wisdom and Folly, their seconds, upon a time contended in 
the Olympics ; every man thought that Fortune and Folly 
would have the worst, and pitied their cases ; but it fell out 
otherwise. Fortune was blind and cared not where she 
stroke, nor whom, without laws, Andabatarum instar, &c. 
Folly, rash and inconsiderate, esteemed as little what she. 
said or did. Virtue and Wisdom gave a place, were hissed 
out, and exploded by the common people ; Folly and For 
tune admired, and so are all their followers ever since; 
knaves and fools commonly fare and deserve best in world 
lings' eyes and opinions. Many good men have no better 
fate in their ages ; Achish, 1 Sam. xxi. 14, held David for a 
madman. * Elisha and the rest were no otherwise esteemed. 
David was derided of the common people, Ps. ix. 7, " I am 
become a monster to many." And generally we are ac 
counted fools for Christ, 1 Cor. xiv. " We fools thought hia 
life madness, and his end without honour," Wisd. v. 4. 
Christ and his Apostles were censured in like sort, John x. ; 
Mark iii. ; Acts xxvi. And so were all Christians in 
4 Pliny's time, fuerunt et alii similis dementia, &c. And 
called not long after, * Vesaniee sectatores, eversores hominum, 
polluti novatores, fanatici, canes, malefici, venefici, Galilcei 
homunciones, &c. 'Tis an ordinary thing with us, to ac 
count honest, devout, orthodox, divine, refigious, plaindealing 
men, idiots, asses, that cannot, or will not lie and dissemble, 
shift, flatter, accommodare se ad ewn locum ubi nati sunt, 
make good bargains, supplant, thrive, patronis inservire ; 
tolennes ascendendi modos apprehendere, leges, mores, consue- 
tudines recte observare, candide laudare, fortiter defendere, 
tententias amplecti, dubitare de nullis, credere omnia, accip- 
ere omnia, nihil reprehendere, coster aque qua promotionem 
ferunt et securitatem, qua sine anibage fcelicem reddunt homi- 

1 Calcagnintu Apol. omnes mirabantur, rlsa, et plnrea bine habet aectatores stul 

pntantes illisum Iri gtultitiam. Bed titia. Non est respondendum ntulto 

pneter expectotionem re evenit, Andax oecnndum stultitlam. 2 Reg. 7. 

rtultitla in earn Irruit, be., ilia cedit ir- Lib. 10. ep. 97. * Aug. ep. 178 

Democritus to the Reader. 59 

nem, et vere saptentem apud nos ; that cannot temporize as 
other men do, l hand and take bribes, &c., but fear God, and 
make a conscience of their doings. But the Holy Ghost that 
knows better how to judge, he calls them fools. ' The fool 
hath said in his heart," Psal. liii. 1. " And their ways utter 
their folly," Psal. xlix. 14. 2 " For what can be more mad, 
than for a little worldly pleasure to procure unto themselves 
eternal punishment?" As Gregory and others inculcate 
unto us. 

Yea even all those great philosophers the world hath ever 
had in admiration, whose works we do so much esteem, that 
gave precepts of wisdom to others, inventors of Arts and 
Sciences, Socrates the wisest man of his time by the Oracle 
of Apollo, whom his two scholars, 8 Plato and 4 Xenophon, 
so much extol and magnify with those honourable titles, 
" best and wisest of all mortal men, the happiest and most 
just ; " and as * Alcibiades incomparably commends him ; 
Achilles was a worthy man, but Bracides and others were as 
worthy as himself; Antenor and Nestor were as good as 
Pericles, and so of the rest ; but none present, before, or 
after Socrates, nemo veterum neque eorum qui nunc sunt, 
were ever such, will match, or come near him. Those seven 
wise men of Greece, those Britain Druids, Indian Brach- 
manni, ^Ethiopian Gymnosophists, Magi of the Persians, 
Apollonius, of whom Philostratus, Non doctus, sed natus 
gapiens, wise from his cradle, Epicurus so much admired by 
his scholar Lucretius : 

Qni genns humanum ingenio superavit, et omnes 
Perstrinxit stellas exortus at setherius sol. 

Whose wit excell'd the wits of men as far, 
As the snn rising doth obscnre a star, 
Or that so much renowned Empedocles. 

t Ut vix humana videatur stirpe creatus. 

l Quis nisi mentis inops, &o. * Quid apprime sapientisslmi, et jnstissiml 

Insanius quam pro momentanea foelici- * Xenop. 1, 4, de dictis Socratia ad flnem 

tate aster nis te mancipare suppliciis? talis fttit Socrates quern omnium opti 

* In fine Phaedonis. Hie finis fuit amici mum et foelicissimum statoam. * IJk 

nostri, 8 Eucrates, nostro quidem jndicio 25, Platonia Convirio. t Lucretius. 
mnifl'n quoa experti snmus optiml et 

60 Democritus to the Reader. 

All those of whom we read such l hyperbolical eulogiums, 
as of Aristotle, that he was wisdom itself in the abstract, 2 a 
miracle of nature, breathing libraries, as Eunapius of Lon- 
ginus, lights of nature, giants for wit, quintessence of wit, 
divine spirits, eagles in the clouds, fallen from heaven, gods, 
spirits, lamps of the world, dictators, Nulla ferant talem secla 
futura virum : monarchs, miracles, superintendents of wit 
and learning, oceanus, phcenix, atlas, monstrum, portentum 
hominis, orbis universi musceum, uHimus humante natures 
conatus, naturae maritus. 

merito cui doctior orbis 
Submissis defert fascibus imperium. 

As JElian writ of Protagoras and Gorgias, we may say of 
them all, tantum a sapientibus abfuerunt, quantum a virit 
pueri, they were children in respect, infants, not eagles but 
kites ; novices, illiterate, Eunuchi sapientite. And although 
they were the wisest, and most admired in their age, as 
he censured Alexander, I do them, there were 10,000 in his 
army as worthy captains (had they been in place of com 
mand), as valiant as himself; there were myriads of men 
wiser in those days, and yet all short of what they ought to 
be. * Lactantius, in his book of wisdom, proves them to be 
dizzards, fools, asses, madmen, so full of absurd and ridicu 
lous tenets, and brain-sick positions, that to his thinking never 
any old woman or sick person doted worse. 4 Democritus 
took all from Leucippus, and left, saith he, " the inheritance 
of his folly to Epicurus," 6 insanienti dum sapientife, Syc. 
The like he holds of Plato, Aristippus, and the rest, making 
no difference, 6 " betwixt them and beasts, saving that they 
could speak." T Theodoret in his tract, De cur. grec. affect. 
manifestly evinces as much of Socrates, whom though that 

1 Anaxagoraa olim mens dlctns ab de sap. e. 17 et 20, omnes Philosophi, 

tntlquis. t Regula naturae, naturae aut stulti, aut insani; nulla anus, 

mlraculum, ipsa eruditio, deemonium nullus aeger Ineptius deliravit. < De- 

hominia, sol scicntiarum, mare, sopliia, mocritns a Leucippo doctus, hoeredita- 

antistes llterarum et saplenttae, ut Sci- tern stultifies reliquit Epic. 6 Hor. 

oppius olim de Seal, et Hetnsius. Aquila car. lib. 1, od. 84, 1, epicur. Nihil la* 

In nublbns, Imperator literatorum, col- terest inter bos et bestiaa nisi quod lo> 

omen liters rum, abyssng erudition!*, quantur. de sa. 1, 26, c. 8. 7 Oap. d 

Buropae, Scaliger. Lib. 8, yirt. 

Democritus to the Header. Al 

Oracle of Apollo confirmed to be the wisest man then living, 
and saved him from plague, whom 2000 years have admired, 
of whom some will as soon speak evil as of Christ, yet revera, 
he was an illiterate idiot, as 1 Aristophanes calls him, irrisor 
et ambitiosus, as his master Aristotle terms him, scurra Atti- 
cus, as Zeno, an a enemy to all arts and sciences, as Athaj- 
neus, to philosophers and travellers, an opinionative ass, a 
caviller, a kind of pedant ; for his manners, as Theod. Cy 
rensis describes him, a * Sodomite, an atheist, (so convict by 
Anytus,) iracundus et ebrius, dicax, fyc., a pot-companion, by 
Plato's own confession, a sturdy drinker; and that of all 
others he was most sottish, a very madman in his actions and 
opinions. Pythagoras was part philosopher, part magician, 
or part witch. If you desire to hear more of Apollonius, a 
great wise man, sometime paralleled by Julian the apostate to 
Christ, I refer you to that learned tract of Eusebius against 
Hierocles, and for them all to Lucian's Piscator, Icaromenip- 
pus, Necyomantia : their actions, opinions hi general were so 
prodigious, absurd, ridiculous, which they broached and main 
tained, their books and elaborate treatises were full of dotage, 
which Tully ad Atticum long since observed, delirant ple- 
rumq. ; scriptores in libris suis, their lives being opposite to 
their words, they commended poverty to others, and were 
most covetous themselves, extolled love and peace, and yet 
persecuted one another with virulent hate and malice. They 
could give precepts for verse and prose, but not a man of 
them (as f Seneca tells them home) could moderate his affec 
tions. Their music did show us flebiles modos, fyc., how to 
rise and fall, but they could not so contain themselves as in 
adversity not to make a lamentable tone. They will measure 
ground by geometry, set down limits, divide and subdivide, 
but cannot yet prescribe quantum homini satis, or keep 
within compass of reason and discretion. They can square 
circles, but understand not the state of their own souls, de 

1 Neb. et llama. * Omnium disc!- urn obibat, &e. f Seneca. Scia rotun- 

plinarum iguarus. * Pulchrorum da metiri, sed non tuum animum. 

idolescentuui causa frequenter gymnasi 

62 Democritus to the Reader. 

scribe right lines and crooked, &c., but know not what is right 
in this life, quid in vita rectum sit, ignorant ; so that as he 
sai:l, Nescio an Anticyram ratio ittis destinet omnem. I think 
all the Anticyrae will not restore them to their wits, l if these 
men now, that held 2 Xenodotus heart, Crates liver, Epic- 
tetus lantern, were so sottish, and had no more brains than 
so many beetles, what shall we think of the commonalty? 
what of the rest? 

Yea, but will you infer, that is true of heathens, if they be 
conferred with Christians, 1 Cor. iii. 19. " The wisdom of 
this world is foolishness with God, earthly and devilish," as 
James calls it, iii. 15. " They were vain in their imagina 
tions, and their foolish heart was full of darkness,' Rom. i. 21, 
22. u When they professed themselves wise, became fools." 
Their witty works are admired here on earth, whilst their 
souls are tormented hi hell fire. In some sense, Christiani 
Orassiani, Christians are Crassians, and if compared to that 
wisdom, no better than fools. Quis est sapiens ? Solus Deus, 
* Pythagoras replies, " God is only wise," Rom. xvi. Paul 
determines, " only good," as Austin well contends, " and no 
man living can be justified in his sight." " God looked down 
from heaven upon the children of men, to see if any did un 
derstand," Psalm liii. 2, 3, but all are corrupt, err. Rom. iii. 
12, "None doth good, no not one." Job aggravates this, iv. 
18, " Behold he found no steadfastness in his servants, and 
laid folly upon his angels," 19. "How much more on them 
that dwell in houses of clay ? " In this sense we are all fools, 
and the 8 Scripture alone is arx Minervce, we and our writ 
ings are shallow and imperfect But I do not so mean ; even 
in our ordinary dealings we are no better than fools. " All 
our actions," as 4 Pliny told Trajan, " upbraid us of folly," our 
whole course of life is but matter of laughter ; we are not 
soberly wise ; and the world itself, which ought at least to be 
wise by reason of his antiquity, as 6 Hugo de Prato Florido 

1 Ab nberibiu sapient ia lactati ecn- * Hie profnndiRiimae Sophiae fodirue 
MM non pommnt. * Cor Xeuodoti et * Panegyr. Trajaao omnes actiones ex- 

ieeur CratetU Lib. de uat. boni. probrare stultitiam yidentur. Ser. i, 

Democritus to tne Header. 63 

will Lave it, semper stultizat, " is every day more foolish than 
other ; the more it is whipped, the worse it is, and as a child 
will still be crowned with roses and flowers." We are apish 
in it, asini bipedes, and every place is full inversorum Apule- 
iorum, of metamorphosed and two-legged asses, inversorum 
Silenorum, childish, pueri instar bimuli, tremula patris dor- 
mientis in ulna. Jovianus Pontanus, Antonio Dial, brings 
in some laughing at an old man, that by reason of his age 
was a little fond, but as he admonisheth there, Ne mireris mi 
hospes de hoc sene, marvel not at him only, for tota hcec civ- 
itas delirat, all our town dotes in like sort, * we are a com 
pany of fools. Ask not with him in the poet, 3 Larvce hunc 
intemperite insaniceque agitant senem ? What madness ghosts 
this old man, but what madness ghosts us all ? For we are 
ad unum omnes, all mad, semel insanivimus omnes, not once, 
but always so, et semel, et simul, et semper, ever and altogether 
as bad as he ; and not senex bis puer, delira anus, but say it 
of us all, semper pueri, young and old, all dote, as Lactantius 
proves out of Seneca ; and no difference betwixt us and chil 
dren, saving that, majora ludimus, et grandioribus pupis, they 
play with babies of clouts and such toys, we sport with 
greater baubles. We cannot accuse or condemn one another, 
being faulty ourselves, deliramenta loqueris, you talk idly, or 
as * Mitio upbraided Demea, insanis, auferte, for we are as 
mad our ownselves, and it is hard to say which is the worst. 
Nay, 'tis universally so, 4 Vitam regit fortuna. non sapi' 

When 6 Socrates had taken great pains to find out a wise 
man, and to that purpose had consulted with philosophers, 
poets, artificers, he concludes all men were fools ; and though 
it procured him both anger and much envy, yet in all com 
panies he would openly profess it When ' Supputius in Pon 
tanus had travelled all over Europe to confer with a wise 

In domi Pal. Mundns qui ob antiquita- puellae. Hor. * Plautus Aubular. 

tern deberetesse sapiens, semper stultizat, 8 Adelph. act 5, seen. 8 4 Tolly 

tnullin fiagellis alteratur, sed ut puer Tusc. 5, fortune, not wisdom, govern! 

mlt rosis et tloribiis coronari. our lives. 5 Plato Apologia So-ratUi 

1 Insauuiu te omnes pueri, clamantque Ant. dial. 

64 Demoentus to the Reader 

man, he returned at last without his errand, and could find 
aone. l Cardan concurs with him, " Few there are (for 
aught I can perceive) well in their wits." So doth 8 Tully, 
" I see everything to be done foolishly and unadvisedly." 

Die sinistrorsuin, hie dextrorsum, unus utrique 
Error, sed variis illudit partibus omnes. 

One reels to this, another to that wall ; 
'Tis the same error that deludes them all. 

* They dote all, but not alike, Mavta yap irdatv opaia, not in 
the same kind, " One is covetous, a second lascivious, a third 
ambitious, a fourth envious," &c. as Damasippus the Stoic 
hath well illustrated in the poet, 

* Desipiunt omnes seque ao tu. 

And they who call you fool, with equal claim 
May plead an ample title to the name. 

Tis an inbred malady in every one of us, there is semina- 
rium stultifies, a seminary of folly, " which if it be stirred up, 
or get ahead, will run in infinitum, and infinitely varies as 
we ourselves are severally addicted," saith 6 Balthazar Cas- 
tilio ; and cannot so easily be rooted out, it takes such fast 
hold, as Tully holds, altce radices stultitia, * so we are bred, 
and so we continue. Some say there be two main defects of 
wit, error, and ignorance, to which all others are reduced ; 
by ignorance we know not things necessary, by error we 
know them falsely. Ignorance is a privation, error a positive 
act. From ignorance comes vice, from error, heresy, &c. 
But make how many kinds you will, divide and subdivide, 
few men are free, or that do not impinge on some one kind 
or other. 7 Sic plerumque agitat stuhos inscitia, as he that 
examines his own and other men's actions shall find. 

1 Lib. 8, de Bap. panel nt video sanae Eat in unoqnoq. ; nostrum semlnarium 

mentis aunt. * Stulte et incaute omnia aliquod stultitiie, quod si quando excite- 

agi video. * Insanla non omnibus tur in inflnitum facile excrescit. 6 Pri- 

eadem. Eranm. cbil. 8, cent. 10, nemo maque lux vitw prima erroris erat. 7 Ti- 

mortalium qui non aliqua in re desipit, bullug, stulti pretsereunt dies, their wiU 

licet nlius alio morbo laboret, hie libid- are a wool-gathering. So fools commonly 

Into, ille avaritiae, ambitlonia. inyidiaa. dote. 
Hot 1.2, sat. 8. * Lib. 1, de aullco 

Democritus to the Reader. 65 

* Charon in Lucian, as he wittily feigns, was conducted by 
Mercury to such a place, where he might see all the world at 
once; after he had sufficiently viewed, and looked about, 
Mercury would needs know of him what he had observed 
He told him that he saw a vast multitude and a promiscuous, 
their habitations like molehills, the men as emmets, "he 
could discern cities like so many hives of bees, wherein every 
bee had a sting, and they did nought else but sting one 
another, some domineering like hornets bigger than the rest, 
some like filching wasps, others as drones." Over their 
heads were hovering a confused company of perturbations, 
hope, fear, anger, avarice, ignorance, &c., and a multitude of 
diseases hanging, which they still pulled on their pates. 
Some were brawling, some fighting, riding, running, sotticiie 
ambientes, cattide litigantes, for toys and trifles, and such 
momentary things. Their towns and provinces mere fac 
tions, rich against poor, poor against rich, nobles against 
artificers, they against nobles, and so the rest. In conclusion, 
he condemned them all for madmen, fools, idiots, asses, 
gtulti, gucenam hcec est amentia ? fools, O madmen, he 
exclaims, insana studia, insani labores, fyc. Mad endeav 
ours, mad actions, mad, mad, mad, * seclum insipiens et 
irifacetum, a giddy-headed age. Heraclitus the philosopher, 
out of a serious meditation of men's lives, fell a weeping, and 
with continual tears bewailed their misery, madness, and 
folly. Democritus on the other side, burst out a laughing, 
their whole life seemed to him so ridiculous, and he was so 
far carried with this ironical passion, that the citizens of 
Abdera took him to be mad, and sent therefore ambassadors 
to Hippocrates, the physician, that he would exercise his skill 
upon him. But the story is set down at large by Hippocra 
tes, in his epistle to Damogetus, which because it is not 
impertinent to this discourse, I will insert verbatim almost as 
it is delivered by Hippocrates himself, with all the circum 
stances belonging unto it. 

* Dial, con tern plantes, Tom. 2. 1 CatuUiu. 
. VOL. I. 6 


66 Democritus to the Reader. 

When Hippocrates was now come to Abdera, the poopl* 
of the city came flocking about him, some weeping, some 
entreating of him, that he would do his best After some 
little repast, he went to see Democritus, the people following 
him, whom he found (as before) in his garden in the suburbs 
all alone, * " sitting upon a stone under a plane tree, without 
hose or shoes, with a book on his knees, cutting up several 
beasts, and busy at his study." The multitude stood gazing 
round about to see the congress. Hippocrates, after a little 
pause, saluted him by his name, whom he resaluted, ashamed 
almost that he could not call him likewise by his, or that he 
had forgot it. Hippocrates demanded of him what he was 
doing ; he told him that he was * " busy in cutting up several 
beasts, to find out the cause of madness and melancholy." 
Hippocrates commended his work, admiring his happiness 
and leisure. And why, quoth Democritus, have not you 
that leisure ? Because, replied Hippocrates, domestic affairs 
hinder, necessary to be done for ourselves, neighbours, 
friends; expenses, diseases, frailties and mortalities which 
happen ; wife, children, servants, and such businesses which 
deprive us of our time. At this speech Democritus profusely 
laughed (his friends and the people standing by, weeping in 
the mean time, and lamenting his madness). Hippocrates 
asked the reason why he laughed. He told him, at the vani 
ties and the fopperies of the time, to see men so empty of all 
virtuous actions, to hunt so far after gold, having no end of 
ambition ; to take such infinite pains for a little glory, and to 
be favoured of men ; to make such deep mines into the earth 
for gold, and many times to find nothing, with loss of their 
lives and fortunes. Some to love dogs, others horses, some to 
desire to be obeyed in many provinces,* and yet themselves 
will know no obedience. 4 Some to love their wives dearly 

1 Bab ramow platano aedentem, BO- Inquit animalia qua Tides propterea geco, 

lum, dlacalceatum, super lapidem, Talde non Dei opera perosug, Bed fellis blllsq. 

pal IMu m ac marilen turn, prom issabarba, naturatn disqulreng. * Aiiftt. 1. 1, in 

llbrnm super genlbus habentem. * De Gen. Jumenti et senri tui obsequinm 

furore, mania, melancholia scrtbo, ut rigide poatulas, et tn nullum praeatal 

ociam quo pacto In hominibuB gignatur, alii*, nee lost Deo. * Cxores ducunt 

fiat, creacat, cumuletur, minuatur ; base mox foraa ejiciunt. 

Democritus to the Reader. 67 

At first, and after awhile to forsake and hate them ; beget 
ting children, with much care and cost for then* education 
yet when they grow to man's estate, l to despise, neglect, and 
leave them naked to the world's mercy. 2 Do not these be 
haviours express their intolerable folly ? When men live in 
peace, they covet war, detesting quietness, 8 deposing kings, 
and advancing others in their stead, murdering some men to 
beget children of their wives. How many strange humours 
are in men ! When they are poor and needy, they seek 
riches, and when they have them, they do not enjoy them, 
but hide them under ground, or else wastefully spend them. 
O wise Hippocrates, I laugh at such things being done, but 
much more when no good comes of them, and when they are 
done to so ill purpose. There is no truth or justice found 
amongst them, for they daily plead one against another, 4 the 
son against the father and the mother, brother against 
brother, kindred and friends of the same quality ; and all 
this for riches, whereof after death they cannot be possessors. 
And yet, notwithstanding, they will defame and kill one 
another, commit all unlawful actions, contemning God and 
men, friends and country. They make great account of 
many senseless things, esteeming them as a great part of 
their treasure, statues, pictures, and such like movables, dear 
bought, and so cunningly wrought, as nothing but speech 
wanteth in them, 6 and yet they hate living persons speaking 
to them.* Others affect difficult things ; if they dwell on 
firm land they will remove to an island, and thence to land 
again, being no way constant to their desires. They com 
mend courage and strength in wars, and let themselves be 
conquered by lust and avarice ; they are, in brief, as dis 
ordered in their minds, as Thersites was in his body. And 
now, methinks, most worthy Hippocrates, you should not 
reprehend my laughing, perceiving so many fooleries in men ; 

1 Pnerog smant, mox fnstidiunt. eitias agunt. 6 Idola inanimate amant, 

* Quid hoc ab insanil deest ? * Reges animate, odio habent, sic pontiflcli 

ellgunt , deponunt. * Contra parentes, Credo equidem Tiros ducoiit * manner* 

fratres. eires perpetuo riiantur, et inimi- Yultux 

68 Democritus to the Reader. 

1 for no man will mock his own folly, but that which he seetb 
in a second, and so they justly mock one another. The 
drunkard calls him a glutton whom he knows to be sober. 
Many men love the sea, others husbandry ; briefly, they can 
not agree in their own trades and professions, much less in 
their lives and actions. 

When Hippocrates heard these words so readily uttered, 
without premeditation, to declare the world's vanity, full of 
ridiculous contrariety, he made answer, that necessity com 
pelled men to many such actions, and divers wills ensuing 
from divine permission, that we might not be idle, being noth 
ing is so odious to them as sloth and negligence. Besides, 
men cannot foresee future events, in this uncertainty of 
human affairs ; they would not so marry, if they could fore 
tell the causes of their dislike and separation ; or parents, if 
they knew the hour of their children's death, so tenderly 
provide for them ; or an husbandman sow, if he thought there 
would be no increase ; or a merchant adventure to sea, if he 
foresaw shipwreck ; or be a magistrate, if presently to be 
deposed. Alas, worthy Democritus, every man hopes the 
best, and to that end he doth it, and therefore no such cause, 
or ridiculous occasion of laughter. 

Deraocritus hearing this poor excuse, laughed again aloud, 
perceiving he wholly mistook him, and did not well under 
stand what he had said concerning perturbations and tran 
quillity of the mind. Insomuch, that if men would govern 
their actions by discretion and providence, they would not 
declare themselves fools as now they do, and he should have 
no cause of laughter ; but (quoth he) they swell in this life 
as if they were immortal, and demigods, for want of_und 
standing. It were enough to make them wise, if they would 
but consider the mutability of this world, and how it wheels 
about, nothing being firm and sure. He that is now above, 
to-morrow is beneath ; he that sate on this side to-day, to-mor 
row is hurled on the other ; and not considering these mat- 

1 Suam B tultitiam persplclt nemo, Bed alter alterum deridet. 

Democritus to the Reader. 69 

ters, they fall into many inconveniences and troubles, covet 
ing things of no profit, and thirsting after them, tumbling 
headlong into many calamities. So that if men would attempt 
no more than what they can bear, they should lead contented 
lives, and learning to know themselves, would limit their 
ambition, * they would perceive then that nature hath enough 
without seeking such superfluities, and unprofitable things, 
which bring nothing with them but grief and molestation. 
As a fat body is more subject to diseases, so are rich men to 
absurdities and fooleries, to many casualties and cross incon 
veniences. There are many Hiat take no heed what hap- 
peneth to others by bad conversation, and therefore over 
throw themselves in the same manner through their own 
fault, not foreseeing dangers manifest These are things (0 
more than mad, quoth he,) that give me matter of laughter, 
by suffering the pains of your impieties, as your avarice, 
envy, malice, enormous villanies, mutinies, unsatiable desires, 
conspiracies, and other incurable vices ; besides your 2 dis 
simulation and hypocrisy, bearing deadly hatred one to the 
other, and yet shadowing it with a good face, flying out into 
all filthy lusts, and transgressions of all laws, both of nature 
and civility. Many things which they have left off, after a 
while they fall to again, husbandry, navigation ; and leave 
again, fickle and inconstant as they are. When they are 
young, they would be old ; and old, young. 8 Princes com 
mend a private life ; private men itch after honour ; a magis 
trate commends a quiet life ; a quiet man would be in bis 
office, and obeyed as he is ; and what is the cause of all this, 
but that they know not themselves? Some delight to de 
stroy, 4 one to build, another to spoil one country to enrich 
another and himself. 6 In all these things they are like 

1 Denique sit finis querendl, cumque dederit, seu sors objecerit, ilia con ten tug 

habeas plus, pauperism metuas minus, vivat. &c, Hor. * Diruit, sedifleat, 

et finire laborem incipias, partis quod mutat quadrata rotundis. Trajanus 

arebas, utere. Hor. - Astutam rap- pontem struxit super Danubium, quern 

ido servas sub pectore vulpem. Et cum successor ejus Adrianus statim demolivit. 

vulpe positus pariter vulpinarier. Cret- & Qul quid in re ab infantibns differunt, 

Izandum cum Crete. 3 Qui fit Mecse- quibus niens et sensus slue ratione inett, 

DM at nemo quarn sibi sortem, Seu ratio quicquid sese his oflert rolupe est * 

70 Democritu* to the Header. 

children, in whom is no judgment or counsel, and resemble 
beasts, saving that beasts are better than they, as being con 
tented with nature. 1 When shall you see a lion hide gold 
in the ground, or a bull contend for better pasture ? When 
a boar is thirsty, he drinks what will serve him, and no 
more ; and when his belly is full, ceaseth to eat ; but men 
are immoderate in both, as in lust they covet carnal copula 
tion at set times ; men always, ruinating thereby the health 
of their bodies. And doth it not deserve laughter to see an 
amorous fool torment himself for a wench ; weep, howl for a 
misshapen slut, a dowdy sometimes, that might have his 
choice of the finest beauties ? Is there any remedy for this 
in physic? I do anatomize and cut up these poor beasts, 

* to see these distempers, vanities, and follies, yet such proof 
were better made on man's body, if my kind nature would 
endure it ; * who from the hour of his birth is most miserable, 
weak, and sickly; when he sucks, he is guided by others, 
when he is grown great, practiseth unhappiness * and is 
sturdy, and when old, a child again, and repenteth him of his 
life past. And here being interrupted by one that brought 
books, he fell to it again, that all were mad, careless, stupid. 
To prove my former speeches, look into courts, or private 
houses. 6 Judges give judgment according to their own ad 
vantage, doing manifest wrong to poor innocents to please 
others. Notaries alter sentences, and for money lose their 
deeds. Some make false moneys ; others counterfeit false 
weights. Some abuse their parents, yea, corrupt their own 
sisters ; others make long libels and pasquils, defaming men 
of good life, and extol such as are lewd and vicious. >pjne_ 
rob one, some another; "magistrates make laws against 
thieves, and are the veriest thieves themselves. Some kill 
themselves, others despair, not obtaining their desires. Some 

1 Idem Plut. Ut Inaante cauaam Qui gedet crimina judicature, &c. 

dUquiram brute macto et seco, cum hoc Tu pessimus omnium latro eg, as a thief 

potiua in hominibug inveatigandum esset. told Alexander in Curtiug. Damnat 

Totug a nativitate morbua est. In forag judez, qnod into* operator. Cy 
vigore furibundus, quum decrescit In- prian. 

Cyprian, ad Donatum. 

Democritus to the Reader. 71 

dance, sing, laugh, feast, and banquet, whilst others sigh, 
languish, mourn, and lament, having neither meat, drink, nor 
clothes. 1 Some prank up their bodies, and have their minds 
full of execrable vices. Some trot about a to bear false 
witness, and say anything for money ; and though judges 
know of it, yet for a bribe they wink at it, and suffer false 
contracts to prevail against equity. Women are all day 
a dressing, to pleasure other men abroad, and go like sluts at 
home, not caring to please their own husbands whom they 
should. Seeing men are so fickle, so sottish, so intemperate, 
why should not I laugh at those^to whom "folly seems wis 
dom, will not be cured, and perceive it not ? 

It grew late ; Hippocrates left him ; and no sooner was he 
come away, but all the citizens came about flocking, to know 
how he liked him. He told them in brief, that notwithstand 
ing those small neglects of his attire, body, diet, 4 the world 
had not a wiser, a more learned, a more honest man, and 
they were much deceived to say that he was mad. 

Thus Democritus esteemed of the world in his time, and 
this was the cause of his laughter; and good cause he 


* Olim jure quidem, nuno plus Democrite ride; 
Quin rides ? vita haec mine mage ridicula est. 

Democritus did well to laugh of old, 

Good cause he had, but now much more; 

This life of ours is more ridiculous 
Than that of his, or long before. 

Never so much cause of laughter^s~now, never so many 
fools and madmen. 'Tis not one * Democritus will serve turn 
to laugh in these days ; we have now need of a " Democritus 
to laugh at Democritus ; " one jester to flout at another, one 
foci to flare at another ; a great stentorian Democritus, as big 

1 Vultus magna cura, magna anlmi in- ease dicunt. * Siquidem sapientias 

curia. Am. Marcel. 2 Horrenda res guse admiratione me cornplevit, offend! 

et, vix dno verba sine mendacio profe- gapientissimum virum, qui salvos potest 

runtur: etqnain vis solenniter homines ad omnes homines reddere. 6 E Qraec. 

Yeritatem dicendam invitentur, pejerare epij. * Flares Democriti nuno non 

tamen non dubitant, ut ex decem testi- sufflciunt, opus Demoorito qui Demooil 

bus vix anus verum dieat. Calv. in 8 torn rideat. Eras. Moria. 
John, Serin 1. * Sapientiam insaniam 

72 Democritus to the Reader. 

as that Rhodian Colossus. For now, as l Salisburiensis said in 
his time, tolas mundus histrionem agit, the whole world plays 
the fool ; we have a new theatre, a new scene, a new comedy 
of errors, a new company of personate actors, volupite sacra 
(as Calcagninus willingly feigns in his Apologues) are cele 
brated all the world over, *where all the actors were^ madmen 
and fools, and every hour changed habits, or took that which 
came next. He that was a mariner to-day, is an apothecary 
to-morrow ; a smith one while, a philosopher another, in his 
volupice ludis ; a king now with his crown, robes, sceptre, 
attendants, by and by drove a loaded ass before him like a 
carter, &c. If Democritus were alive now, he should see 
strange alterations, a new company of counterfeit vizards, 
whifflers, Cumane asses, maskers, mummers, painted puppets, 
outsides, fantastic shadows, gulls, monsters, giddy-heads, but 
terflies. And so many of them are indeed ( 2 if all be true 
that I have read). For when Jupiter and Juno's wedding 
was solemnized of old, the gods were all invited to the feast, 
and many noble men besides : Amongst the rest came Chrys- 
alus, a Persian prince, bravely attended, rich in golden at 
tires, in gay robes, with a majestical presence, but otherwise 
an ass. The gods seeing him come in such pomp and state, 
rose up to give him place, ex habitu hominem metientes ; 8 but 
Jupiter perceiving what he was, a light, fantastic, idle fellow, 
turned him and his proud followers into butterflies ; and so 
they continue still (for aught I know to the contrary) roving 
about in pied coats, and are called chrysalides by the wiser 
sort of men ; that is, golden outsides, drones, flies, and 
of no worth. Multitudes of such, &c. 

" ubique invenies 
Stultos avaros, sycophantas prodigos." f 

1 I'olyorat. lib. 3, cap. 8, e Petron. spicuus, levis alioquin et nulling eonsilii, 
Ubi omnes delirabant, omnes insani, &c., magno fastu ingredient! asgurgunt 
fcc. , hodie nau ta. crag phi losophug ; hodie dii, &c. * Sed hominis levitatem Jupi- 
faber, crag pharmacopeia; hie modo re- ter perspiciens, at ta (inquit) esto bom- 
gem agebat multo satellitio, tiara, et billo, &c., pro tinusq. vestis ilia manicata 
ceptro ornatus, nunc Till amietus cen- in alas versa est, et mortales inde Chry- 
ticulo, asinum clitellarium impellit. salides vocant hujusmoili homines. 
l Calcagninus Apol. Crysalus e caeteria t You will meet covetous fooU and prodi- 
auto dives, manicato poplo et tiara con- gal sycophants everywhere. 

Democritus to the Reader. 73 

Many additions, much increase of madness, folly, vanity, 
should Democritus observe, were he now to travel, or could 
get leave of Pluto to come and see fashions, as Charon did 
in Lucian to visit our cities of Moronia Pia, and Moronia 
Foelix ; sure I think he would break the rim of his belly 
with laughing. 1 Si foret in terris rideret Democritus, 
seu, &c. 

A satirical Roman in his time, thought all vice, folly, and 
madness were all at full sea, 2 Omne in preecipiti vitium stetit. 

* Josephus the historian taxeth^his countrymen Jews for 
bragging of their vices, publishing their follies, and that they 
did contend amongst themselves who should be most notori 
ous in villanies ; but we flow higher in madness, far beyond 


8 " Mox daturi progeniem vitiosiorem," 

And yet with crimes to us unknown, 

Our sons shall mark the coming age their own, 

and the latter end (you know whose oracle it is) is like to be 
worse. 'Tis not to be denied, the world alters every day, 
Ruunt urbeSj regna transferuntur, SfC., variantur habitus, leges 
innovantur, as 4 Petrarch observes, we change language, hab- 
its, Jaws, customs, manners, but not vices, not diseases, not 
the symptoms of folly and madness, they are still the same. 
And as a river, we see, keeps the like name and place, but 
not water, and yet ever runs, f Labitur et labetur in omne 
volubilis cevum ; our times and persons^ajter, vices are the 
same, and ever will be ; look how nightingales sang of old, 
cocks crowed, kine lowed, sheep bleated, sparrows chirped, 
dogs barked, so they do still ; we keep our madness still, play 
the fools still, nee dum finitus Orestes ; we are of the same 
humours and inclinations as our predecessors were ; you shall 
find us all alike, much at one, we and our sons, et nati nato- 
rum, et qui nascuntur ab ittis. And so shall our posterity 
continue to the last But to speak of times present. 

1 Juven. * Juven. * Be bello tamen habetis quis pejor sit. ' Hot 
Jutl. 1. 8, o. 11. Iniqoitates vestrae * Lib 6, Epist. 8. t Hot. 
eminent latent, inque dies singulos cer- 

74 Democritus to the Reader. 

If Democritus were alive now, and should but see the su 
perstition of our age, our * religious madness, as a Moteran 
calls it, Religiosam insaniam, so many professed Christians, 
yet so few imitators of Christ ; so much talk of religion, so 
much science, so little conscience ; so much knowledge, so 
many preachers, so little practice ; such variety of-sects, such 

have and hold of all sides,* obvia signis Signa, &c., such 

absurd and ridiculous traditions and ceremonies : If he should 
meet a * Capuchin, a Franciscan, a Pharisaical Jesuit, a man- 
serpent, a shave-crowned Monk in his robes, a begging Friar, 
or see their three-crowned Sovereign Lord the Pope, poor 
Peter's successor, servus servorum Dei, to depose kings with 
his foot, to tread on emperors' necks, make them stand bare 
foot and bare-legged at his gates, hold his bridle and stirrup, 
&c. (O that Peter and Paul were alive to see this !) If he 
should observe a 4 Prince creep so devoutly to kiss his toe, 
and those Red-cap Cardinals, poor parish priests of old, now 
Princes' companions; what would he say? Ccelum ipsum 
petitur stultitia. Had he met some of our devout pilgrims 
going barefoot to Jerusalem, our Lady of Lauretto, Rome, S. 
lago, S. Thomas's Shrine, to creep to those counterfeit and 
maggot-eaten relics ; had he been present at a mass, and 
seen such kissing of Paxes, crucifixes, cringes, duckings, their 
aeveral attires and ceremonies, pictures of saints, 6 indul 
gences, pardons, vigils, fasting, feasts, crossing, knocking, 

kneeling at Ave-Marias, bells, with many such ; -jucunda 

rudi spectacula plebis, * praying in gibberish, and mumbling 
of beads. Had he heard an old woman say her prayers in 
Latin, their sprinkling of holy-water, and going a proces- 

1 Supers titio est inaanua error. * Lib. oblationibus, votis, solutionibus, jejuniis, 
8, hist. Belg. * Lucan. * Father coenobite, aomniU, horia, organls, oantile- 
Angelo, the Duke of .loyeux, going bare- ni*, campanla, simulachris, missis, pur- 
foot over the Alps to Home, &c. Si gatoriia, mitris, breviariis, bullis, lustralt- 
eui intueri vacet qun patiuntur supersti- bus, aquis, rasurU, unctionibus, candelia, 
ttosi, invenies tarn indecora honeatis, tarn calicibua, crucibus, map pis, ceiiiis, thu- 
tndigna liberig, tain di-sslmilia sanis, ut ribulia, iucautationibus, eXorcUmis, spa 
nemo fuerU dubitaturus furere eos, li Us, legendla, xc. Baleug de actia Rom 
earn paucioribua furerent. Senec. Pont. Pleasing spectacles to the ig 
s Quid dicam de eorum indulgentib, noraut poor. 

Democritus to the Reader. 73 

* " incedunt monachorura agmina mille ; 
Quid memorem vexilla. cruces, idolaque culta, &c." 

Their breviaries, bulls, hallowed beans, exorcisms, pictures^ 
curious crosses, fables, and baubles. Had he read the Golden 
Legend, the Turks' Alcoran, or Jews' Talmud, the Rabbins' 
Comments, what would he have thought ? How dost thou 
think he might have been affected ? Had he more particu 
larly examined a Jesuit's life amongst the rest, he should 
have seen an hypocrite profess poverty, *and yet possess 
more goods and lands than many princes, to have infinite 
treasures and revenues ; teach others to fast, and play the 
gluttons themselves ; like the watermen that row one way 
and look another. a Vow virginity, talk of holiness, and yet 
indeed a notorious bawd, and famous fornicator, lascivum pecus, 
a very goat. Monks by profession, * such as give over the 
world and the vanities of it, and yet a Machiavelian rout 
4 interested in all manner of state ; holy men, peacemakers, 
and yet composed of envy, lust, ambition, hatred, and malice ; 
firebrands, adult a patrice pestis, traitors, assassinats, hdc itur 
ad astro, and this is to supererogate, and merit heaven for 
themselves and others. Had he seen on the adverse side, 
jjome of our nice and curious schismatics in another extreme, 
abhor all ceremonies, and rather lose their lives and livings, 
than do or admit anything Papists have formerly used, 
though hi things indifferent, (they alone are the true Church, 
sal terrcB cum sint omnium insulsissimi). Formalists, out of 
fear and base flattery, like so many weathercocks turn 
round, a rout of temporizers, ready to embrace and maintain 
all that is or shall be proposed in hope of preferment; 
another Epicurean company, lying at lurch like so many 
vultures, watching for a prey of Church goods, and ready to 
rise by the downfall of any ; as 6 Lucian said in like case, 

* Th. Neageor. 1 Dum simulant longer, their madness shall be known to 

speruere. acquisiverunt sib! 80 annorum all men. * Benignitatis sinus solebat 

upatio bis centena millia librarum annua. ease, nuno litium officina curia Komana. 

Arnold. - Et quum interdiu de rirtute Bndaeus. & Quid tibi videtur facturui 

loquuti gunt, sero in latibulis dunes agi- Democritus, si hornm spectator contigi* 

tant labors nocturne, Agryppa. 1 set ? 

Tim. iii. 13. But they shall prevail no 

76 Democritus to the Header. 

what dost thou think Democritus would have dune, had he 
been spectator of these things ? 

Or had he but observed the common people follow like so 
many sheep one of their fellows drawn by the horns over 
the gap, some for zeal, some for fear, quo se cunque rapit 
tempestas, to credit all, examine nothing, and yet ready to 
die before they will abjure any of those ceremonies to which 
they have been accustomed? others out of hypocrisy fre 
quent sermons, knock their breasts, turn up their eyes, pre 
tend zeal, desire reformation, and yet professed usurers, 
gripers, monsters of men, harpies, devils in their lives, to 
express nothing less. 

What would he have said to see, hear, and read so many 
bloody battles, so many thousands slain at once, such streams 
of blood able to turn mills ; unius ob noxam furiasque, or to 
make sport for princes, without any just cause, * " for vain 
titles (saith Austin), precedency, some wench, or such like 
toy, or out of desire of domineering, vainglory, malice, 
revenge, folly, madness," (goodly causes all, ob quas uni- 
versus orbis bettis et ctedibus tnisceatur,) whilst statesmen 
themselves in the mean time are secure at home pam 
pered with all delights and pleasures, take their ease, and 
follow their lusts, not considering what intolerable misery 
poor soldiers endure, their often wounds, hunger, thirst, &c., 
the lamentable cares, torments, calamities, and oppressions 
that accompany such proceedings, they feel not, take no 
notice of it. So wars are begun, by the persuasion of a few 
debauched, hair-brain, poor, dissolute, hungry captains, par 
asitical fawners, unquiet Hotspurs, restless innovators, green 
heads, to satisfy one man's private spleen, lust, ambition, 
avarice, &c. ; tales rapiunt scelerata in prcelia causes. Flos 
kominum, proper men, well proportioned, carefully brought 
up, able both in body and mind, sound, led like so many 
1 beasts to the slaughter in the flower of their years, pride, 

* Ob Itianea ditionum titulos, ob pre- malitia. quod cnpido domlnandl, libido 
reptuin locum, ob intercepUm mulier- nocendi, &c. > Helium rem plan* 

julam, vel quod e stultitia iiatuin, Tel e belluas nuui vocat Morus. Utop. lib. 2. 

Democritus to the Reader. 77 

and full strength, without all remorse and pity, sacrificed to 
Pluto, killed up as so many sheep, for devils' food, 40,000 at 
once. At once, said I, that were tolerable, but these wars 
last always, and for many ages ; nothing so familiar as this 
hacking and hewing, massacres, murders, desolations ignoto 
ccelum clangore remugit, they care not what mischief they 
procure, so that they may enrich themselves for the present ; 
they will so long blow the coals of contention, till all the 
world be consumed with fire. The * siege of Troy lasted 
ten years, eight months, there died^870,000 Grecians, 
670,000 Trojans, at the taking of the city, and after were 
slain, 276,000 men, women, and children of all sorts. 
Caesar killed a million, 3 Mahomet the second Turk, 300,000 
persons ; Sicinius Dentatus fought in a hundred battles, 
eight times in single combat he overcame, had forty wounds 
before, was rewarded with 140 crowns, triumphed nine 
times for his good service. M. Sergius had 32 wounds; 
Scaeva, the Centurion, I know not how many ; every nation 
had their Hectors, Scipios, Caesars, and Alexanders ! Our 
"Edward the Fourth was in 26 battles afoot; and as they 
jio all, he glories in it, 'tis related to his honour. At the 
siege~of Hierusalem, 1,100,000 died with sword and famine. 
At the battle of Cannas, 70,000 men were slain, as * Polyb- 
ius records, and as many at Battle Abbey with us; and 
'tis no news to fight from sun to sun, as they did, as Con- 
stantin'e and Licinius, &c. At the siege oTDstend (the 
devil's academy) a poor town in Aspect, a small fort, but a 
great grave, 120,000 men lost their lives, besides whole 
towns, dorpes, and hospitals full of maimed soldiers ; there 
were engines, fire-works, and whatsoever the devil could 
invent to do mischief with 2,500,000 iron bullets shot of 40 
pounds' weight, three or four millions of gold consumed. 
* "Who (saith mine author) can be sufficiently amazed at 
their fiinty hearts, obstinacy, fury, blindness, who without 

iMnngter. Coemog. 1 5, e. 8. E * Comlnetw. *Lib.8. Hist, of 
Diet. Creteng. a Jovius Tit ejus. the siege of Ostend, fol. 23 

78 Democntus to the Reader. 

any likelihood of good success, hazard poor soldiers, and lead 
them without pity to the slaughter, which may justly be 
called the rage of furious beasts, that run without reason 
upon their own deaths ; " * quis modus genius, quee furia, 
qua pestis, fyc. ; what plague, what fury brought O devilish, 
so brutish a thing as war first into men's minds? Who 
made so soft and peaceable a creature, born to love, mercy, 
meekness, so to rave, rage like beasts, and run on to their 
own destruction ? how may nature expostulate with mankind, 
Ego te divinum animal finxi, fyc. ? I made thee an harm 
less, quiet, a divine creature ; how may God expostulate, and 
all good men ? yet, horum facta (as f one condoles) tantum 
admirantur, et heroum numero habent : these are the brave 
spirits, the gallants of the world, these admired alone, tri 
umph alone, have statues, crowns, pyramids, obelisks to their 
eternal fame, that immortal genius attends on them, hac 
itur ad astra. When Rhodes was besieged, ' fossae urbis 
cadaveribus repletce sunt, the ditches were full of dead car 
casses ; and as when the said Solyman, great Turk, belea 
guered Vienna, they lay level with the top of the walls. 
This they make a sport of, and will do it to their friends and 
confederates, against oaths, vows, promises, by treachery or 

otherwise ; 2 dolus an virtus ? quis in hoste requirat f 

leagues and laws of arms, ( 8 silent leges inter arma), for their 
advantage, omnia jura, divina, humana, proculvata plerum- 
que sunt ; God's and men's laws are trampled under foot, the 
sword alone determines all ; to satisfy their lust and spleen, 
they care not what they attempt, say, or do, 4 Rara fides, 
probitasque viris qui castra sequuntur. Nothing so com 
mon as to have '"father fight against the son, brother 
against brother, kinsman against kinsman, kingdom against 
kingdom, province against province, Christians against Chris- 

Eranmu de bello. Ut placldum illnd * Tally. < Lncan. * Pater in flllnm, 

animal benevolentiae natum tarn ferina afflnia in afflnem, amlcug in amicum, fcc. 

recordll in mntuam rueret perniciem. Regto cnm regione, regnum regno collidl- 

t Rich. Dinoth. praefat. Belli civilis (Jal. tnr. Populus populo in mutuam per- 

1 Jorius. a Doing, aaperitaa, in jus- niciem, belluarum insttr sanffuinolenU 

U- propria bellorum negotla. Tertul. ruentium. 

Democritus to the Reader. 79 

dans ; " a quibus nee unquam cogitatione fuerunt kesi, of 
whom they never had offence in thought, word or deed. 
Infinite treasures consumed, towns burned, flourishing cities 
sacked and ruinated, quodque animus meminisse horret, 
goodly countries depopulated and left desolate, old inhabitants 
expelled, trade and traffic decayed, maids deflowered, Vir- 
gines nondum thalamis jugatce, et comis nondum positis 
ephcebi ; chaste matrons cry out with Andromache, * Con- 
cubitum max cogar pati ejus, qui interemit ffectorem, they 
shall be compelled peradventure to lie with them that erst 
killed their husbands ; to see rich, poor, sick, sound, lords, 
servants, eodem omnes incommodo macti, consumed all or 
maimed, &c. Et quicquid gaudens scelere animus audet, et 
perversa mens, saith Cyprian, and whatsoever torment, 
misery, mischief, hell itself, the devil, 1 fury and rage can 
invent to their own ruin and destruction; so abominable a 
thing is 2 war, as Gerbelius concludes, adeo fceda et abom- 
inanda res est beUum, ex quo hominum ceedes, vastationes, fyc., 
the scourge of God, cause, effect, fruit and punishment of sin, 
and not tonsura humani generis, as Tertullian calls it, but 
ruina. Had Democritus been present at the late civil wars 

in France, those abominable wars beUaque matribus detes- 

tata, * " where, in less than ten years, ten thousand men were 
consumed, saith Collignius, twenty thousand churches over 
thrown ; nay, the whole kingdom subverted (as * Richard 
Dinoth adds). So many myriads of the commons were 
butchered up, with sword, famine, war, tanto "odia^ utrinque 
ut barbari ad abhorrendam lanienam obstupescerent, with 
such feral hatred, the world was amazed at it ; or at our late 
Pharsalian fields in the time of Henry the Sixth, betwixt the 
houses of Lancaster and York, a hundred thousand men 
slain, f one writes ; 6 another, ten thousand families were 

* Libanii declam. 1 Traenim et furor tis ezciss. Belli eirilis Gal. 1. 1, hoe 

Bellonae consultores, &c., dementes ferali bcllo et ceedibus omnia repleverunt, 

sacerdotes sunt. ^ Bellum quasi bellua et regnum amplissimum & fundamentit 

t ad omnia scelera furor Immissus. pene everterunt, plebis tot m yriadea gla- 

CJallorum decies centum millla cecide- dio, bello, feme miaerabiliter perierunt. 

runt. Ecclesiarum 20 millia fundamen- t Pont. Huterus. t Comineus. Ut 

80 Democrtius to the Reader. 

rooted out, " That no man can but marvel, saith Comineus, 
at that barbarous immanity, feral madness, committed betwixt 
men of the same nation, language, and religion." l Quit 
furor, cives ? " Why do the Gentiles so furiously rage," 
saith the Prophet David, Psal. ii. 1. But we may ask, why 
do the Christians so furiously rage ? * Arma volunt, quare 
poscunt, rapiuntque juventus ? " Unfit for Gentiles, much 
less for us so to tyrannize, as the Spaniard in the West 
Indies, that killed up in forty-two years (if we may believe 
1 Bartholomaeus a Casa, their own bishop) twelve millions of 
men, with stupend and exquisite torments ; neither should I 
lie (said he) if I said fifty millions. I omit those French mas 
sacres, Sicilian even-songs, 8 the Duke of Alva's tyrannies, 
our gunpowder machinations, and that fourth fury, as 4 one 
calls it, the Spanish inquisition, which quite obscures those 

ten persecutions, 6 seevit toto Mars impius orbe. Is not 

this 8 mundus furiostts, a mad world, as he terms it, insanum 
bellum 1 are not these mad men, as t Scaliger concludes, 
qui in pradio acerba morte, insanice sues memoriam pro per- 
petuo teste relinquunt posteritati ; which leave so frequent 
battles, as perpetual memorials of their madness to all suc 
ceeding ages ? Would this, think you, have enforced our 
Democritus to laughter, or rather made him turn his tune, 
alter his tone, and weep with 7 Heraclitus, or rather howl, 
' roar, and tear his hair in commiseration, stand amazed ; or 
as the poets feign, that Niobe was for grief quite stupefied, 
and turned to a stone ? I have not yet said the worst, that 
which is more absurd and * mad, in their tumults, seditions, 
civil and unjust wars, 10 quod stulte suscipitur, impie geritur, 
misere finitur. Such wars I mean ; for all are not to be 
condemned, as those fantastical anabaptists vainly conceive. 

nuUu* non execratnr et admiretur era- " Tmplong war rages throughout the 

delitatem, et barbaram insaniam, qua whole world." Jansenius Qallobelgi- 

Inter homines eodem cub ccelo natos, cus 1596. Mundus furiosus, inscriptio 

ejnsdem linguae, sangulnis. religionis, ex- libri. t Exercitat. 260, senn. 4. 

reebatur. > Lucan. * Virg. 2 BUh- 7 Fleat Horaclitus an rideat Democrlttu. 

op of Cuseo, an eye-witness. > Read 8 Curaelevesloquuntur, ingentesstupent. 

Meteran of his stnpend cruelties. ' Arma amens capio, nee sat rationis la 

t Hensius Austriaco. t Virg. Georg. armLs. 1 Erasmus 

Democritus to the Reader. 81 

Our Christian tactics are all out as necessary as the Roman 
acies, or Grecian phalanx ; to be a soldier is a most noble 
and honourable profession (as the world is), not to be spared, 
they are our best walls and bulwarks, and I do therefore 
acknowledge that of * Tully to be most true, " All our civil 
affairs, all our studies, all our pleading, industry, and com 
mendation lies under the protection of warlike virtues, and 
whensoever there is any suspicion of tumult, all our arts 
cease;" wars are most behoveful, et bettatores agricolis 
civitati sunt vtiliores, as f Tyrius defends ; and valour is 
much to be commended in a wise man; but they mistake 
most part, auferre, trucidare, rapere, falsis noirrinibus vir- 
tutem vacant, &c. ('Twas Galgacus's observation in Tacitus) 
they term theft, murder and rapine, virtue, by a wrong 
name, rapes, slaughters, massacres, &c., jocus et ludtis, are 
pretty pastimes, as Ludovicus Vives notes. 1 "They com 
monly call the most harebrain blood-suckers, strongest 
thieves, the most desperate villains, treacherous rogues, 
inhuman murderers, rash, cruel and dissolute caitiffs, courage 
ous and generous spirits, heroical and worthy captains, 
a brave men at arms, valiant and renowned soldiers, pos 
sessed with a brute persuasion of false honour," as Pontus 
Huter in his Burgundian history complains. By means of 
which it comes to pass that daily so many voluntaries offer 
themselves, leaving their sweet wives, children, friends, for 
sixpence (if they can get it) a day, prostitute {heir-lives and 
limbs, desire to enter upon breaches, lie sentinel, perdue, 
give the first onset, stand in the fore-front of the battle, 
marching bravely on, with a cheerful noise of drums and 
trumpets, such vigour and alacrity, so many banners stream 
ing in the air, glittering armours, motions of plumes, woods 
of pikes, and swords, variety of colours, cost and magnifi- 

* Pro Murena. Omnes urbanae res, simos haberi propugnatores. fidissimos 

omnia studia, onmis forensis laus et duees habent, bruta persuasione donati. 

industria latet in tntela et praesidio bel- 2 Eobanus Hessus. Quibus omnis in ar* 

licae yirtutis, et simul atque increpuit mis vita placet, non ulla jurat nisi morte, 

euspicio tumultus artes illico nostraa nee ullam esse putaut yitam, quae no 

conticescunt. t Ser. 13. 1 Crude- assueverit armis. 
lissimos ssevissimosque latrones, fortis- 

VOL. I. 6 

82 Democritu* to the Reader. 

cence, as if they went in triumph, now victors to the Capitol, 
and with such pomp, as when Darius's army marched to 
meet Alexander at Issus. Void of all fear they run into 
imminent dangers, cannon's mouth, &c., ut vulneribus suit 
ferrum hostium hebetent, saith * Barletius, to get a name of 
valour, honour and applause, which lasts not neither, for it is 
but a mere flash this fame, and like a rose, intra diem unum 
extinguitur, 'tis gone in an instant Of 15,000 proletaries 
slain in a battle, scarce fifteen are recorded in history, or one 
alone, the General perhaps, and after awhile his and their 
names are likewise blotted out, the whole battle itself is for 
gotten. Those Grecian orators, summa vi ingenii et elo- 
guentiee, set out the renowned overthrows at Theremopyke, 
Salamis, Marathon, Micale, Mantinea, Cheroncea, Platcea. 
The Romans record their battle at Cannas, and Pharsalian 
fields, but they do but record, and we scarce hear of them. 
And yet this supposed honour, popular applause, desire of 
immortality by this means, pride and vainglory spur them on 
many times rashly and unadvisedly, to make away them 
selves and multitudes of others. Alexander was sorry, be 
cause there were no more worlds for him to conquer, he is 
admired by some for it, animosa vox videtur, et regia, 'twas 
spoken like a Prince ; but as wise 3 Seneca censures him, 
'twas vox iniquissima et stultissima, 'twas spoken like a Bed 
lam fool ; and that sentence which the same 8 Seneca ap 
propriates to his father Philip and him, I apply to them all, 
Non minores fuere pestes mortalium quam inundatio, qudm 
conflagratio quibus, &c., they did as much mischief to mortal 
men as fire and water, those merciless elements when they 
rage. 4 Which is yet more to be lamented, they persuade 
them this hellish course of life is holy, they promise heaven 
to such as venture their lives betto sacro, and that by these 

1 Lib. 10, Tit. Scanperbeg. * Null! MM, qni in prcelio fuderit animam. I> 
beatiores habitl, quim qui in prceliig ceci- Benef. lib. 2, c. 1. * Nat. qutest. lib. 3. 
di**nt. Briaoniua de rep. Persarum. 1. * BoteruB Ainphltridion. Busbequiul 
8, fill. 8, 44. Idem Lactantiug de Romania Tare. hist. Per cedes et Bangainem pa 
ct Greets. Idem AuimianuH, lib. 28, de rare hominibus asoenaum in coeluni pa 
Pvtbii. Jadlcatur U solos beatus apud tant, Lactan. de faUa relig. 1. 1, cap. 8. 

Democritus to the Reader. 88 

bloody wars, as Persians, Greeks and Romans of old, as 
modern Turks do now their commons, to encourage them to 
fight, ut cadant infeliciter. " If they die in the field, they 
go directly to heaven, and shall be canonized for saints." 
(O diabolical invention !) put in the Chronicles, in perpetuam 
rei memoriam, to their eternal memory ; when as in truth, 
as 1 some hold, it were much better (since wars are the 
scourge of God for sin, by which he punisheth mortal men's 
peevishness and folly) such brutish stories were suppressed, 
because ad morum institutionem nihil habent, they conduce 
not at all to manners, or good life. But they will have it 
thus nevertheless, and so they put note of a " divinity upon 
the most cruel and pernicious plague of human kind," adore 
such men with grand titles, degrees, statues, images, 8 honour, 
applaud, and highly reward them for their good service, no 
greater glory than to die in the field. So Africanus is ex 
tolled by Ennius; Mars, and * Hercules, and I know not 
how many besides of old, were deified; went this way to 
heaven, that were indeed bloody butchers, wicked destroyers, 
and troublers of the world, prodigious monsters, hell-hounds, 
feral plagues, devourers, common executioners of human 
kind, as Lactantius truly proves, and Cyprian to Donat, such 
as were desperate in wars, and precipitately made away 
themselves, (like those Celtes in Damascen, with ridiculous 
valour, ut dedecorosum putarent muro ruenti se subducere, a 
disgrace to run away for a rotten wall, now readyj*^ fall on 
their heads,) such as will not rush on a sword's point, or 
seek to shun a cannon's shot, are base cowards, and no 
valiant men. By which means, Model orbis mutuo sanguine, 
the earth wallows in her own blood, 6 Scewit amor ferri et 
scelerati insania belli ; and for that, which if it be done in 
private, a man shall be rigorously executed, * " and which is 

1 Quoniam bella acerbissima Dei fla- signiunt. * Et quod dolendum, ap- 

gella aunt quibus hominum pertinaciam plausum habent et occursnm Tin tales. 

punit, ea perpetu* oblivione sepelienda Herculi eadem porta ad coelum patuit 

potius quam memoriae mandanda pie- qui inagnam generis hnmani partem per- 

riqne judicant. Rich. Dinoth. praef. hist, didit. * Virg. Jfoeid. 7. Homi- 

Gall. 2 Ouentam hnmani generis cidinm quum committunt singuli, crimen 

pastern et periiiciem, diviiii tatis uota in- est, quum pablice Keritur. Tirtug TOO*- 

84 Democritus to the Reader. 

no less than murder itself; if the same fact be done in pub 
lic wars it is called manhood, and the party is honoured foi 

it" * Prosperum et fcelix scehis, virtus vocatur. 

We measure all as Turks do, by the event, and most part, 
as Cyprian notes, in all ages, countries, places, scevitice mag 
nitude impunitatem sceleris acguirit, the foulness of the fact 
vindicates the offender. a One is crowned for that for which 
another is tormented: Hie crucem sceleris pretium tulit, hie 
iiadema ; made a knight, a lord, an earl, a great duke, (as 
Agrippa notes) for which another should have hung in gib 
bets, as a terror to the rest, 

* " et tamen alter, 
Si fecisset idem, caderet sab jadice morum." 

A poor sheep-stealer is hanged for stealing of victuals, com 
pelled peradventure by necessity of that intolerable cold, 
hunger, and thirst, to save himself from starving ; but a 

* great man in office may securely rob whole provinces, undo 
thousands, pill and poll, oppress ad libitum, flea, grind, tyran 
nize, enrich himself by spoils of the commons, be uncontrol 
lable in his actions, and after all, be recompensed with tur- 
gent titles, honoured for his good service, and no man dare 
find fault, or ' mutter at it. 

How would our Democritus have been affected to see a 
wicked caitiff, or 7 " fool, a very idiot, a funge, a golden ass, a 
monster of men, to have many good men, wise men, learned 
men to attend upon him with all submission, as an appendix 
to his riches, for that respect alone, because he hath more 
wealth and money, "and to honour him with divine titles, and 
bombast epithets," to smother him with fumes and eulogies, 

tnr. Cyprianns. 1 Seneca. Success- In servitutem habentem, ob Id dun taut 

fill rice is called Yirtue. * Juven. quod el contingat aureorum numlsma* 

* De Tanit. sclent, de princip. nobilita- turn cumulus, ut appendices, et addita- 
ti. Juven. Sat. 4. * Pausa rapit, menta numismatum. Morns, Utopia, 
quod Natta reliquit. Tn peftftiraus om- * Eorumque detestantur Utopienses in- 
iiium latro es, as Demetrius the Pirate Bantam, qui divinos honores iis imperti- 
told Alexander in Curtius. Non ausl unt, quos sordidos et araros agnoscunt: 
mutlre, &c. Ssop. T Improbum et non alio respectu honorantes quam quoj 
tultum, si diTitein multoe bonoa Tiro* dites sint. Idem, lib. 2. 

Democritus to the Reader, 85 

whom they know to be a dizzard, a fool, a covetous wretch, 
a bea^t, &c., "because he is rich?" To see sub exuviit 
leonis onagrum, a filthy loathsome carcass, a Gorgon's head 
puffed up by parasites, assume this unto himself, glorious 
titles, in worth an infant, a Cuman ass, a painted sepulchre, 
an Egyptian temple ? To see a withered face, a diseased, 
deformed, cankered complexion, a rotten carcass, a viperous 
mind, and Epicurean soul set out with orient pearls, jewels, 
diadems, perfumes, curious elaborate works, as proud of his 
clothes as a child of his new coats ; and^a goodly person, of 
an angel-like divine countenance, a saint, an humble mind, a 
meek spirit clothed in rags, beg, and now ready to be starved ? 
To see a silly contemptible sloven in apparel, ragged in his 
coat, polite hi speech, of a divine spirit, wise ? another neat 
in clothes, spruce, full of courtesy, empty of grace, wit, talk 
nonsense ? 

To see so many lawyers, advocates, so many tribunals, so 
little justice ; so many magistrates, so little care of common 
good ; so many laws, yet never more disorders ; Tribunal 
litium segetem, the Tribunal a labyrinth, so many thousand 
suits in one court sometimes, so violently followed ? To see 
injustissimum stepe juri prcesidentem, impium religioni, im- 
peritissimum eruditioni, otiosissimum labori, monstrosum hu- 
manitati ? to see a lamb l executed, a wolf pronounce sen 
tence, latro arraigned, and fur sit on the bench, the judge 
severely punish others, and do worse himself, *eundem fur- 
turn facere et punire, 8 rapinam plectere, quum strips* raptor f 
Laws altered, misconstrued, interpreted pro and con, as the 
4 Judge is made by friends, bribed, or otherwise affected as a 
nose of wax, good to-day, none to-morrow; or firm in his 
opinion, cast in his ? Sentence prolonged, changed, ad ar- 
bitrium judicis, still the same case, 5 " one thrust out of his 
inheritance, another falsely put in by favour, false forged 

l Cyp. 2, ad Donat. ep. Ut reus inno- merces. Petronius. Quid feciant leges 

sens pereat, sit nocens. Judex damnat ubi sola pecunia regnat? Idem. 5 Hio 

Coras, quod intus operatur. 2 Sidonius arcentur hsereditatibus liberi, hie dona- 

Apo. 8 S.ilvianus 1. 3, de providen. tur bonis alienis, falsum consulit, alter 

Ergo judicium nihil est nisi publica testamentum corrumpit, &c. Idem 

86 Democritus to the Reader. 

deeds or wills." Incisee leges negliguntur, laws are made and 
not kept ; or if put in execution, l they be some silly ones 
that are punished. As put case it be fornication, the father 
will disinherit or abdicate his child, quite cashier him (out 
villain, begone, come no more in my sight) ; a poor man is 
miserably tormented with loss of his estate perhaps, goods, 
fortunes, good name, forever disgraced, forsaken, and must 
do penance to the utmost ; a mortal sin, and yet make the 
worst of it, nunquid aliud fecit, saith Tranio in the 2 poet, 
nisi quod faciunt summis nati generibus ? he hath done no 
more than what gentlemen usually do. 8 Neque novum, neque 
mirum, neque secus quam alii solent. For in a great person, 
right worshipful Sir, a right honourable Grandy, 'tis not a 
venial sin, no, not a peccadillo, 'tis no offence at all, a common 
and ordinary thing, no man takes notice of it; he justifies it 
in public, and peradventure brags of it, 

* " Nam quod turpe bonis, Titio, Seioque, decebat 
Crispinum " 

For what would be base in good men, Titius, and Seius, became Criapinus. 

* Many poor men, younger brothers, &c., by reason of bad 
policy and idle education (for they are likely brought up in 
no calling), are compelled to beg or steal, and then hanged 
for theft; than which, what can be more ignominious, non 
minus enim turpe principi muUa supplicia, quam medico 
multa funera, 'tis the governor's fault Libentius verberant 
quam docent, as schoolmasters do rather correct their pupils, 
than teach them when they do amiss. '"They had more 
need provide there should be no more thieves and beggars, 
as they ought with good policy, and take away the occasions, 
than let them run on, as they do to their own destruction ; root 
out likewise those causes of wrangling, a multitude of law- 

1 Vexat cemnirft columban. l Plant. 1. Decenmntnr furl grarla et hor- 

moBtel. * Idem. * Jnven. Sat. 4. renda supplicia, qunm potius providen- 

1 Quod tot ulnt fares et mendiei, magfo- dum mulMforetnefuressint, neouiquam 

tratuum eulpl fit, qui tnaloa imltantur tarn dlra furandi aut pereucdi sit neces- 

pneceptoren, qui disclpulos llbentlus yer- sitas. Idem. 
Meant qu&in docent. Morua, Utop. lib. 

Democritus to the Reader. 87 

yers, and compose controversies, lites lustrales et seculares, by 
some more compendious means." Whereas now for every 
toy and trifle they go to law, 1 mugit litibus insanum forum, 
et scevit invicem discordantium rabies, they are ready to pull 
out one another's throats ; and for commodity a " to squeeze 
blood," saith Hierom, " out of their brother's heart," defame, 
lie, disgrace, backbite, rail, bear false witness, swear, forswear, 
fight and wrangle, spend their goods, lives, fortunes, friends, 
undo one another, to enrich an harpy advocate, that preys 
upon them both, and cries Eia Socrates, Eia Xantippe ; or 
some corrupt Judge, that like the "Kite in ^sop, while 
the mouse and frog fought, carried both away. Generally 
they prey one upon another as so many ravenous birds, brute 
beasts, devouring fishes, no medium, * omnes hie aut captantur 
aut captant ; aut cadavera quce lacerantur, aut corvi qui lace- 
rant, either deceive or be deceived ; tear others or be torn 
in pieces themselves ; like so many buckets in a well, as one 
riseth another falleth, one's empty, another's full ; his ruin is 
a ladder to the third ; such are our ordinary proceedings. 
What's the market? A place, according to 6 Anacharsis, 
wherein they cozen one another, a trap ; nay, what's the 
world itself? 6 A vast chaos, a confusion of manners, as 
fickle as the air, domicilium insanorum, a turbulent troop full 
of impurities, a mart of walking spirits, goblins, the theatre 
of hypocrisy, a shop of knavery, flattery, a nursery of villainy, 
the scene of babbling, the school of giddiness, the academy 
of vice ; a warfare, ubi veils nolis pugnandum, aut tineas aut 
succumbas, in which kill or be killed ; wherein every man is 
for himself, his private ends, and stands upon his own guard. 
No charity, 7 love, friendship, fear of God, alliance, affinity, 
consanguinity, Christianity, can contain them, but if they be 
any ways offended, or that string of commodity be touched, 

1 Boterus de augment, nrb. lib. 3, emporium, theatrum hypocrisies, &c. 
cap. 3. * E fraterno corde sanguinem 1 Nemo coelum, nemo jusjumndum, 
eliciunt. 3 Milvus rapit ac deglubit. nemo Jovem pluria facit, sed oonei 
* Petronius de Crotone civil. & Quid apertis oculis bona sua computalt. Pa- 
forum? locos quo alius alium eircnm- tron 
remit. Vastum chaos, larrarum 

88 Democritus to the Reader. 

they fall foul. Old friends become bitter enemies on a sad 
den for toys and small offences, and they that erst were will 
ing to do all mutual offices of love and kindness, now revile 
and persecute one another to death, with more than Vatinian 
hatred, and will not be reconciled. So long as they are be- 
hoveful, they love, or may bestead each other, but when there 
is no more good to be expected, as they do by an old dog, 
hang him up or cashier him ; which 1 Cato counts a great 
indecorum, to use men like old shoes or broken glasses, which 
are flung to the dunghill ; he could not find in his heart to 
sell an old ox, much less to turn away an old servant ; but 
they, instead of recompense, revile him, and when they have 
made him an instrument of their villainy, as 2 Bajazet the 
second Emperor of the Turks did by Acomethes Bassa, make 
him away, or instead of 8 reward, hate him to death, as Silius 
was served by Tiberius. In a word every man for his own 
ends. Our summum bonum is commodity, and the goddess 
we adore Dea moneta, Queen money, to whom we daily offer 
sacrifice, which steers our hearts, hands, 4 affections, all ; that 
most powerful goddess, by whom we are reared, depressed, 
elevated, 6 esteemed the sole commandress of our actions, for 
which we pray, run, ride, go, come, labour, and contend as 
fishes do for a crumb that falleth into the water. It's not 
worth, virtue, (that's bonum theatrale,) wisdom, valour, learn 
ing, honesty, religion, or any sufficiency for which we are 
respected, but * money, greatness, office, honour, authority ; 
honesty is accounted folly ; knavery, policy ; 7 men admired 
out of opinion, not as they are, but as they seem to be ; such 
shifting, lying, cogging, plotting, counterplotting, temporizing, 
flattering, cozening, dissembling, 8 " that of necessity one must 

1 Plutarch. Tit. ejus. Indecorum anl- odium reddltur. Tac. < Faucis cha- 

matts ut calceis utl aut ritria, quse nbl rior eat fides quam pecunia. Salust. 

fracta abjicimus, nam ut de meipso 6 Prlma fere vota et cnnctis, &c. 

dioam, nee borem senem vendideram, Et genus et fonnain regina pecunia 

nedum hominem natu grandem laboria donat. Quantum quisque sua nummo- 

mcium s Jovius. Cum innumera rum servat in area, tantum habet et fidel. 

Ulius beneflcia rependere non posset 1 Non & peritii aed ab ornatu et vul^f 

aliter, interflci juasit. * Beneficia yoclbus habemnr excellentes. Cardan. 1 

o usque laeta sunt dum Tidentnr folvi 2, de cons. 8 Perjurata suo postponit 

posse, ubi multum autevenere pro gratia numina lucre, Mercator. Ct necessarian 

Democritus to the Reader. 89 

highly offend God if he be conformable to the world," Oreti- 
zare cum Crete, " or else live in contempt, disgrace, and mis 
ery." One takes upon him temperance, holiness, another 
austerity, a third an affected kind of simplicity, when as in 
deed he, and he, and he, and the rest are l " hypocrites, ambi 
dexters," outsides, so many turning pictures, a lion on the 
one side, a lamb on the other. 3 How would Democritus have 
been affected to see these things ! 

To see a man turn himself into all shapes like a chameleon, 
or as Proteus, omnia transformans sese in miracula rerum, 
to act twenty parts and persons at once, for his advantage, to 
temporize and vary like Mercury the Planet, good with good ; 
bad with bad ; having a several face, garb, and character for 
every one he meets ; of all religions, humours, inclinations ; 
to fawn like a spaniel, mentitis et mimicis obsequiis, rage like 
a lion, bark like a cur, fight like a dragon, sting like a serpent, 
as meek as a lamb, and yet again grin like a tiger, weep like 
a crocodile, insult over some, and yet others domineer over 
him, here command, there crouch, tyrannize in one place, be 
baffled in another, a wise man at home, a fool abroad to make 
others merry. 

To see so much difference betwixt words and deeds, so 
many parasangs betwixt tongue and heart, men like stage- 
players, act variety of parts, "give good precepts to others, 
soar aloft, whilst they themselves grovel on the ground. 

To see a man protest friendship, kiss his hand, * quern mal 
let truncatum videre, 6 smile with an intent to do mischief, or 
cozen him whom he salutes, * magnify his friend unworthy 
with hyperbolical eulogiums ; his enemy albeit a good man, 
*o vilify and disgrace him, yea all his actions, with the ut 
most that livor and malice can invent. 

To see a 'servant able to buy out his master, him that 

lit vel Deo displicere, Tel ab hominibus Silv. 6 Arridere homines ut sseviant, 

contemn!, Texari, negligl. 1 Qui Curios blandlii ut fallant. Gyp. ad Donatum. 

simulant et Bacchanalia Tirunt. Tra- * IX>TB and hate are like the two ends of 

gelapho similes Tel centauris, sursum a perspective glass, the one multiplies, 

homines, deorsum equi. 3 Precept!* the other makes less. * Mlnistri locu- 

cuis coelum promittunt. Ips! interim pul- pletiores iis quibns minlstratur, serruf 

mis terreni vilia mancipia. * jEueas inajores opes habens quam patronui 

90 Democritus to the Header. 

carries the mace more worth than the magistrate, which 
Plato, lib. 11, de leg., absolutely forbids, Epictetus abhors. 
A horse that tills the 1 land fed with chaff, an idle jade have 
provender in abundance ; him that makes shoes go barefoot 
himself, him that sells meat almost pined ; a toiling drudge 
starve, a drone flourish. 

To see men buy smoke for wares, castles built with fools' 
heads, men like apes follow the fashions in tires, gestures, 
actions ; if the king laugh, all laugh ; 

2 "Rides? majore chachinno 

Concutitur, flet si lachrymas conspexit amici." 

' Alexander stooped, so did his courtiers ; Alphonsus turned 
his head, and so did his parasites. * Sabina Poppea, Nero's 
wife, wore amber-coloured hair, so did all the Roman ladies 
in an instant, her fashion was theirs. 

To see men wholly led by affection, admired and censured 
out of opinion without judgment ; an inconsiderate multitude, 
like so many dogs in a village, if one bark all bark without a 
cause ; as fortune's fan turns, if a man be in favour, or com 
manded by some great one, all the world applauds him ; * if 
in disgrace in an instant all hate him, and as at the sun when 
he is eclipsed, that erst took no notice, now gaze and stare 
upon him. 

To see a man * wear his brains in his belly, his guts in his 
head, an hundred oaks on his back, to devour a hundred oxen 
at a meal, nay more, to devour houses and towns, or as those 
anthropophagi, 7 to eat one another. 

To see a man roll himself up like a snowball, from base 
beggary to right worshipful and right honourable titles, un 
justly to screw himself into honours and offices ; another to 
starve his genius, damn his soul to gather wealth, which he 

1 Qul terram colunt equi paleia pascun- rap. 6. * Plinius, 1. 87, cap. 8, capillo* 

tor, qul oUantur caballl avenl saginan- hahuit succineos, exinde factum ut om- 

tur, discalceatus discurrit qui calces allig nes puellse Romante colorem ilium affeo- 

fecit. Juven. Do you laugh? he is tarent. * Odit damnatoa. JUT. 

ihaken by itiU greater laughter ; he Agrippa ep. 28, 1. 7. Quorum cerebrum 

weeps also when he has beheld the tears est In ventre, ingenium in patinis. 

of his friend. Bodin. lib. 4, de repub. ' Psal. They eat up my peop>e as bread 

Democritus to the Reader. 91 

shall not enjoy, which his prodigal son melts and consumes 
in an instant. 1 

To see the nano^iav of our times, a man bend all his 
forces, means, time, fortunes, to be a favourite's favourite's 
favourite, &c., a parasite's parasite's parasite, that may scorn 
the servile world as having enough already. 

To see an hirsute beggar's brat, that lately fed on scraps, 
crept and whined, crying to all, and for an old jerkin ran of 
errands, now ruffle in silk and satin, bravely mounted, jovial 
and polite, now scorn his old friends and familiarj^neglect his 
kindred, insult over his betters, domineer over all. 

To see a scholar crouch and creep to an illiterate peasant 
for a meal's meat ; a scrivener better paid for an obligation ; 
a falconer receive greater wages than a student ; a lawyer 
get more in a day than a philosopher in a year, better reward 
for an hour, than a scholar for a twelvemonth's study ; him 
that can * paint Thais, play on a fiddle, curl hair, &c., sooner 
get preferment than a philologer or a poet. 

To see a fond mother, like ^Esop's ape, hug her child to 
death, a a wittol wink at his wife's honesty, and too perspic 
uous in all other affairs ; one stumble at a straw, and leap 
over a block ; rob Peter, and pay Paul ; scrape unjust sums 
with one hand, purchase great manors by corruption, fraud 
and cozenage, and liberally to distribute to the poor with the 
other, give a remnant to pious uses, &c. Pennywise, pound- 
foolish ; blind men judge of colours ; wise men silent, fools 
talk ; * find fault with others, and do worse themselves~f-J^de- 
nounce that in public which he doth in secret; and which 
Aurelius Victor gives out of Augustus, severely censure that 
in a third, of which he is most guilty himself. 

To see a poor fellow, or an hired servant venture his life 
for his new master that will scarce give him his wages at 

1 Absumit haeres ctecnba dignior ser- obllvisci suorum. Idem Aristippus Chari- 

Tata centum claribus, et mero distinguet demo apud Lucianum. Omnino stultitiae 

pavimentis superbo, pontificum potiore cnjusdam ease puto, &c. t Execrarf 

eoenis . Uor. * Qui Thaidem pingere, publiceqttodoccnlteagat. Salvianus lib. 

Inflate tibiam, erispare crines. * Doctus de pro. acres ulciscendis yitiis quibus iptt 

epectare lacunar. s Tailing. Est enim rehementer indulgent, 
proprium staltitige aliorum cemere 

92 Democritus to the Header. 

year's end ; A country colone toil and moil, till and drudge 
for a prodigal idle drone, that devours all the gain, or lasciv 
iously consumes with fantastical expenses ; A noble man in 
a bravado to encounter death, and for a small flash of honour 
to cast away himself; A worldling tremble at an executor, 
and yet not fear hell-fire ; To wish and hope for immortality, 
desire to be happy, and yet by all means avoid death, a neces 
sary passage to bring him to it. 

To see a foolhardy fellow like those old Danes, qui decol- 
lari mcdunt quam verberari, die rather than be punished, in a 
sottish humour embrace death with alacrity, yet 1 scorn to 
lament his own sins and miseries, or his dearest friends' 

To see wise men degraded, fools preferred, one govern 
towns and cities, and yet a silly woman overrules him at 
home ; * Command a province, and yet his own servants or 
children prescribe laws to him, as Themistocles's son did in 
Greece ; a " What I will (said he) my mother will, and what 
my mother will, my father doth." To see horses ride in a 
coach, men draw it ; dogs devour their masters ; towers build 
masons ; children rule ; old men go to school ; women wear 
the breeches ; * sheep demolish towns, devour men, &c. And 
in a word, the world turned upside downward. viveret 
Democritus I 

4 To insist in every particular were one of Hercules's 
labours, there's so many ridiculous instances, as motes in the 
sun. Quantum est in rebus inane! (How much vanity 
there is in things !) And who can speak of all ? Crimine 
ab uno disce omnes, take this for a taste. 

But these are obvious to sense, trivial and well known, 
easy to be discerned. How would Democritus have been 
moved, had he seen f the secrets of their hearts ? If every 

1 Adamos eccl. hist. cap. 212. Siquls femulum regit sine strepltu domi. 

damnatus fuerit, laetus ease gloria est; * Quicquid ego yolo hoc vult mater mea, 

Dam lachrymas et planctum cseteraque et quod mater vult, facit pater. 8 Oves, 

eompunctionum genera qua nos salubria olim mite pecus, nunc tarn indomitum et 

eensemus, ita abominantur Dani, ut nee edax ut homines devorent, &c. Morug 

pro peccatia nee pro Uefunctia amicis ulli Utop. lib. 1. * Diversos variis tribull 

Here liceat. * Orbl dat leges foras, vix natura furores. t Demoorit. ep. prsed 

Democritus to the Reader. 93 

man had a window in his breast, which Momus would have 
had in Vulcan's man, or that which Tully so much wished it 
were written in every man's forehead, Quid quisque de re- 
publicd sentiret, what he thought ; or that it could be effected 
in an instant, which Mercury did by Charon hi Lucian, by 
touching of his eyes, to make him discern semel et simul ru 
mores et susurros. 

" Spes hominum caecaa, morbos, votumqne labores, 
Et passim toto volitantes sethere curas." 

" Blind hopes and wishes, their thoughts and affairs, -~ 
Whispers and rumours, and those flying cares." 

That he could cubiculorum obductas foras reclttdere et secreta 
cordium penetrare, which * Cyprian desired, open doors and 
locks, shoot bolts, as Lucian's Gallus did with a feather of 
his tail; or Gyges's invisible ring, or some rare perspective 
glass, or Otacousticon, which would so multiply species, that 
a man might hear and see all at once (as 2 Martianus Capel- 
la's Jupiter did in a spear which he held in his hand, which 
did present unto him all that was daily done upon the face of 
the earth), observe cuckolds' horns, forgeries of alchemists, 
the philosopher's stone, new projectors, &c., and all those 
works of darkness, foolish vows, hopes, fears, and wishes, 
what a deal of laughter would it have afforded ? He should 
have seen windmills in one man's head, an hornet's nest in 
another. Or had he been present with Icaromenippus in 
Lucian at Jupiter's whispering place, 8 and heard one pray 
for rain, another for fair weather ; one for his wife's, another 
for his father's death, &c. ; " to ask that at God's hand which 
they are abashed any man should hear ; " How would he 
have been confounded ? Would he, think you, or any man 

Hos dejemntes et potantes deprehendet, qnotidianis motibus agitarent, relucebat. 

hos Yomentes, illos litigantes, insidias 3 Jupiter contingat mihi aurum haered- 

molientes, suffragantes, venena mis- itag, &c. Multos da, Jupiter, annos, 

centes. In amicorum accusationem sub- Dementia quanta est hominum, turpiasi- 

scribentes, hos gloria, illos ambitione, cu- ma vota diis insusurrant, si qui? admor- 

pidi'ate, mente captos, &o. lAdDonat. erit aurem, conticescunt ; et quod sciw 

ep. 2, 1. 1. si posses in specula sublimi homines nolunt, Deo uarraut. Senec. ep 

eonstitutus, &c. 2 Lib. 1, de nup. Philol. 10, 1. 1. 
In qua quid singuli nationum populi 

94 Democritus to the Reader. 

else, say that these men were well in their wits ? Hcec sant 
esse hominis quit sanusjuret Orestes ? Can all the hellebore 
in the Anticyrae cure these men ? No sure, * " an acre of 
hellebore will not do it." 

That which is more to be lamented, they are mad like 
Seneca's blind woman, and will not acknowledge, or l seek 
for any cure of it, for pauci vident morbum suum omnes 
amant. If our leg or arm offend us, we covet by all means 
possible to redress it ; a and if we labour of a bodily disease, 
we send for a physician ; but for the diseases of the mind 
we take no notice of them ; * Lust harrows us on the one 
eide ; envy, anger, ambition on the other. We are torn in 
pieces by our passions, as so many wild horses, one in dispo 
sition, another in habit; one is melancholy, another mad; 
4 and which of us all seeks for help, doth acknowledge his 
error, or knows he is sick ? As that stupid fellow put out 
the candle because the biting fleas should not find him ; he 
shrouds himself in an unknown habit, borrowed titles, be 
cause nobody should discern him. Every man thinks with 
himself, Egomet videor mihi sanus, I am well, I am wise, and 
laughs at others. And 'tis a general fault amongst them all, 
that 8 which our forefathers have approved, diet, apparel, 
opinions, humours, customs, manners, we deride and reject in 
our tune as absurd. Old men account juniors all fools, when 

they are mere dizzards ; and as to sailors, terrceque ur- 

besque recedunt they move, the land stands still, the world 

hath much more wit, they dote themselves. Turks deride us, 
we them ; Italians, Frenchmen, accounting them light-headed 
fellows ; the French scoff again at Italians, and at their sev 
eral customs; Greeks have condemned all the world but 

* Plantna Meneoh. non potent haec hum. affec. morbornmque cura. * Bt 

res Hellebori jngere obtinerier. qnotuaquisque tamen est qui contra tot 

1 Eoque gravior morbus quo ignotior pe- pestes medicum requtrat vel eegrotare se 

rlclitanti. * Quae leedunt oculos, festi- agnoscat? ebullit ira, &c. Et uos tamen 

nan demere ; R! quid est animum, differs segros esse negamus. Incolumes rnedi- 

eurandi tempus In annum. Hor. * Si cum recusant. Prsesens setas stnltitiam 

eaput, crus dolet, brachium, fcc., medi- priscis ezprobrat. Bud. de affec. lib. 6. 

turn accenlmus, recte et honeste, si par * Senes pro s tultis habent juvenes. Baltli 

etlam Indtutria in animi morbis ponere- Cast. 
tor. Job. Pelenus Jesuita. Ub. 2, de 

Democritus to the Header. 95 

themselves of barbarism, the world as much vilifies them 
now ; we account Germans heavy, dull fellows, explode many 
of their fashions ; they as contemptibly think of us ; Span 
iards laugh at all. and all again at them. So are we fools 
and ridiculous, absurd in our actions, carriages, diet, apparel, 
customs, and consultations ; we l scoff and point one at 
another, when as in conclusion all are fools, * " and they the 
venest asses that hide their ears most" A private man if 
he be resolved with himself, or set on an opinion, accounts 
all idiots and asses that are not affected as he is^ *n& 
rectum, nisi quod placuit sibi, ducit, that are not so minded, 
1 (quodque volunt homines se bene vette putant,) all fools that 
think not as he doth ; he will not say with Atticus, Suam 
quisque sponsam, mihi meam, let every man enjoy his own 
spouse ; but his alone is fair, suus amor, fyc., and scorns all 
in respect of himself, 4 will imitate none, hear none 6 but him 
self, as Pliny said, a law and example to himself. And that 
which Hippocrates, in his epistle to Dionysius, reprehended 
of old, is verified in our times, Quisque in olio superjluum 
esse censet, ipse quod non habet nee curat, that which he hath 
not himself, or doth not esteem, he accounts superfluity, an 
idle quality, a mere foppery in another; like -3Ssop's fox, 
when he had lost his tail, would have all his fellow foxes cut 
off theirs. The Chinese say, that we Europeans have one 
eye, they themselves two, all the world else is blind ; (though 
t Scaliger accounts them brutes too, merum pecus,) so thou 
and thy sectaries are only wise, others indifferent, the rest 
beside themselves, mere idiots and asses. Thus not ac 
knowledging our own errors and imperfections, we securely 
deride others, as if we alone were free, and spectators of the 
rest, accounting it an excellent thing, as indeed it is, Aliend 
optimum frui insanid, to make ourselves merry with other 
men's obliquities, when as he himself is more faulty than the 

1 Clodius accnsat moechos. * Om- imitantur, ipsi sibi exemplo. Plin. epist. 

niutn Btultissimi qui auriculas studios^ lib. 8. 5 Null! alteri sapere concedit 

tegunt. Sat. Menip. Hor. Epist. 2. ne desipere videatnr. Agrip. t Omnii 

* Prosper. * Statim sapiunt, statim orbis persecbio a Penis ad Lusitaniam. 

Ml ant, neminem rnverentur, neminem 

96 Democritus to the Reader. 

rest, mutato nomine, de tefabula narratur, he may take him 
self by the nose for a fool ; and which one calls maximum 
stultitifE specimen, to be ridiculous to others, and not to per 
ceive or take notice of it, as Marsyas was when he contended 
with Apollo, non intettigens se deridiculo haberi, saith * Apu- 
leius; 'tis his own cause, he is a convicted madman, as 
1 Austin well infers " in the eyes of wise men and angels he 
seems like one, that to our thinking walks with his heels 
upwards." So thou laughest at me, and I at thee, both at a 
third ; and he returns that of the poet upon us again, 2 Hei 
mihi, insanire me aiunt, quum ipsi ultro insaniant. We 
accuse others of madness, of folly, and are the veriest diz- 
zards ourselves. For it is a great sign and property of a 
fool (which Eccl. x. 3, points at) out of pride and self-conceit 
to insult, vilify, condemn, censure, and call other men fools 
(Non videmus manticee quod a tergo esf) to tax that in others 
of which we are most faulty ; teach that which we follow not 
ourselves ; For an inconstant man to write of constancy ; a 
profane liver prescribe rules of sanctity and piety ; a dizzard 
himself make a treatise of wisdom ; or with Sallust to rail 
downright at spoilers of countries, and yet in f office to be a 
most grievous poller himself. This argues weakness, and is 
an evident sign of such parties' indiscretion. * Peccat uter 
nostrum cruce dignius ? " Who is the fool now ? " Or else 
perad venture in some places we are all mad for company, 
and so 'tis not seen, Satietas erroris et dementia, pariter 
absurditatem et admirationem tottit. 'Tis with us, as it was 
of old (in 4 Tully's censure at least) with C. Pimbria in Rome, 
a bold, hairbrain, mad fellow, and so esteemed of all, such 
only excepted, that were as mad as himself; now in such a 
case there is * no notice taken of it 

2 Florid. 1 August. Quails in oca lls nm est insaniendum turba. 8n. 
hominum qui Inversls pedibus ambnlat, Pro Roscio Amerino, et quod inter om- 
talU in oculis eapientum et angel i TIPS 
qui iibi placet, aut cui passiones 
nantur. * Plautus Menechmi 

t OoTernor of Asnirh by Ciesar'i 
potntmeut. * Nunc sanitatia patr 

Democritus to the Reader. 97 

" Nimirum insanus paucis videatur ; e6 quod 
Maxima pars hominum morbo jactatur eodem." 

" When all are mad, where all are like opprest 
Who can discern one mad man from the rest ? " 

But put case they do perceive it, and some one be mani 
festly convicted of madness, l he now takes notice of his folly, 
be it in action, gesture, speech, a vain humour he hath in 
building, bragging, jangling, spending, gaming, courting, scrib 
bling, prating, for which he is ridiculous to others, 2 on which 
he dotes, he doth acknowledge as much ; yet with all the 
rhetoric thou hast, thou canst not so recall him, but to the 
contrary notwithstanding, he will persevere in his dotage. 
'Tis amabilis insania, et mentis gratissimus error, so pleasing, 
so delicious, that he "cannot leave it. He knows his error, 
but will not seek to decline it, tell him what the event will be, 
beggary, sorrow, sickness, disgrace, shame, loss, madness, yet 
4 " an angry man will prefer vengeance, a lascivious his 
whore, a thief his booty, a glutton his belly, before his wel 
fare." Tell an epicure, a covetous man, an ambitious man, 
of his irregular course, wean him from it a little, pol me occi- 
distis amid, he cries anon, you have undone him, and as 8 a 
" dog to his vomit," he returns to it again ; no persuasion will 
take place, no counsel, say what thou canst, 

" Clames licet et mare coelo 

Confundas, surdo narras," * 

demonstrate as Ulysses did to 6 Elpenor and Gryllus, and the 
rest of his companions, " those swinish men," he is irrefraga 
ble in his humour, he will be a hog still ; bray him in a mor 
tar, he will be the same. If he be in an heresy, or some 
perverse opinion, settled as some of our ignorant Papists are, 

t genus unum stulti- gulam. ambitiosus honores, avarus opes, 

e putas. 2 Stultum &c., odimus haec et accersimua. Cardan, 

ncedere vernm, At- 1. 2, de conso. * Prov. xxvi. 11. 

Hor. * Odi nee * Although you call out, and confound 

ssse quod odi. Ovid the sea and sky, you still address a deaf 

r omnes insanimus. man. * Plutarch. Gryllo. suilli homilies 

x prseponlt, iracun- sic Clem. Alex. TO. 
praedam, parasitus 

98 Democritus to the Reader. 

convince his understanding, show him the seveial follies and 
absurd fopperies of that sect, force him to say, veris vincor, 
make it as clear as the sun, l he will err still, peevish and ob 
stinate as he is ; and as he said 2 si in hoc erro, libenter erro, nee 
hunc errorem auferri mihi volo ; I will do as I have done, as 
my predecessors have done, * and as my friends now do ; I 
will dote for company. Say now, are these men 4 mad or 
no, 6 Heus age responds ? are they ridiculous ? cedo quemvis 
arbitrum, are they san<e mentis, sober, wise, and discreet? 

have they common sense ? uter est insanior horum ? 

I am of Democritus's opinion for my part, I hold them 
worthy to be laughed at ; a company of brainsick dizzards, 
as mad as 7 Orestes and Athamas, that they may go " ride 
the ass," and all sail along to the Anticyrae, in the " ship of 
fools" for company together. I need not much labour to 
prove this which I say otherwise than thus, make any sol 
emn protestation, or swear, I think you will believe me with 
out an oath ; say at a word, are they fools ? I refer it to 
you, though you be likewise fools and madmen yourselves, 
and I as mad to ask the question ; for what said our comical 
Mercury ? 

6 " Justum ab injustis petere insipientia est. 

I'll stand to your censure yet, what think you ? " 

But forasmuch as I undertook at first, that kingdoms, 
provinces, families, were melancholy as well as private men, 
I will examine them in particular, and that which I have 
hitherto dilated at random, in more general terms, I will par 
ticularly insist in, prove with more special and evident argu 
ments, testimonies, illustrations, and that in brief. ' Nunc 
accipe quare desipiant omnes ague ac tu. My Urst argu 
ment is borrowed from Solomon, an arrow drawn out of his 

1 Non persuadebis, etiamsi persuaseris. is the more mad. 1 Vesanum exagitat 

* Tally 3 Male cum illis insanirc, quam pueri, innuptseque puellae. * Plautug 

earn alils bene sentire. Qui inter hog Hor. 1. 2, sat. 2. Superbam stultitiara 

enntriuntur non magls sapere possunt, Plinius vocat. 7, epiat. 21, quod aemel dbd 

?nlm qni in culinS bene olere. Petron. fixum ratumquo sit. 
Pniut. Hor. 2, ser. whkh of these 

Democntus to the Reader. 99 

sententious quiver, Pro. iii. 7, "Be not wise in thine own 
eyes." And xxvi. 12, " Seest thou a man wise in his own 
conceit ? more hope is of a fool than of him." Isaiah pro- 
nounceth a woe against such men, chap. v. 21, " that are wise 
in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight." For 
hence we may gather, that it is a great offence, and men are 
much deceived tha^fhink too well of themselves, an especial 
argument to convince them of folly. Many men (saith 
1 Seneca) " had been without question wise, had they not had 
an opinion that they had attained to perfection of knowledge 
already, even before they had gone half-way," too forward, 
too ripe, prceproperi, too quick and ready, *cito prudentes, 
cito pii, cito mariti, cito patres, did sacerdotes, cito omnes 
officii capaces et curiosi, they had too good a conceit of them 
selves, and that marred all ; of their worth, valour, skill, art, 
learning, judgment, eloquence, their good parts ; all their 
geese are swans, and that manifestly proves them to be no 
better than fools. In former times they had but seven wise 
men, now you can scarce find so many fools. Thales sent 
the golden Tripos, which the fishermen found, and the oracle 
commanded to be * " given to the wisest, to Bias, Bias to 
Solon," &c. If such a thing were now found, we should all 
fight for it, as the three goddesses did for the golden apple, 
we are so wise ; we have women politicians, children meta 
physicians; every silly fellow can square a circle, make 
perpetual motions, find the philosopher's stone, interpret 
Apocalypses, make new Theories, a new system of the world, 
new logic, new Philosophy, &c. Nostra ittique regio, saith 
8 Petronius, " our country is so full of deified spirits, divine 
souls, that you may sooner find a god than a man amongst 
us," we think so well of ourselves, and that is an ample testi 
mony of much folly. 

My second argument is grounded upon the like place of 

1 Mul ti sapientes procul dubio fuissent , prasentibns plena est muninlbuj , nt 

i Be non put&ssent ad sapientise summum facilius possis deum quam hominm 

pervenisse. - Idem. * Plutarchus invenire. 
Solone. Detur sapientiori a Tarn 

100 Democritus to the Reader. 

Scripture, which though before mentioned in effect, yet for 
some reasons is to be repeated (and by Plato's good leave, I 
may do it, l fa rd KdMv pri&tv aMev /3Aa7rra) " Fools (saith David) 
by reason of their transgressions," &c. Psal. cvii. 17. Hence 
Musculus infers all transgressors must needs be fools. So 
we read Rom. ii. " Tribulation and anguish on the soul of 
every man that doeth evil ; " but all do evil. And Isaiah, 
Ixv. 14, " My servants shall sing for joy, and 2 ye shall cry 
for sorrow of heart, and vexation of mind." "Pis ratified by 
the common consent of all philosophers. " Dishonesty (saith 
Cardan) is nothing else but folly and madness." * Probus quis 
nobiscum vivit ? Show me an honest man, Nemo malus qui 
non stuttuSy 'tis Fabius's aphorism to the same end. If none 
honest, none wise, then all fools. And well may they be so 
accounted ; for who will account him otherwise, Qui iter 
adornat in occidentem, quum properaret in orientem ? that 
goes backward all his life, westward, when he is bound to the 
east ? or hold him a wise man (saith * Musculus) " that pre 
fers momentary pleasures to eternity, that spends his master's 
goods in his absence, forthwith to be condemned for it ? " 
Nequicquam sapit qui sibi non sapit, who will say that a 
sick man is wise, that eats and drinks to overthrow the tem 
perature of his body ? Can you account him wise or discreet 
that would willingly have his health, and yet will do nothing 
that should procure or continue it ? 8 Theodoret, out of Plo- 
tinus the Platonist, " holds it a ridiculous thing for a man to 
live after his own laws, to do that which is offensive to God, 
and yet to hope that he should save him ; and when he vol 
untarily neglects his own safety, and contemns the means, to 
think to be delivered by another ; " who will say these men 
are wise ? 

A third argument may be derived from the precedent, 6 all 

1 Pnlchnun bis dlcere non nocet. mi sententia yiyere, et qu diis ingrata 

Malefactors. Who can find a gunt exequi, et tamen & soils diis velle 

Adthful man ? Prov. zx. 6. 4 In salvos fieri quum propriae Ralutis curam 

Psal. xltx. Qui momentanea sempiter- abjecerlnt. Theod. o. 6, de prortd. lib dfl 

nis, qui dilapidat her! absentis bona, mox curat. grace, affect. * Sapiens sibi qui 

In jus yocandus et damnandna. imperiosus, &c. Hor. 2, ser. 7. 
1 Purquam ridiculum est homines ex anl- 

Democritus to the Header. 101 

men are carried away with passion, discontent, lust, pleas 
ures, &c. ; they generally hate those virtues they should love, 
and love such vices they should hate. Therefore more than 
melancholy, quite mad, brute beasts, and void of reason, so 
Chrysostom contends ; " or rather dead and buried alive," as 
1 Philo Judeus concludes it for a certainty, " of all such that 
are carried away with passions, or labor of any disease of 
the mind." " Where is fear and sorrow," there 2 Lactantius 
stiffly maintains, " wisdom cannot dwell. 


' qui cupiet, metuet quoqne porrb, 
Qui metuens vivit, liber mihi non erit unquam.' " * - 

Seneca and the rest of the stoics are of opinion, that where ia 
any the least perturbation, wisdom may not be found. 
" What more ridiculous," as * Lactantius urges, " than to hear 
how Xerxes whipped the Hellespont," threatened the Moun 
tain Athos, and the like ? To speak ad rem, who is free from 
passion ? 4 Mortalis nemo est quern non attingat dolor, mor- 
busve, as 5 Tully determines out of an old poem, no mortal ' 
men can avoid sorrow and sickness, and sorrow is an insep 
arable companion from melancholy. ' Chrysostom pleads far 
ther yet, that they are more than mad, very beasts, stupefied, 
and void of common sense : " For how (saith he) shall I know 
thee to be a man, when thou kickest like an ass, neighest like a 
horse after women, ravest in lust like a bull, ravenest like a 
bear, stingest like a scorpion, rakest like a wolf, as subtle as a 
fox, as impudent as a dog ? Shall I say thou art a man, that 
ha3t all the symptoms of a beast ? How shall I know thee to 
be a man ? by thy shape ? That affrights me more, when 
I see a beast in likeness of a man." 

1 Conclus. lib. de Tic. offer, certum est in sapientem non cadit. Horn. 6, in 2 

animi morbis laborantes pro mortuis cen- Epist. ad Cor. Hominem te agnoscere ne- 

eendos. 2 Lib. de sap. Ubi timor adest, queo, cum tanquam asinus recalcitres, 

eapieiitla adesse nequit. * He who is lascivias ut taurus, hinnias ut equus post 

desirous, is also fearful, and he who lives mulieres, ut ursus ventri indulges*, 

In fear never can be free. 8 Quid insa- quum rapias ut lupus, &c., at, inquia, 

nius Xerxe Hellespontum verberante* formam hominis habeo, Id magis terret, 

fcc. * Eccl. xxi. 12. Where is bitterness quum feram humanSl specie videre m* 

there is no understanding. Prov. xii. 16 putemi 
man is a fool. 5 3 Tusc. Injuria 

102 Democritus to the Reader. 

1 Seneca calls that of Epicurus, magnificam vocem, an he- 
roical speech, " A fool still begins to live," and accounts it a 
filthy lightness in men, every day to lay new foundations of 
their life, but who doth otherwise ? One travels, another 
builds ; one for this, another for that business, and old folka 
are as far out as the rest ; dementem senectutem, Tully ex 
claims. Therefore young, old, middle age, all are stupid, 
and dote. 

* JEneas Sylvius, amongst many other, sets down three 
special ways to find a fool by. He is a fool that seeks that 
he cannot find; he is a fool that seeks that, which being 
found will do him more harm than good ; he is a fool, that 
having variety of ways to bring him to 'his journey's end, 
takes that which is worst If so, methinks most men are 
fools ; examine their courses, and you shall soon perceive 
what dizzards and mad men the major part are. 

Beroaldus will have drunkards, afternoon men, and such 
as more than ordinarily delight in drink, to be mad. The 
first pot quencheth thirst, so Panyasis the poet determines in 
Athenteus, secunda gratiis, horis et Dionysio ; the second 
makes merry, the third for pleasure, quarto, ad insaniam, 
the fourth makes them mad. If this position be true, what 
a catalogue of mad men shall we have ? what shall they be 
that drink four tunes four ? Nonne supra omnem furorem, 
supra omnem insaniam reddunt insanissimos ? I am of his 
opinion, they are more than mad, much worse than mad. 

The 2 Abderites condemned Democritus for a mad man, 
because he was sometimes sad, and sometimes again pro 
fusely merry. Hdc Pairid (saith Hippocrates) ob risum 
furere et insanire dicunt, his countrymen hold^4iim mad 
because he laughs ; * and therefore " he desires him to ad 
vise all his friends at Rhodes, that they do not laugh too 

I Epist. lib. 2, 18. Stultus pemper inci- qul cum plures habet calles, deteriorem 

pit vivere, foeda hominum levitas, nova delimit. Mihi videntur omncs dellri, 

quotidie fundamenta vifce ponere, novas amentes, &c. 2 Ep. Damageto. 

ipea, &c. * Decurial. miser. Stultus, s Amicis nostris Rhodi dlclto. ne nimiuin 

qul quserit quod nequit invenire. gtultus rideant, aut nlmlnm tristes slat. 
qul quterit quod nocet inventuin, stultuB 

Democritus to the Reader. 108 

much, or be over sad." Had those Abderites been con 
versant with us, and but seen what * fleering and grinning 
there is in this age, they would certainly have concluded, 
we had been all out of our wits. 

Aristotle in his ethics holds faiKx idemque sapiens, to be 
wise and happy, are reciprocal terms, bonus idemque sapiens 
honestus. 'Tis 3 Tully^ paradox, " wise men are free, but 
fools are slaves," liberty is a power to live according to his 
own laws, as we will ourselves ; who hath this liberty ? who 

is free ? 


8 " sapiens sibique imperiosus, 

Qnem neque pauperis, neque mors, neque vincula terren^^ 
Responsare cupidinibns, contemnere honores 
Fortis, et in seipso totus teres atque rotundus." 

" He is wise that can command his own will, 
Valiant and constant to himself still, 
Whom poverty nor death, nor bauds can fright, 
Checks his desires, scorns honours, just and right." 

But where shall such a man be found ? If nowhere, then 
e diametro, we are all slaves, senseless, or worse. Nemo 
mains fcelix. But no man is happy in this life, none good, 

therefore no man wise. * Rari quippe boni For one 

virtue you shall find ten vices in the same party ; pauci 
Promethei, mulii Epimethei. "We may peradventure usurp 
the name, or attribute it to others for favour, as Carolua 
Sapiens, Philippus Bonus, Lodovicus Pius, &c., and describe 
the properties of a wise man, as Tully doth an orator, Xeno- 
phon Cyrus, Castilio a courtier, Galen temperament, an aris 
tocracy is described by politicians. But where shall such a 
man be found ? 

" Vir bonus et sapiens, qualem vix repperit nnum 
Millibus e multis hominum consultus Apollo." 

" A wise, a good man in a million, 
Apollo consulted could scarce find one." 

A man is a miracle of himself, but Trismegistus adds, Maxi- 

1 Per multum risum poteris cognosce- &c. 3 Hor. 2, ser. 7. * Jurm 

re atultum. Offlc. 3, c. 9. Sapientes " Good people are scarce." 

liberi, stulti servi, libertas est potestas, 

104 Democritus to the Header. 

mum miraculum homo sapiens, a wise man is a wonder; 
in Lilt! Thirsigeri, pauci BaccM. 

Alexander when he was presented with that rich and costly 
casket of king Darius, and every man advised him what to 
put in it, he reserved it to keep Homer's works, as the most 
precious jewel of human wit, and yet * Scaliger upbraids 
Homer's muse, Nutricem insance sapientice, a nursery of 
madness, 2 impudent as a court lady, that blushes at nothing. 
Jacobus Mycillus, Gilbertus Cognatus, Erasmus, and almost 
all posterity admire Lucian's luxuriant wit, yet Scaliger 
rejects him in his censure, and calls him the Cerberus of 
the muses. Socrates, whom all the world so much magni 
fied, is by Lactantius and Theodoret condemned for a fool. 
Plutarch extols Seneca's wit beyond all the Greeks, nuUi 
$ecundus, yet * Seneca saith of himself, " when I would solace 
myself with a fool, I reflect upon myself, and there I have 
him." Cardan, in his Sixteenth Book of Subtilties, reckons 
up twelve supereminent acute philosophers, for worth, sub 
tlety, and wisdom : Archimedes, Galen, Vitruvius, Architaa 
Tarentinus, Euclid, Geber, that first inventor of Algebra, 
Alkindus the Mathematician, both Arabians, with others. 
But his triumviri terrarum far beyond the rest, are Ptolo- 
maeus, Plotinus, Hippocrates. Scaliger, exerdtat. 224, scoffs at 
this censure of his, calls some of them carpenters and mech 
anicians, he makes Galen fimbriam Hippocratis, a skirt of 
Hippocrates ; and the said 4 Cardan himself elsewhere con 
demns both Galen and Hippocrates for tediousness, obscurity, 
confusion. Paracelsus will have them both mere idiots, in 
fants in physic and philosophy. Scaliger and Cardan admire 
Suisset the Calculator, qui pene modum excessit humani in- 
ffenii, and yet 6 Lod. Vives calls them nugas Suisseticas ; 
and Cardan, opposite to himself in another place, contemns 
those ancients in respect of times present, 6 Majoresque nostrot 

1 Hypocrit. Ut nmller aulica centium. Lib. de causls corrupt 

nnllius pudeng. * Epist. 88. Quando artium. < Actione ad subtil, in Seal 

Cktao delectari volo non est longe qute- fol. 1226. 
nndug, me yidec * Primo contradi- 

Democritus to the Readei. 105 

ad presantes collates just'e pueros appeUari. In conclusion 
the said 1 Cardan and Saint Bernard will admit none into this 
catalogue of wise men, 2 but only prophets and apostles ; how 
they esteem themselves, you have heard before. We are 
worldly-wise, admire ourselves, and seek for applause ; but 
hear Saint 8 Bernard, quanta magis foras es sapiens, tanto 
magis intus stultus effic&ris, fyc., in omnibus es prudens, circa 
teipsum insipiens ; the more wise thou art to others, the more 
fool to thyself. I may not deny but that there is some folly 
approved, a divine fury, a holy madness, even a spiritual 
drunkenness in the saints of God themselves ; sanciam in- 
saniam Bernard calls it, (though not as blaspheming^Yors- 
tius would infer it, as a passion incident to God himself, but) 
familiar to good men, as that of Paul, 2 Cor. " he was a fool," 
&c., and Rom. ix. he wisheth himself to be anathematized for 
them. Such is that drunkenness which Ficinus speaks of, 
when the soul is elevated and ravished with a divine taste 
of that heavenly nectar, which poets deciphered by the sac 
rifice of Dionysius, and in this sense with the poet, 6 insanire 
lubet, as Austin exhorts us, ad ebrietatetn se quisque paret, 
let's all be mad and 6 drunk. But we commonly mistake, 
and go beyond our commission, we reel to the opposite part, 
7 we are not capable of it, 8 and as he said of the Greeks, Vbs 
Greed semper pueri, vos Britanni, Gatti, Germani, liali, tyc., 
you are a company of fools. 

Proceed now a partibus ad totum, or from the whole to 
parts, and you shall find no other issue, the parts shall be 
sufficiently dilated in this following Preface. The whole 
must needs follow by a sorites or induction. Every multi 
tude is mad, * bellua multorum capitum, (a many-headed 
beast,) precipitate and rash without judgment, stultum ani 
mal, a roaring rout. 10 Roger Bacon proves it out of Aristotle, 

1 Lib. 1, de sap. * Vide miser homo, iram et odium in Deo reyera ponit. 

quia totum est vanitas, totum stultitia, 5 Virg. 1, Eel. 3 Ps. inebriabuntur 

totuin dementia, quicquid facis in hoc ab ubertate domfts. * In Psal. civ. 

mundo, prseter hoc solum quod prop- Austin. 8 In Platonis Tim. sacerdos 

ter Deum facis. Set. de miser, horn. JSgyptius. 9 Hor. vulgus insauum. 

3 In 2 Platonis dial. 1, dejusto. * Dum w Patet ea divisio probabilis, &c , ex 

106 jDemocritus to the Header. 

Vulgus dividi in oppositum contra sapientes, quod vtdgo vide- 
tur verum, falsum est ; that which the commonalty accounts 
true, is most part false, they are still opposite to wise men, 
but all the world is of this humour (vulgus), and thou thyself 
art de vulgo, one of the commonalty ; and he, and he, and so 
are all the rest ; and therefore, as Phocion concludes, to be 
approved in nought you say or do, mere idiots and asses. 
Begin then where you will, go backward or forward, choose 
out of the whole pack, wink and choose, you shall find them 
all alike, " never a barrel better herring." 

Copernicus, Atlas his successor, is of opinion, the earth is 
a planet, moves and shines to others, as the moon doth to us. 
Digges, Gilbert, Keplerus, Origanus, and others, defend this 
hypothesis of his in sober sadness, and that the moon is in 
habited ; if it be so that the earth is a moon, then are we 
also giddy, vertiginous, and lunatic within this sublunary 

I could produce such arguments till dark night ; if you 
should hear the rest, 

" Ante diem clause component vesper Olympo: " 

" Through such a train of words if I should run, 
The day would sooner than the tale be done : " 

but according to my promise, I will descend to particulars. 
This melancholy extends itself not to men only, but even to 
vegetals and sensibles. I speak not of those creatures which 
are saturnine, melancholy by nature, as lead, and such like 
minerals, or those plants, rue, cypress, &c., and hellebore 
itself, of which x Agrippa treats, fishes, birds, and beasts, 
hares, conies, dormice, &c., owls, bats, night-birds, but that 
artificial, which is perceived in them all. Remove ^rplant, it 
will pine away, which is especially perceived in date-trees, as 
you may read at large in Constantino's husbandry, that an 
tipathy betwixt the vine and the cabbage, wine and oil. Put 
a bird in a cage, he will die for sullenness, or a beast in a 

Arist. Top. lib. 1, c. 8. Rog. Bac. Fplst. In vulgo. 1 De occult. Phllosoph. L 1, 
de secret, art et nat. c. 8, non eat judicium c. 25, et 19, ejuad. 1, Lib. 10, cap. 4. 

Democritus to the Header. 107 

pen, or take his young ones or companions from him, and see 
what effect it will cause. But who perceives not these com 
mon passions of sensible creatures, fear, sorrow, &c. Of all 
other, dogs are most subject to this malady, insomuch some 
hold they dream as men do, and through violence of melan 
choly run mad ; I could relate many stories of dogs that have 
died for grief, and pined away for loss of their masters, but 
they are common in every 1 author. 

Kingdoms, provinces, and politic bodies are likewise sensi 
ble and subject to this disease, as 2 Boterus in his politics hath 
proved at large. " As in human bodies (saith he) there_be 
divers alterations proceeding from humours, so there be many 
diseases in a commonwealth, which do as diversely happen 
from several distempers," as you may easily perceive by their 
particular symptoms. For where you shall see the people 
civil, obedient to God and princes, judicious, peaceable and 
quiet, rich, fortunate, 8 and flourish, to live in peace, in unity 
and concord, a country well tilled, many fair built and popu 
lous cities, ubi incolce nitent, as old 4 Cato said, the people are 
neat, polite and terse, ubi bene, beateque vivunt, which our 
politicians make the chief end of a commonwealth ; and which 
' Aristotle Polit. lib. 3, cap. 4, calls Commune bonum, Polybius, 
lib. 6, optabilem et selectum statum, that country is free from 
melancholy ; as it was in Italy in the time of Augustus, now 
in China, now in many other flourishing kingdoms of Europe. 
But whereas you shall see many discontents, common griev 
ances, complaints, poverty, barbarism, beggary, plagues, wars, 
rebellions, seditions, mutinies, contentions, idleness, riot, epi 
curism, the land lie unfilled, waste, full of bogs, fens, deserts, 
&c., cities decayed, base and poor towns, villages depopulated, 
the people squalid, ugly, uncivil ; that kingdom, that country, 
mus; needs be discontent, melancholy, hath a sick body, and 
had need to be reformed. 

i See Lipsius epist. * De politia Ulus- * Lib. de re rust. * Vel publicam utili- 

tiium lib. 1, cap. 4, ut in humanis cor- tatem : salus publiea suprema lex esto. 

poribos variae accidunt mutationes cor- Beata civitas non ubi pauci bead, sed 

ports, animique, sic in republic-!, &c. tola civitas beata. Plato^quarto de r 

* Ubi regt-s philosophantur, Plato. publiea. 

108 Democritus to the Header. 

Now that cannot well be effected, till the causes of these 
maladies be first removed, which commonly proceed from 
their own default, or some accidental inconvenience : as to be 
situated in a bad clime, too far north, sterile, in a barren 
place, as the desert of Lybia, deserts of Arabia, places void 
of waters, as those of Lop and Belgian in Asia, or in a bad 
air, as at Alexandretta, Baniam, Pisa, Durazzo, S. John de 
UUoa, Sfc., or in danger of the sea's continual inundations, as 
in many places of the Low Countries and elsewhere, or near 
some bad neighbours, as Hungarians to Turks, Podolians to 
Tartars, or almost any bordering countries, they live in fear 
still, and by reason of hostile incursions are oftentimes left 
desolate. So are cities, by reason *of wars, fires, plagues, 
inundations, 2 wild beasts, decay of trades, barred havens, the 
sea's violence, as Antwerp may witness of late, Syracuse of 
old, Brundusium in Italy, Rye and Dover with us, and many 
that at this day suspect the sea's fury and rage, and labour 
against it as the Venetians to their inestimable charge. But 
the most frequent maladies are such as proceed from them 
selves, as first when religion and God's service is neglected, 
innovated or altered, where they do not fear God, obey their 
prince, where atheism, epicurism, sacrilege, simony, &c., and 
all such impieties are freely committed, that country cannot 
prosper. When Abraham came to Gerar, and saw a bad 
land, he said, sure the fear of God was not in that place. 
1 Cyprian Echovius, a Spanish chorographer, above all other 
cities of Spain, commends " Borcino, in which there was no 
beggar, no man poor, &c., but all rich, and in good estate, and 
he gives the reason, because they were more religious than 
their neighbours ; " why was Israel so often spoiledHby their 
enemies, led into captivity, &c., but for their idolatry, neglect 
of God's word, for sacrilege, even for one Achan's fault? 
And what shall we expect that have such multitudes of 

1 Mantua vae misone nlmlum vicina optimus quisque atqne ditisiimus. Pi 

Cremonae. * Interdum a ferls, ut olim sancteque vivdmnt, Bummaque CUM 

Mauritania, ftc. a Deliciis Hispanise veneratione et timore, divinf cultui, u> 

wino 1604. Nemo malus, nemo pauper, crisque rebus incumbehant 

Democritus to the Reader. 109 

Achans, church robbers, simoniacal patrons, &c., how can 
they hope to flourish, that neglect divine duties, that live 
most part like Epicures ? 

Other common grievances are generally noxious to a body 
politic ; alteration of laws and customs, breaking privileges, 
general oppressions, seditions, &c., observed by l Aristotle, 
Bodin, Boterus, Junius, Arniscus, &c. I will only point at 
some of the chiefest. 2 Impotentia gubernandi, ataxia, con 
fusion, ill-government, which proceeds from unskilful, slothful, 
griping, covetous, unjust, rash, or tyrannizing magistrates, 
when they are fools, idiots, children, proud, wilful, partial, 
indiscreet, oppressors, giddy heads, tyrants, not able or unfit 
to manage such offices ; 8 many noble cities and flourishing 
kingdoms by that means are desolate, the whole body groans 
under such heads, and all the members must needs be dis 
affected, as at this day those goodly provinces in Asia Minor, 
&c., groan under the burden of a Turkish government ; and 
those vast kingdoms of Muscovia, Russia, * under a tyran 
nizing duke. Who ever heard of more civil and rich popu 
lous countries than those of " Greece, Asia Minor, abounding 
with all 8 wealth, multitudes of inhabitants, force, power, 
splendour, and magnificence ? " and that miracle of countries, 
'the Holy Land, that in so small a compass of ground could 
maintain so many towns, cities, produce so many fighting 
men ? Egypt another paradise, now barbarous and desert, 
and almost waste, by the despotical government of an impe 
rious Turk, intolerabili servitvtis jugo premitur (* one saith) 
not only fire and water, goods or lands, sed ipse spiritus ab 
insolentissimi victoris pendet nutu, such is their slavery, their 
lives and souls depend upon his insolent will and command. 
A tyrant that spoils all wheresoever he comes, insomuch that 
an 8 historian complains, " if an old inhabitant should now see 

1 Polit. 1. 6, c. 8. * Boterus Polit. lib. 1, divi tiarum affluentia incolarum multi tu- 

e. 1. Cum nempe princeps rerum ger- dine splendore ac potentia. Not 

endarum imperitus, segnis, oscitans, above 200 miles in length, 60 in breadth, 

Buique mnnerte immemor. ant fatuus est. according to Adricomius. 1 Komului 

* Nou viget respublica cujus caput in- Amascus. * Sabellicus. Si qtiis incola 

flrmatur. Salisburiensis, c. 22. * See vetus, non agnoaceret, si quis peregrinug, 

Dr. Fletcher's relation, and Alexander ingemisceret. 
Qagninus : s history. & Abandons omnl 

110 Democritus to the Reader. 

them, he would not know them ; if a traveller, or stranger, it 
would grieve his heart to behold them." Whereas J Aristotle 
notes, Novae exactiones, nova onera imposita, new burdens 
and exactions daily come upon them, like those of which 
Zosimus, lib. 2, so grievous, ut viri uxores, patres filios prosti- 
tuerent ut exactoribus e questu, Sfc., they must needs be discon 
tent, hinc civitaium gemitus et ploratus, as a Tully holds ; hence 
come those complaints and tears of cities, " poor, miserable, 
rebellious, and desperate subjects," as 8 Hippolitus adds ; and 

* as a judicious countryman of ours observed not long since, 
in a survey of that great Duchy of Tuscany, the people lived 
much grieved and discontent, as appeared by their manifold 
and manifest complainings hi that kind. " That the state 
was like a sick body which had lately taken physic, whose 
humours are not yet well settled, and weakened so much by 
purging, that nothing was left but melancholy." 

Whereas the princes and potentates are immoderate in 
lust, hypocrites, epicures, of no religion, but in show ; Quid 
hypocrisi fragilius ? what so brittle and unsure? what sooner 
subverts their estates than wandering and raging lusts, on 
their subjects' wives, daughters ? to say no worse. That they 
should facem prceferre, lead the way to all virtuous actions, 
are the ringleaders often tunes of all mischief and dissolute 
courses, and by that means their countries are plagued, 
* " and they themselves often ruined, banished, or murdered 
by conspiracy of their subjects, as Sardanapalus was, Diony- 
sius, junior, Heliogabalus, Periander, Pisistratus, Tarquinius, 
Timocrates, Childericus, Appius Claudius, Andronicus, Galea- 
cius Sforsia, Alexander Medices," &c. 

Whereas the princes or great men are malicious, ^envious, 
factious, ambitious, emulators, they tear a commonwealth 
asunder, as so many Guelfs and Gibelines disturb the quiet 
ness of it, * and with mutual murders let it bleed to death ; 

1 Polit. 1. 5, c. 6. Cradelitas principum, 1696, concluslo llbri. Boterus 1. 9, 

ImpunitaRscelerum, violatio legum, pecu- o. 4. Polit. Quo fit ut aut rebus despe- 

latua pecuniae publics, etc. * Epint. ratts exulent, ant conjuratione subdito- 

* De increm. urb. cap. 20, subditi niiseri, rum crudelissime tandem trucidentur. 
rebellee, desperati, fcc. < R. Darlington. Mutuis odiifl et csedibun ezhausti, ko. 

Democritus to the Header. Ill 

our histories are too full of such barbarous inhumanities, and 
the miseries that issue from them. 

"Whereas they, be like so many horseleeches, hungry, 
griping, corrupt, l covetous, avaritice mancipia, ravenous as 
wolves, for as Tully writes : qui prceest prodest, et qui pecudi- 
bus prteest, debet eorum utilitati inservire : or such as prefer 
their private before the public good. For as 2 he said long 
since, res privates publicis semper officere. Or whereas they 
be illiterate, ignorant, empirics in policy, ubi deest facultas 
8 virtus (Aristot. pol. 5, cap. 8,) et scientia, wise only by in 
heritance, and in authority by birthright, favour, or for their 
wealth and titles ; there must needs be a fault, 4 a great de 
fect ; because, as an 5 old philosopher affirms, such men are 
not always fit " Of an infinite number, few noble are sena 
tors, and of those few, fewer good, and of that small number 
of honest, good, and noble men, few that are learned, wise, 
discreet, and sufficient, able to discharge such places, it must 
needs turn to the confusion of a state." 

For as the 6 Princes are, so are the people ; Qualis Bex, 
talis grex ; and which 7 Antigonus right well said of old, qui 
Macedonia regem erudit, omnes etiam subditos erudit, he that 
teaches the king of Macedon, teaches all his subjects, is a 
true saying still. 

" For Princes are the glass, the school, the book, 
Where subjects' eyes do learn, do read, do look." 

" Velocius et citius nos 

Corrnmpnnt vitiorum exempla domestica, magnis 
Cum subeant animos auctoribus." * 

Their examples are soonest followed, vices entertained, if 

1 Lucra ex mails, sceleratisque causia. biles, e consularibus pauci bonl, e bonig 
* Sallust. s For most part we mistake adhuc pauci eruditi. Non solum vitia 
the name of Politicians, accounting such concipiunt ipsi principes, Bed etiam te 
as read Machiavel and Tacitus, great fundunt in civitatera, plusque exemplo 
statesmen, that can dispute of politic-Hi quam peccato nocent. Cic. 1, de legibus. 
precepts, supplant and overthrow their ' Epist. ad Zen. Juven. Sat. 4. Pauper, 
adversaries, enrich themselves, get hon- tas seditionem gignit et maleficium, Arist. 
ours, dissemble ; but what is this to the Pol. 2, c. 7. * Vicious domestic exam- 
bene esse, or preservation of a Common- pies operate more quickly upon us when 
wealth? * Imperium suapte sponte suggested to our rnindfl by high author! 
eorruit. Apul. Prim. Flor. Kx innu- ties. 
merabilibus, pauci Senatores genere no- 

112 Democritus to the Reader. 

they be profane, irreligious, lascivious, riotous, epicures, fao 
tious, covetous, ambitious, illiterate, so will the commons most 
part be, idle, unthrifts, prone to lust, drunkards, and therefore 
poor and needy (17 nsvia araatv tynoiei Kal naKovpyiav, for poverty 
begets sedition and villany) upon all occasions ready to 
mutiny and rebel, discontent still, complaining, murmuring, 
grudging, apt to all outrages, thefts, treasons, murders, inno 
vations, in debt, shifters, cozeners, outlaws, Profligates farrue 
ac vita. It was an old * politician's aphorism, " They that 
are poor and bad envy rich, hate good men, abhor the pres 
ent government, wish for a new, and would have all turned 
topsy turvy." When Catiline rebelled in Rome, he got a 
company of such debauched rogues together, they were his 
familiars and coadjutors, and such have been your rebels 
most part in all ages, Jack Cade, Tom Straw, Kette, and his 

Where they be generally riotous and contentious, where 
there be many discords, many laws, many lawsuits, many 
lawyers and many physicians, it is a manifest sign of a dis 
tempered, melancholy state, as 2 Plato long since maintained ; 
for where such kind of men swarm, they will make more 
work for themselves, and that body politic diseased, which 
was otherwise sound. A general mischief in these our times, 
an insensible plague, and never so many of them ; " which 
are now multiplied (saith Mat. Geraldus, 8 a lawyer himself,) 
as so many locusts, not the parents, but the plagues of the 
country, and for the most part a supercilious, bad, covetous, 
litigious generation of men. 4 Orumenimulga natio, fyc. A 
purse-milking nation, a clamorous company, gowned vultures, 
*qui ex injuria vivent et sanguine civium, thieves and semi 
naries of discord ; worse than any pollers by the highway 
side, cmri accipitres, auri exterebronides, pecuniarum hamtolee, 

i Sallust. Semper in civitate quibus juris. Multiplicantur none in terris ut 

opes nullas sunt, bonis in vide tit, vetera locus tse non patrias parentes, sed pestes, 

odere. nova exoptant, odio suarum pessimi homines, majore ex parte super- 

rerujn mutarl omnia petunt. * De ciliosi, conteutiosi, &c., Ucitum latrocini- 

le(fibus. Profligate in repub. disciplines um exercent. * Dousa epid. loquieleia 

est indicium jurigperitorum nnmerus, et turba, vultures togati. Bare. Argen 
medicorum copia. * In prsef. stud. 

Democritus to the Reader. 113 

gitadruplatores, curice harpagones, fori tintinabula, monstra 
hominum, mangones, fyc., that take upon them to make peace, 
but are indeed the very disturbers of our peace, a company 
of irreligious harpies, scraping, griping catchpoles, (I mean 
our common hungry pettifoggers, x rabulas forenses, love and 
honour in the mean time all good laws, and worthy lawyers, 
that are so many 2 oracles arid pilots of a well-governed com 
monwealth.) Without art, without judgment, that do more 
harm, as 8 Livy said, quam bella externa, fames, morbive, than 
sickness, wars, hunger, diseases ; " and cause a most incredi 
ble destruction of a commonwealth," saith * Sesellius, a 
famous civilian sometimes in Paris, as ivy doth by an dak* 
embrace it so long, until it hath got the heart out of it, so do 
they by such places they inhabit ; no counsel at all, no 
justice, no speech to be had, nisi eum premulseris, he must 
be fed still, or else he is as mute as a fish, better open an 
oyster without a knife. Experto crede (saith 6 Salisburiensis) 
in manus eorum miUies incidi, et Charon immitis, qui nutti 
pepercit unquam, his longe clementior est ; " I speak out of 
experience, I have been a thousand times amongst them, and 
Charon himself is more gentle than they ; 8 he is contented 
with his single pay, but they multiply still, they are never 
satisfied," besides they have damnificas linguas, as he terms 
it, nisi funibus argenteis vincias, they must be fed to say 
nothing, and * get more to hold their peace than we can to 
say our best. They will speak their clients fair, and invite 
them to their tables, but as he follows it, 7 " of all injustice 
there is none so pernicious as that of theirs, which when they 
deceive most, will seem to be honest men." They take upon 
them to be peacemakers, et fovere causas humilium, to help 
them to their right, patrocinantur afflictis, 8 but all is for 
their own good, ut loculos pleniorum exhauriant, they plead 

'* Jurisconsult! domus oraculum ciri- nos loqui. 7 Totius injusHtue nulla 

tatis. Tnlly. lib. 3. 8 Lib. 3. capitalior, quim cerum qui cum maxirae 

*liib. 1, de rep. Gallorum, incred- decipiunt, id agunt, ut boni viri eesa 

ibilem reipub. perniciem afferunt. videantur. 8 Nam quocunque modo 

* Polycrat. lib. Is stipe contentus, causa procedat, hoc semper agitur, ut 

et hi nsses integros sibi mitltiplicari ju- loculi impleantur, etsi avaritta nequit 

bent. * Plus accipiunt tacere, quam satiari. 

VOL. I. 8 

114 Democritus to the Reader. 

for poor men gratis, but they are but as a stale to catch 
others. If there be no jar, 1 they can make a jar, out of the 
law itself find still some quirk or other, to set them at odds, 
and continue causes so long, lustra aliquot, I know not how 
many years before the cause is heard, and when 'tis judged 
and determined by reason of some tricks and errors, it is as 
fresh to begin, after twice seven years some times, as it was 
at first ; and so they prolong time, delay suits till they have 
enriched themselves, and beggared their clients. And, as 
2 Cato inveighed against Isocrates's scholars, we may justly 
tax our wrangling lawyers, they do consenescere in litibus, are 
so litigious and busy here on earth, that I think they will 
plead their client's causes hereafter, some of them in hell. 

* Simlerus complains amongst the Suissers of the advocates 
in his time, that when they should make an end, they began 
controversies, and "protract their causes many years, per 
suading them their title is good, till their patrimonies be con 
sumed, and that they have spent more in seeking than the 
thing is worth, or they shall get by the recovery." So that 
he that goes to law, as the proverb is, 4 holds a wolf by the 
ears, or as a sheep in a storm runs for shelter to a brier, if 
he prosecute his cause he is consumed, if he surcease his suit 
he loseth all ; 6 what difference ? They had wont hereto 
fore, saith Austin, to end matters, per communes arbitros ; 
and so in Switzerland (we are informed by 6 Simlerus), 
" they had some common arbitrators or daysmen in every 
town, that made a friendly composition betwixt man and man, 
and he much wonders at their honest simplicity, that could 
keep peace so well, and end such great causes by that means. 
At 7 Fez in Africa, they have neither lawyers nor advocates ; 

1 Camdeu in Norfolk : qui nl nihil sit * Hor. Lib. de Helvet. repnb. Judice* 

'itium 6 juris apicibus lites tamen gerere quocunque pago const-it n u nt qui amic9 

callent. -Plutarch. Tit. Cat. causa* aliqui trangactione, si fieri possit, lites tol- 

apud inferog quag in guain fldem re- hint. Ego majorum nostrorum simplici- 

oeperunt, patrocinio suo tuebuntur. tatem adiniror, qui die causas gravisgiinai 

* Lib. 2, de Helvet. repnb. non explican- compoguerint ; &c. " Clenard 1. 1, ep 
dig, Bed moliendis controversy's operam Si quse controversies utraque pars ju- 
dant. ita ut lites in multos annos extra- dicem adit, is gemel et simul rem traiist 
bantur gummi cum molestia utrisque ; git, audit : Dec quid sit appellatio, lach 
l>.-i rt is et d inn interea patrimonia exhauri- rymoseeqne morse noscunt. 

antur * Lupum auribus tenent 

Democritus to the Header. 115 

but if there be any controversies amongst them, both parties 
plaintiff and defendant come to their Alfakins or chief judge, 
" and at once, without any farther appeals or pitiful delays, 
the cause is heard and ended." Our forefathers, as l a worthy 
chorographer of ours observes, had wont paucvlis cruculis 
aureis, with a few golden crosses, and lines in verse, make all 
conveyances, assurances. And such was the candour and 
integrity of succeeding ages, that a deed (as I have often 
eeen) to convey a whole manor, was implicite contained in 
gome twenty lines or thereabouts ; like that scede or Sytala 
Laconica, so much renowned of old in all contracts, which 
2 Tully so earnestly commends to Atticus, Plutarch in fiis 
Lysander, Aristotle polit. : Thucydides, lib. 1. 8 Diodorus 
and Suidas approve and magnify, for that laconic brevity in 
this kind ; and well they might, for, according to 4 Tertullian, 
certa sunt paucis, there is much more certainty in fewer 
words. And so was it of old throughout ; but now many 
skins of parchment will scarce serve turn ; he that buys and 
sells a house, must have a house full of writings, there be so 
many circumstances, so many words, such tautological repeti 
tions of all particulars, (to avoid cavillation they say ;) but 
we find by our woful experience, that to subtle wits it is a 
cause of much more contention and variance, and scarce any 
conveyance so accurately penned by one, which another will 
not find a crack in, or cavil at ; if any one word be mis 
placed, any little error, all is disannulled. That which is a 
law to-day, is none to-morrow ; that which is sound in one 
man's opinion, is most faulty to another ; that in conclusion, 
here is nothing amongst us but contention and confusion, we 
bandy one against another. And that which long since 
5 Plutarch complained of them in Asia, may be verified in 
our times. " These men here assembled, come not to* sacri 
fice to their gods, to offer Jupiter their first-fruits, or merri- 

1 Camden. " Lib. 10, epist. ad At- JOT! primitias offerant, aut Baccho com- 

tieum, epist. 11. 3 Biblioth. 1. 3. messationes, sed anniversarius morbut 

* Lib. de Anim. 5 Lib. major morb. exasperans Asiam hue ecs coegit, ut coo 

corp. an animl. Hi non conveniunt ut tentiones hie peragant 
diis more majorum sacra faciant, non ut 

116 Democritus to the Reader, 

meats to Bacchus ; but an yearly disease, exasperating Asia, 
hath brought them hither, to make an end of their contro 
versies and lawsuits." 'Tis multitude perdentium et pereun- 
tium, a destructive rout that seek one another's ruin. Such 
most part are our ordinary suitors, termers, clients, new stirs 
every day, mistakes, errors, cavils, and at this present, as I 
have heard in some one court, I know not how many thou 
sand causes ; no person free, no title almost good, with such 
bitterness hi following, so many slights, procrastinations, 
delays, forgery, such cost (for infinite sums are inconsider 
ately spent), violence and malice, I know not by whose fault, 
lawyers, clients, laws, both or all ; but as Paul reprehended 
the * Corinthians long since, I may more positively infer now : 
" There is a fault amongst you, and I speak it to your shame, 
Is there not a 2 wise man amongst you, to judge between his 
brethren ? but that a brother goes to law with a brother." 
And * Christ's counsel concerning lawsuits, was never so fit 
to be inculcated as in this age : 8 " Agree with thine adver 
sary quickly," &c. Matth. v. 25. 

I could repeat many such particular grievances, which 
must disturb a body politic. To shut up all in brief, where 
good government is, prudent and wise princes, there all 
things thrive and prosper, peace and happiness is hi that 
land ; where it is otherwise, all things are ugly to behold, 
incult, barbarous, uncivil, a paradise is turned to a wilder 
ness. This island amongst the rest, our next neighbours 
the French and Germans, may be a sufficient witness, that 
in a short time by that prudent policy of the Romans, was 
brought from barbarism ; see but what Caesar reports of us, 
and Tacitus of those old Germans, they were once as uncivil 
as they in Virginia, yet by planting of colonies and good laws, 
they became from barbarous outlaws, 4 to be full of rich and 

1 1 Cor. Ti. 5, 6. * Stulti quanclo mons. * Saepins bona materia cesaat 

lemum sapietis? Ps. xlix. 8. * So sine artifice. Sabellicus de Germania. 

Intituled, and preached by our Re- Si qnis videret Gennaniam urbibus hodi 

p:us Professor, D. Prideaux; printed excultam, non diceret ut olim tristem 

at London by Foellx Kingston, 1621. cultu, asperam coelo, terrain informem 
> Of which Text read two learned Ser- 

Democritus to the Reader. 117 

populous cities, as now they are, and most flourishing king 
doms. Even so might Virginia, and those wild Irish have 
been civilized long since, if that order had been heretofore 
taken, which now begins, of planting colonies, &c. I have 
read a l discourse, printed anno 1612. "Discovering the 
true causes why Ireland was never entirely subdued, or 
brought under obedience to the crown of England, until the 
beginning of his Majesty's happy reign." Yet If his reasons 
were thoroughly scanned by a judicious politician, I am afraid 
he would not altogether be approved, but that it would turn 
to the dishonour of our nation, to suffer it to lie so long waste. 
Yea, and if some travellers should see (to come nearer homey 
those rich, united provinces of Holland, Zealand, &c., over 
against us- ; those neat cities and populous towns, full of most 
industrious artificers, 2 so much land recovered from the sea, 
and so painfully preserved by those artificial inventions, so 
wonderfully approved, as that of Bemster in Holland, ttt nihil 
huic par out simile invenias in toto orbe, saith Bertius the 
geographer, all the world cannot match it, 8 so many navi 
gable channels from place to place, made by men's hands, 
&c., and on the other side so many thousand acres of our fens 
lie drowned, our cities thin, and those vile, poor, and ugly to 
behold in respect of theirs, our trades decayed, our still run 
ning rivers stopped, and that beneficial use of transportation, 
wholly neglected, so many havens void of ships and towns, 
BO many parks and forests for pleasure, barren heaths, so 
many villages depopulated, &c., I think sure he would find 
some fault. 

I may not deny but that this nation of ours, doth bene 
audire apud exteros, is a most noble, a most flourishing king 
dom, by common consent of all 4 geographers, historians, 
politicians, 'tis unica velut arx,* and which Quintius in Livy 
said of the inhabitants of Peloponnesus, may be well applied 
to us, we are testudines testa sua inclusi, b'ke so many tor- 

1 By his Majesty's Attorney -General Bruges to the sea, &o. * Orteliua, 
there. 3 As Zeipland, Bemster in Hoi- Boterus, Mercator, Meteranus, fee 
land, &c. * From Gaunt to Sluce, from * " The citadel par excellence." 

118 Demowitus to the Reader. 

toises in our shells, safely defended by an angry sea, as a wall 
on all sides. Our island hath many such honourable eulogi- 
uras ; and as a learned countryman of ours right well hath it, 
lu Ever since the Normans first coming into England, this 
country both for military matters, and all other of civility, 
hath been paralleled with the most flourishing kingdoms of 
Europe and our Christian world," a blessed, a rich country, 
and one of the fortunate isles ; and for some things a preferred 
before other countries, for expert seamen, our laborious dis 
coveries, art of navigation, true merchants, they carry the 
bell away from all other nations, even the Portugals and 
Hollanders themselves ; 8 " without all fear," saith Boterus, 
" furrowing the ocean winter and summer, and two of then* 
captains, with no less valour than fortune, have sailed round 
about the world." * We have besides many particular bless 
ings, which our neighbours want, the Gospel truly preached, 
church discipline established, long peace and quietness free 
from exactions, foreign fears, invasions, domestical seditions, 
well manured, 6 fortified by art, and nature, and now most 
happy in that fortunate union of England and Scotland, 
which our forefathers have laboured to effect, and desired 
to see. But in which we excel all others, a wise, learned, 
religious king, another Numa, a second Augustus, a true 
Josiah ; most worthy senators, a learned clergy, an obedient 
commonalty, &c. Yet amongst many roses, some thistles 
grow, some bad weeds and enormities, which much disturb 
the peace of this body politic, eclipse the honour and glory 
of it, fit to be rooted out, and with all speed to be reformed. 

The first is idleness, by reason of which we have many 
swarms of rogues, and beggars, thieves, drunkards, and dis 
contented persons (whom Lycurgus in Plutarch calls morbo* 
reipiiMicfe, the boils of the commonwealth), many poor people 
in all our towns. Oivitates ignobiles as * Polydore calls them, 

I Jam fade non minus belli gloria, duo illorum daces non minore audacid 

quira humanitatls cultu Inter florentis- quim fortun-i totius orbem terrse clr- 

gimas orbls Christian! gentcs imprimis cumnavigarunt. Amphitheatre Boterus. 

floruit. Camden Brit, de Normannis. A fertile soil, good air, &c. Tin, Lead. 

Oeog. Keeker. * Tarn hieme quim Wool, Saffron, Sc. * Tota Britannia 

state Intrepid* aulcant Oceanum. et unlca velut arx. Boter. Lib. 1, hilt 

Democritus to the Reader. 119 

base-built cities, inglorious, poor, small, rare in sight, ruinous, 
and thin of inhabitants. Our land is fertile we may not deny, 
full of all good things, and why doth it not then abound with 
cities, as well as Italy, France, Germany, the Low Countries ? 
because their policy hath been otherwise, and we are not so 
thrifty, circumspect, industrious. Idleness is the mains genius 
of our nation. For as * Boterus justly argues, fertility of a 
country is not enough, except art and industry be joined unto 
it; according to Aristotle, riches are either natural or arti 
ficial ; natural, are good land, fair mines, &c., artificial, are 
manufactures, coins, &c. Many kingdoms are fertile, but 
thin of inhabitants, as that Duchy of Piedmont in Italy^ 
which Leander Albertus so much magnifies for corn, wine, 
fruits, &c., yet nothing near so populous as those which are 
more barren. 2 " England," saith he, " London only ex- 
cepted, hath never a populous city, and yet a fruitful coun 
try." I find 46 cities and walled towns in Alsatia, a small 
province in Germany, 50 castles, an infinite number of vil 
lages, no ground idle ; no, not rocky places, or tops of hills 
are untilled, as 8 Munster informeth us. In *Greichgea, a 
small territory on the Necker, 24 Italian miles over, I read 
of 20 walled towns, innumerable villages, each one containing 
150 houses most part, besides castles and noblemen's palaces. 
I observe in 8 Turinge, in Dutchland (twelve miles over by 
their scale), 12 counties, and in them 144 cities, 2,006 vil 
lages, 144 towns, 250 castles. In 'Bavaria, 34 cities, 46 
towns, &c. 7 PortugaUia interamms, a small plot of ground, 
hath 1,460 parishes, 130 monasteries, 200 bridges. Malta, 
a barren island, yields 20,000 inhabitants. But of all the 
rest, I admire Lues Guicciardine's relations of the Low 
Countries. Holland hath 26 cities, 400 great villages. Zea 
land, 10 cities, 102 parishes. Brabant, 26 cities, 102 parishes. 
Flanders, 28 cities, 90 towns, 1,154 villages, besides abbeys, 

1 Increment, orb. 1. 1, e. 9. * An- menu, nnllns locuj otiosus ant incnltus. 

glue, excepto Londlno, nulla est ciritas * Chytreus orat. edit. Francof. 1588. 

memorabilia, licet ea natio rerum om- 6 Maginns Geog. Ortelius e Vaseo et 

niuni copia abundet. Cosmog. Pet. de Medina. : An hundred :ami 

Lib. 8, cop. 119. Villaram non est nu- lies in each. 

120 Democritus to the Reader. 

castles, &c. The Low Countries generally have three cities 
at least for one of ours, and those far more populous and 
rich ; and what is the cause, but their industry and excel 
lency in all manner of trades ? Their commerce, which is 
maintained by a multitude of tradesmen, so many excellent 
channels made by art and opportune havens, to which they 
build their cities ; all which we have in like measure, or at 
least may have. But their chiefest loadstone which draws all 
manner of commerce and merchandise, which maintains their 
present estate, is not fertility of soil, but industry that en- 
richeth them ; the gold mines of Peru, or Nova Hispania may 
not compare with them. They have neither gold nor silver 
of their own, wine nor oil, or scarce any corn growing in 
those united provinces ; little or no wood, tin, lead, iron, silk, 
wool, any stuff almost, or metal ; and yet Hungary, Transyl 
vania, that brag of their mines, fertile England, cannot com 
pare with them. I dare boldly say, that neither France, 
Tarentum, Apulia, Lombardy, or any part of Italy, Valence 
in Spain, or that pleasant Andalusia, with their excellent 
fruits, wine and oil, two harvests, no not any part of Europe 
is so flourishing, so rich, so populous, so full of good ships, of 
well-built cities, so abounding with all things necessary for 
the use of man. 'Tis our Indies, an epitome of China, and 
all by reason of their industry, good policy, and commerce. 
Industry is a loadstone to draw all good things ; that alone 
makes countries flourish, cities populous, 1 and will enforce 
by reason of much manure, which necessarily follows, a bar 
ren soil to be fertile and good, as sheep, saith a Dion, mend a 
bad pasture. 

Tell me, politicians, why is that fruitful Palestina, noble 
Greece, Egypt, Asia Minor, so much decayed, and (mere 
carcasses now) fallen from that they were ? The ground is 
the same, but the government is altered ; the people are 
grown slothful, idle; their good husbandry, policy, and in- 

1 Popull multitude diligente culturft * Orat. 86. Terra ubi ovee stabulanttu 
focundat solum Boter. 1. 8. e. 8 optima agricolis ob stercus. 

Democritus to the Reader. 121 

dustry is decayed. Non fatigata aut ejfceta humus, as l Colu- 
mella well informs Sylvinus, sed nostrd Jit inertia, tyc. May 
a man believe that which Aristotle in his politics, Pausanias, 
Stephanus, Sophianus, Gerbelius relate of old Greece ? I find 
heretofore seventy cities in Epirus overthrown by Paulus 
^Emilius, a goodly province in times past, 2 now left desolate 
of good towns and almost inhabitants. Sixty-two cities in 
Macedonia in Strabo's time. I find thirty in Laconia, but now 
scarce so many villages, saith Gerbelius. If any man from 
Mount Taygetus should view the country round about, and see 
tot delicias, tot urbes per Peloponnesum dispersas, so many deli 
cate and brave built cities with such cost and exquisite ctm^ 
ning, so neatly set out in Peloponnesus, 8 he should perceive 
them now ruinous and overthrown, burnt, waste, desolate, 
and laid level with the ground. Incredibik dictu, fyc. And 
as he laments, Quis talia fando Temperet a lachrymis ? Quis 
tarn durus aut ferreus ? (so he prosecutes it)* Who is he 
that can sufficiently condole and commiserate these ruins ? 
Where are those 4,000 cities of Egypt, those 100 cities in 
Crete ? Are they now come to two ? What saith Pliny 
and .(Elian of old Italy? There were in former ages 1,166 
cities ; Blondus and Machiavel, both grant them now nothing 
near so populous, and full of good towns as in the time of 
Augustus (for now Leander Albertus can find but 300 s at 
most), and if we may give credit to 4 Livy, not then so strong 
and puissant as of old : They mustered seventy Legions in for 
mer times, which now the known world will scarce yield. Al 
exander built seventy cities in a short space for his part, our 
Sultans and Turks demolish twice as many, and leave all 
desolate. Many will not believe but that our island of Great 
Britain is now more populous than ever it was ; yet let them 

1 De re rust. 1. 2, cap. 1. The soil 

i* not thed or exhausted, but has * Not eren the hardest of our foes could 
become barren through our sloth. hear, 

* Hodie urbibus desolatur, et magna ex Nor stern Ulysses tell without a tear, 
parte incolis destituitur. Gerbelius desc. 

Grsecise, lib. 6. 3 Videbit eas fere om- * Lib. 7. Septuaginta olim legionet 
nes aut eversas, ant solo sequatag, aut in script* dicuntur; quas vires hodie , fce 
rudera foedissime dejecta*. Gerbelius 

122 Democritus to the Reader 

read Bode, Leland, and others, they shall find it most ^our 
ished in the Saxon Heptarchy, and in the Conqueror's time 
was far better inhabited than at this present. See that 
Domesday-Book, and show me those thousands of parishes, 
which are now decayed, cities ruined, villages depopulated, 
&c. The lesser the territory is, commonly, the richer it is. 
Parvus sed bene cultus ager. As those Athenian, Lacede 
monian, Arcadian, Aelian, Sycionian, Messenian, &c., com 
monwealths of Greece make ample proof, as those imperial 
cities and free states of Germany may witness, those Cantons 
of Switzers, Rheti, Grison?, Walloons, Territories of Tuscany, 
Luke and Senes of old, Piedmont, Mantua, Venice in Italy, 
Ragusa, &c. 

That prince, therefore, as * Boterus adviseth, that will have 
a rich country, and fair cities, let him get good trades, privi 
leges, painful inhabitants, artificers, and suffer no rude matter 
unwrought, as tin, iron, wool, lead, &c., to be transported out 
of his country, 2 a thing in part seriously attempted amongst 
us, but not effected. And because industry of men, and mul 
titude of trade so much avails to the ornament and enriching 
of a kingdom ; those ancient * Massilians would admit no man 
into their city that had not some trade. Selym, the first 
Turkish emperor, procured a thousand good artificers to be 
brought from Taurus to Constantinople. The Polanders in 
dented with Henry, Duke of Anjou, their new-chosen king, 
to bring with him an hundred families of artificers into Po 
land. James the First, in Scotland, (as 4 Buchanan writes,) 
sent for the best artificers he could get in Europe, and gave 
them great rewards to teach his subjects their several trades. 
Edward the Third, our most renowned king, to his eternal 
memory, brought clothing first into this island, transporting 
some families of artificers from Gaunt hither. How many 
goodly cities could I reckon up, that thrive wholly by trade, 
where thousands of inhabitants live singular well by their 

i Polit. 1. 8, c. 8. * For dyeing of propositis pnemiis, nt Scot! ab iis edoc 

sloths, and dressing, &c. * Valer. 1. 2, rentur. 
i. 1 Hist. Scot Lib. 10 Magnia 

Democritus to the Reader. 123 

fingers' ends ! As Florence in Italy by making cloth of gold ; 
great Milan by silk, and all curious works ; Arras in Artois 
by those fair hangings ; many cities in Spain, many in 
France, Germany, have none other maintenance, especially 
those -within the land. l Mecca in Arabia Petraea, stands in 
a most unfruitful country, that wants water, amongst the 
rocks (as Vertomanus describes it), and yet it is a most ele 
gant and pleasant city, by reason of the traffic of the east 
and west. Ormus in Persia is a most famous mart-town, 
hath nought else but the opportunity of the haven to make it 
flourish. Corinth, a noble city, (Lumen Groeciae, Tully calls 
it,) the Eye of Greece, by reason of Cenchreas and Lecheaa, 
those excellent ports, drew all that traffic of the Ionian and 
JEgean seas to it ; and yet the country about it was curva et 
superciliosa, as 2 Strabo terms it, rugged and harsh. We may 
say the same of Athens, Actium, Thebes, Sparta, and most 
of those towns in Greece. Nuremberg in Germany is sited 
in a most barren soil, yet a noble, imperial city, by the sole 
industry of artificers, and cunning trades, they draw the riches 
of most countries to them, so expert in manufactures, that as 
Sallust long since gave out of the like, Sedem animce in ex 
tremis digitis habent, their soul, or inteUectus agens, was placed 
in their fingers' end; and so we may say of Basil, Spire, 
Cambray, Frankfort, &c. It is almost incredible to speak 
what some write of Mexico and the cities adjoining to it, no 
place in the world at their first discovery more populous, 
8 Mat. Riccius, the Jesuit, and some others, relate of the in 
dustry of the Chinese most populous countries, not a beggar 
or an idle person to be seen, and how by that means they 
prosper and flourish. We have the same means, able bodies, 
pliant wits, matter of all sorts, wool, flax, iron, tin, lead, wood, 
&c., many excellent subjects to work upon, only industry is 
wanting. We send our best commodities beyond the seas, 

1 Munst. cosm 1. 5, e. 74. Agra Occidental. * Lib. 8, Geogr. ob asp*- 

omnium rernm nfcecundissimo, aqua rum situm. * Lib. Edit. & Nic. Tregant 

indigent*, inter saxeta, urbs tamen ele- Belg. A 1616, expedit. in Sinas. 
gantUgima, ob Orientis negotiations et 

124 Democritus to the Reader. 

which they make good use of to their necessities, set them- 
selves a work about, and severally improve, sending the same 
to us back at dear rates, or else make toya and baubles of the 
tails of them, which they sell to us again, at as great a reck 
oning as the whole. In most of our cities, some few ex 
cepted, like l Spanish loiterers, we live wholly by tippling- 
inns and alehouses. Malting are their best ploughs, their 
greatest traffic to sell ale. 2 Meteran and some others object 
to us, that we are no whit so industrious as the Hollanders : 
u Manual trades (saith he) which are more curious or trouble 
some, are wholly exercised by strangers ; they dwell in a sea 
full of fish, but they are so idle, they will not catch so much 
as shall serve their own turns, but buy it of their neighbours." 
Tush 8 Mare liberum, they fish under our noses, and sell it to 
us when they have done, at their own prices. 

" Pudet hsec opprobria nobis 
Et dici potttisse, et non potuisse refelli." 

I am ashamed to hear this objected by strangers, and know 
not how to answer it. 

Amongst our towns, there is only 4 London that bears the 
face of a city, 5 Epitome Britannia, a famous emporium, sec 
ond to none beyond seas, a noble mart ; but sola crescit, de- 
crescentibus aliis ; and yet in my slender judgment, defective 
in many things. The rest (' some few excepted) are in 
mean estate, ruinous most part, poor, and full of beggars, by 
reason of their decayed trades, neglected or bad policy, idle 
ness of their inhabitants, riot, which had rather beg or loiter 
and be ready to starve, than work. 

I cannot deny but that something may be said in defence 
of our cities, 7 that they are not so fair built, (for the sole 

1 TJbl nobiles probl loco habent artem all- turn non piscantur quantum inaulee suf 

quam proflteri. Cleonard.ep. 1. 1. *Lib. fecerlt, Bed a vicinls emere cognntur 

18, Belg. Hist, non tarn laboring! ut Belgae, * Grotii Liber. * Urbs animis numero- 

sril ut Hiapani otiatores vitam ut pluri- que potens, et robore gentis Scaliger. 

mum otiosam agentes; artes manuariae 6 Camden. * York. Bristol, Norwich, 

oue plurlmum habent in se laboris et dif- Worcester, &c. * M. Oainsford's Argu- 

ficultatta, mnjoretnque requlrunt Indus- ment: Because gentlemen dwell with us 

triam, a pcroprinis et exteris exercentur; in the country villages our cities are less, 

habitant In plscosisgimo marl, Interea tan U nothing to the purpose; put thret 

Democritus to the Reader. 123 

magnificence of this kingdom, concerning buildings, hath been 
of old hi those Norman castles and religious houses,) so rich, 
thick sited, populous, as in some other countries ; besides the 
reasons Cardan gives, Subtil. Lib. 11, we want wine and oil, 
their two harvests ; we dwell in a colder air, and for that 
cause must a little more liberally l feed of flesh, as all north 
ern countries do : our provisions will not therefore extend to 
the maintenance of so manyj yet notwithstanding we have 
matter of all sorts, an open sea for traffic, as well as the rest, 
goodly havens. And how can we excuse our negligence, our 
riot, drunkenness, &c., and such enormities that follow it? 
We have excellent laws enacted, you will say, severe stat 
utes, houses of correction, &c., to small purpose it seems ; it\ 
is not houses will serve, but cities of correction ; 2 our trades 
generally ought to be reformed, wants supplied. In other 
countries they have the same grievances, I confess, but that 
doth not excuse us, * wants, defects, enormities, idle drones, 
tumults, discords, contention, lawsuits, many laws made 
against them to repress those innumerable brawls and law 
suits, excess in apparel, diet, decay of tillage, depopulations, 
* especially against rogues, beggars, Egyptian vagabonds (so 
termed at least) which have 4 swarmed all over Germany, 
France, Italy, Poland, as you may read in 8 Munster, Cran- 
zius, and Aventinus ; as those Tartars and Arabians at this 
day do in the eastern countries ; yet such has been the iniquity 
of all ages, as it seems to small purpose. Nemo in nostrd 
civitate mendicus estorf saith Plato ; he will have them 
purged from a * commonwealth, 7 " as a bad humour from the 

hundred or four hundred villages in a frustra exereent justitiam. Mor. TJtop. 

shire, and every village yield a gentle- Lib 1. * Maucipiis locuples egc.t serls 

man, what is four hundred families to Cappadocum rex. Hor. * Regis digni- 

ricrease one of our cities, or to contend tatis non est exercere imperium in men- 

with theirs, which stand thicker ? And dicos sed in opulentos. Non est regni 

whereas ours usually consist of seven decus, sed carceris esse custos. Idem, 

thousand, theirs consist of forty thou- * Colluvies hominum mirabiles excocti 

sand inhabitants. l Maxima pars victfts solo, immundi vestes fcedi visu, furti im 

in carne consistit. Polyd. Lib. 1, Hist, primis acres, &c. 6 Cosmog. lib. 3, 

SRefnenate monopolii licentiam, pau- cap. 5. t " Let no one in our city b 

ciores alantur otio, redintegretur agrico- a beggar." Seneca. Haud minus 

latio, laniflcium instauretur, ut sit ho- turpia principi multa supplicia, quim 

nestuin negotium quo se exerceat otiosa medico multa funera. 7 Ac pituitam et 

ilia turba. Nisi his mali.J medentur, bilem a corpore (11 de lejgt.; omnes vuU 

126 Democritus to the Reader. 

body," that are like so many ulcers and boils, and must be 
cured before the melancholy body can be eased. 

What Carolus Magnus, the Chinese, the Spaniards, th" 
Duke of Saxony, and many other states have decreed in 
this case, read Arniseus, cap. 1 9 ; Boterus, libro 8, cap. 2 ; 
Osoriiis de Rebus gest. Eman. lib. 11. When a country is 
overstocked with people, as a pasture is oft overlaid with 
cattle, they had wont in former times to disburden them 
selves, by sending out colonies, or by wars, as those old 
Romans ; or by employing them at home about some public 
buildings, as bridges, road-ways, for which those Romans 
were famous in this island ; as Augustus Caesar did in Rome, 
the Spaniards in their Indian mines, as at Potosi in Peru, 
where some 30,000 men are still at work, 6,000 furnaces 
ever boiling, &c., * aqueducts, bridges, havens, those stupend 
works of Trajan, Claudius, at 2 Ostium, Dioclesiani Therma, 
Fucinus Lacus, that Piraeum in Athens, made by Themisto- 
cles, amphitheatrums of curious marble, as at Verona, Civitas 
Philippi, and Heraclea in Thrace, those Appian and Fla- 
minian ways, prodigious works all may witness ; and rather 
than they should be *idle, as those * Egyptian Pharaohs, 
Maris, and Sesostris did, to task their subjects to build un 
necessary pyramids, obelisks, labyrinths, channels, lakes, gi 
gantic works all, to divert them from rebellion, riot, drunken 
ness, 6 Quo scilicet alantur, et ne vagando laborare desuescant. 

Another eyesore is that want of conduct and navigable 
rivers, a great blemish as * Boterus, * Hippolitus a Collibus, 
and other politicians hold, if it be neglected in a common 
wealth. Admirable cost and charge is bestowed in the 
Low Countries on this behalf, in the duchy of Milan, territory 
of Padua, in 8 France, Italy, China, and so likewise about cor- 

xtenntuarl. 1 See Lipsius Admiranda. dlscursu polit. cap. 2, " whereby they are 

* De quo Suet, in Olaudio, et I'linius, supported, and do not become vagrants 
e. 86. 8 Ut egeatati siniul et ignaviae by being less accustomed to labour." 
occurratur, opiflcia condiscantur, tenues Lib. 1, de increm. Urb. cap. 6. 7 Cap. 
Bubleventur. Bodin. 1. 6, c. 2, num.6, 7. 6, de increm. urb. Quas flumen, lacul 

* Amasis JEgyptl rex Icgem promulgavit, aut mare alluit. 8 Incredibilem ooui- 
ut omnes subditi quotannis rationem moditatem, vivturl mercium tres fluYil 
taddereiit uude viverent. '> JJuacoldus naviga biles, &c. Boterus de OallUu 

Democritus to the Reader. 127 

rivations of water to moisten and refresh barren grounds, to 
drain fens, bogs, and moors. Massinissa made many inward 
parts of Barbary and Numidia in Africa, before his time in- 
cult and horrid, fruitful and bartable by this means. Great 
industry is generally used all over the eastern countries in 
this kind, especially in Egypt, about Babylon and Damascus, 
as Vertomannus and l Gotardus Arthus relate ; about Barce 
lona, Segovia, Murcia, and, many other places of Spain, 
Milan in Italy ; by reason of which their soil is much im 
poverished, and infinite commodities arise to the inhabitants. 

The Turks of late attempted to cut that Isthmus be 
twixt Africa and Asia, which 2 Sesostris and Darius, and 
some Pharaohs of Egypt had formerly undertaken, but withV 
ill success, as 8 Diodorus Siculus records, and Pliny, for that 
Red Sea being three 4 cubits higher than Egypt, would have 
drowned all the country, coepto destiterant, they left off; yet 
as the same 6 Diodorus writes, Ptolemy renewed the work 
many years after, and absolved it in a more opportune 

That Isthmus of Corinth was likewise undertaken to be 
made navigable by Demetrius, by Julius Caesar, Nero, Domi- 
tian, Herodes Atticus, to make a speedy 'passage, and less 
dangerous, from the Ionian and ^Egean seas ; but because it 
could not be so well affected, the Peloponnesians built a wall 
like our Picts's wall about Schaenute, where Neptune's tem 
ple stood, and in the shortest cut over the Isthmus, of which 
Diodorus, lib. 11, Herodotus, lib. 8, Vran. Our latter 
writers call it Hexamilium, which Amurath the Turk de 
molished, the Venetians, anno 1453, repaired in 15 days with 
30,000 men. Some, saith Acosta, would have a passage cut 
from Panama to Nombre de Dios in America ; but Thuanus 
and Serres the French historians speak of a famous aqueduct 

1 Herodotus. * Ind. Orient, cap. 2. Archimedes, who holds the superficies 

Rotam in medio flnmine constituunt, cui of all waters even. 8 Lib. 1, cap. & 

ex prfllbus .inimalium consutos uteres Dion. Pausanias, et Nic. Gerbelius 

appendunt, hi dum rota movetur. aquam Minister. Cosm. Lib. 4, cap. 36. Ut bre- 

per canales, &c. * Centum pedes lata vior foret navigatio et minus periculos*. 
fossa, 80 alta. * Contrary to that of 

128 Democritus to the Header. 

in France, intended in Henry the Fourth's time, from the 
Loire to the Seine, and from Rhodanus to the Loire. The 
like to which was formerly assayed by Domitian the em 
peror, 1 from Arar to Moselle, which Cornelius Tacitus 
speaks of in the 13th of his Annals, after by Charles the 
Great and others. Much cost hath in former times been be 
stowed in either new making or mending channels of rivers, 
and their passages, (as Aurelianus did by Tiber to make it 
navigable to Rome, to convey corn from Egypt to the city, 
vadum alvei tumentis ejffbdit saith Vopiscus, et Tiberis ripen 
extruxit, he cut fords, made banks, &c.,) decayed havens, 
which Claudius the emperor, with infinite pains and charges, 
attempted at Ostia, as I have said, the Venetians at this day 
to preserve their city ; many excellent means to enrich their 
territories, have been fostered, invented in most provinces of 
Europe, as planting some Indian plants amongst us, silk 
worms, 2 the very mulberry leaves in the plains of Granada 
yield 30,000 crowns per annum to the king of Spain's coffers, 
besides those many trades and artificers that are busied about 
them in the kingdom of Granada, Murcia, and all over 
Spain. In France a great benefit is raised by salt, &c., 
whether these things might not be as happily attempted with 
us, and with like success, it may be controverted, silk-worms 
(I mean,) vines, fir-trees, &c. Cardan exhorts Edward the 
Sixth to plant olives, and is fully persuaded they would pros 
per in this island. With us, navigable rivers are most part 
neglected ; our streams are not great, I confess, by reason of 
the narrowness of the island, yet they run smoothly and even, 
not headlong, swift, or amongst rocks and shelves, as foam 
ing Rhodanus and Loire in France, Tigris in Mesopotamia 
violent Durius in Spain, with cataracts and whirlpools, as the 
Rhine, and Danubius, about Shaffausen, Lausenburgh, Linz, 
and Cremmes, to endanger navigators ; or broad shallow, as 

i Charles the Great went about to make Rednich to Altimul. Ut narlgabllia inter 

n channel from the Rhine to the Danube, de Occidentis et Septentrionis littora 

Bil Pirkimerus descript. Ger. the ruins flerent. * Maf#nu8 Geosfr. Simlerni 

ire vet *)en about Wessenburg fmn de rep. Ilelvet. lib. 1, describit 

Democrltus to the Reader. 129 

Neckar m the Palatinate, Tibris in Italy ; but calm and fair 
as Arar in France, Hebrus in Macedonia, Eurotas in Lacc- 
nia, they gently glide along, and might as well be repaired 
many of them (I mean Wye, Trent, Ouse, Thamisis at 
Oxford, the defect of which we feel hi the mean time) as the 
River of Lee from Ware to London. B. Atwater of old, or 
as some will Henry L, 1 made a channel from Trent to Lin 
coln, navigable ; which now, saith Mr. Camden, is decayed, 
and much mention is made of anchors, and such like monu 
ments found about old *Verulamium, good ships have for 
merly come to Exeter, and many such places, whose chan 
nels, havens, ports, are now barred and rejected. We con 
temn this benefit of carriage by waters, and are therefore 
compelled in the inner parts of this island, because portage is 
so dear, to eat up our commodities ourselves, and live like so 
many boars in a sty, for want of vent and utterance. 

We have many excellent havens, royal havens, Falmouth, 
Portsmouth, Milford, &c., equivalent if not to be preferred 
to that Indian Havanna, old Brundusium in Italy, Aulis in 
Greece, Ambracia in Acarnia, Suda in Crete, which have 
few ships in them, little or no traffic or trade, which have 
scarce a village on them, able to bear great cities, sed viderint 
politid. I could here justly tax many other neglects, abuses, 
errors, defects among us, and in other countries, depopula 
tions, riot, drunkenness, &c., and many such, qiue nunc in 
aurem susurrare non libet. But I must take heed, ne quid 
gravius dicam, that I do not overshoot myself, Sus Minervam, 
I am forth of my element, as you peradventure suppose ; and 
sometimes veritas odium parit, as he said, " verjuice and oat 
meal is good for a parrot." For as Lucian said of an histo 
rian, I say of a politician. He that will freely speak and 
write, must be forever no subject, under no prince or law, but 
lay out the matter truly as it is, not caring what any can, 
will, like or dislike. 

1 Camden in Lincolnshire. Fossedike. * Near 3. Albans, " which must nol 

now be whispered in the ear." 

VOL. L 9 

130 Democritus to the Reader. 

We have good laws, I deny not, to rectify such enormities, 
and so in all other countries, but it seems not always to good 
purpose. We had need of some general visitor in our age, 
that should reform what is amiss ; a just army of Rosie-crosse 
men, for they will amend all matters (they say), religion, pol 
icy, manners, with arts, sciences, &c. Another Attila, Tam 
erlane, Hercules, to strive with Achelous, Augece stabulum 
purgare, to subdue tyrants, as * he did Diomedes and Busiris ; 
to expel thieves, as he did Cacus and Lacinius ; to vindicate 
poor captives, as he did Hesione ; to pass the torrid zone, the 
deserts of Lybia, and purge the world of monsters and 
Centaurs ; or another Theban Crates to reform our manners, 
to compose quarrels and controversies, as in his time he did, 
and was therefore adored for a god in Athens. " As Her 
cules 9 purged the world of monsters, and subdued them, so 
did he fight against envy, lust, anger, avarice, &c., and all 
those feral vices and monsters of the mind." It were to be 
wished we had some such visitor, or if wishing would serve, 
one had such a ring or rings, as Timolaus desired in * Lucian 
by virtue of which he should be as strong as 10,000 men, or 
an army of giants, go invisible, open gates and castle doors, 
have what treasure he would, transport himself in an instant 
to what place he desired, alter affections, cure all manner of 
diseases, that he might range over the world, and reform all 
distressed states and persons, as he would himself. He might 
reduce those wandering Tartars in order, that infest China 
on the one side, Muscovy, Poland, on the other ; and tame 
the vagabond Arabians that rob and spoil those eastern coun 
tries, that they should never use more caravans, or janizaries 
to conduct them. He might root out barbarism out of Amer 
ica, and fully discover Terra Australis Incognita, find out the 
northeast and northwest passages, drain those mighty Ma>o- 
tian fens, cut down those vast Hircinian woods, irrigate 

1 LUiua Girald. Nat. comes. * Apu- diam, Invidiam, araritinm, libidlnem, 

Iritis, lib. 4, Flor. Lar. flunillaris inter ceteraque anlmi human! ritia et monstra 

homines retails sum cultus eat, litium phllosophvu iste Hercules fuit. Pestet 

omnium et turgiorum inter propinquoa eas mentibug ezegit omnes, fcc. * Vo 

arblter et dixceptator. Adrerius Iracun- tls narig. 

Democritus to the Reader. 131 

those barren Arabian deserts, &c,, cure us of our epidemical 
diseases, scorbutum, plica, morbus Neapolitanus, Sfc., end all our 
idle controversies, cut off our tumultuous desires, inordinate 
lusts, root out atheism, impiety, heresy, schism, and superstition, 
whioh now so crucify the world, catechize gross ignorance, 
purge Italy of luxury and riot, Spain of superstition and 
jealousy, Germany of drunkenness, all our northern country 
of gluttony and intemperance, castigate our hard-hearted par 
ents, masters, tutors ; lash disobedient children, negligent ser 
vants, correct these spendthrifts and prodigal sons, enforce 
idle persons to work, drive drunkards off the alehouse, re 
press thieves, visit corrupt and tyrannizing magistrates, &c. 
But as L. Licinius taxed Timolaus, you may us. These are 
vain, absurd and ridiculous wishes not to be hoped ; all must 
be as it is, * Bocchalinus may cite commonwealths to come 
before Apollo, and seek to reform the world itself by com 
missioners, but there is no remedy, it may not be redressed, 
desinent homines turn demum stuUescere quando esse desinent, 
BO long as they can wag their beards, they will play the 
knaves and fools. 

Because, therefore, it is a thing so difficult, impossible, and 
far beyond Hercules's labours to be performed ; let them be 
rude, stupid, ignorant, incult, lapis super lapidem sedeat, and 
as the 6 apologist will, resp. tussi, et graveolentia laboret, mun- 
dus vitio, let them be barbarous as they are, let them 6 tyran 
nize, epicurize, oppress, luxuriate, consume themselves with 
factions, superstitions, lawsuits, wars and contentions, live in 
riot, poverty, want, misery ; rebel, wallow as so many swine 
in their own dung, with Ulysses's companions, sttdtosjubeo esse 
libenter. I will yet, to satisfy and please myself, make an 
Utopia of mine own, a new Atlantis, a poetical commonwealth 
of mine own, in which I will freely domineer, build cities, 
make laws, statutes, as I list myself. And why may I not ? 
* Pictoribus atque poetis, fyc. You know what liberty 
poets ever had, and besides, my predecessor Democritus was 

1 Raggnalios, part 2, cap. 2, et part 3, 004. * Qui sordidus est. soideocat ad 
c. 17. * Velent. Andrew Apolog. manip. hue. * Hor 

132 Democritus to the Reader. 

a politician, a recorder of Abdera, a lawmaker as some say ; 
and why may not I presume so much as he did ? Howsoever 
I will adventure. For the site, if you will needs urge me to 
it, I am not fully resolved, it may be in Terra Australi Incog- 
nita, there is room enough (for of my knowledge neither that 
hungry Spaniard,* nor Mercurius Britannicus, have yet dis 
covered half of it), or else one of those floating islands in 
Mare del Zur, which like the Cyanian isles in the Euxine 
sea, alter their place, and are accessible only at set times, and 
to some few persons ; or one of the Fortunate isles, for who 
knows yet where, or which they are ? there is room enough 
in the inner parts of America, and northern coasts of Asia. 
But I will choose a site, whose latitude shall be forty-five de 
grees (I respect not minutes) in the midst of the temperate 
zone, or perhaps under the equator, that fp ara dise of the 
world, ubi semper virens laurus, fyc., where is a perpetual 
spring ; the longitude for some reasons I will conceal. Yet 
" be it known to all men by these presents," that if any hon 
est gentleman will send in so, much money, as Cardan allows 
an astrologer for casting a nativity, he shall be a sharer, I 
will acquaint him with my project, or if any worthy man will 
stand for any temporal or spiritual office or dignity, (for as he 
said of his archbishopric of Utopia, 'tis sanctus ambitus, and 
not amiss to be sought after,) it shall be freely given without 
all intercessions, bribes, letters, &c., his own worth shall be 
the best spokesman ; and because we shall admit of no dep 
uties or advowsons, if he be sufficiently qualified, and as able 
as willing to execute the place himself, he shall have present 
possession. It shall be divided into twelve or thirteen prov 
inces, and those by hills, rivers, roadways, or some more emi 
nent limits exactly bounded. Each province shall have a 
metropolis, which shall be so placed as a centre almost in a 
circumference, and the rest at equal distances, some twelve 
Italian miles asunder, or thereabout, and in them shall be sold 
all things necessary for the use of man ; statis horis et diebtu, 

FerOluaudo Qutf . 1612. t Vide Ac-osta et Laiet. 

Democritus to the Reader. 133 

no market towns, markets or fairs, for they do bat beggar 
cities (no village shall stand above six, seven, or eight miles 
from a city), except those emporiums which are by the sea 
side, general staples, marts, as Antwerp, Venice, Bergen of 
old, London, &c., cities most part shall be situated upon nav 
igable rivers or lakes, creeks, havens ; and for their form, 
regular, round, square, or long square, * with fair, broad, and 
straight 2 streets, houses uniform, built of brick and stone, 
like Bruges, Brussels, Bhegium Lepidi, Berne in Switzer 
land, Milan, Mantua, Crema, Cambalu in Tartary, described 
by M. Polus, or that Venetian palma. I will admit very few 
or no suburbs, and those of baser building, walls only to keep^ 
out man and horse, except it be in some frontier towns, or by 
the seaside, and those to be fortified 8 after the latest manner of 
fortification, and situated upon convenient havens, or opportune 
places. In every so built city, I will have convenient churches, 
and separate places to bury the dead in, not in churchyards ; 
a citadetta (in some, not all) to command it, prisons for offend 
ers, opportune market-places of all sorts, for corn, meat, cattle, 
fuel, fish, commodious courts of justice, public halls for all 
societies, bourses, meeting-places, armouries, 4 in which shall 
be kept engines for quenching of fire, artillery gardens, pub 
lic walks, theatres, and spacious fields allotted for all gymnastic 
sports, and honest recreations, hospitals of all kinds, for chil 
dren, orphans, old folks, sick men, mad men, soldiers, pest- 
houses, &c., not built precario, or by gouty benefactors, who, 
when by fraud and rapine they have extorted all their lives, 
oppressed whole provinces, societies, &c., give something to 
pious uses, build a satisfactory almshouse, school or bridge, 
&c., at their last end or before perhaps, which is no other 
wise than to steal a goose, and stick down a feather, rob a 
thousand to relieve ten; and those hospitals so built and 
maintained, not by collections, benevolences, donaries, for a 
set number, (as in ours,) just so many and no more at such 

1 Vide Patritium, lib. 8, tit. 10, de In- 1. 1, c. nit. * With walls of earth, &c. 
rtit. Reijiub. * Sic olim Ilippodamus < De his Plln. epist. 12, lib. 2, et Tacit 
Mileeius 4rist. polit. cap. 11, et Vitruvius Annal. 18 lib. 

134 Democritus to the Reader. 

a rate, but for all those who stand in need, be they more or 
less, and that ex publico terario, and so still maintained, non 
nobis solum nati sumus, fyc. I will have conduits of sweet 
and good water, aptly disposed in each town, common J gran 
aries, as at Dresden in Misnia, Stetein in Pomerland, Nor- 
emberg, &c. Colleges of mathematicians, musicians, and 
actors, as of old at Labedum in Ionia, 2 alchemists, physi 
cians, artists, and philosophers ; that all arts and sciences may 
sooner be perfected and better learned ; and public historiog 
raphers, as amongst those ancient 8 Persians, qui in commen 
taries referebant quce memoratu digna gerebantur, informed 
and appointed by the state to register all famous acts, and not 
by each insufficient scribbler, partial or parasitical pedant, as 
in our times. I will provide public schools of all kinds, sing 
ing, dancing, fencing, &c., especially of grammar and lan 
guages, not to be taught by those tedious precepts ordinarily 
used, but by use, example, conversation, 4 as travellers learn 
abroad, and nurses teach their children ; as I will have all 
such places, so will I ordain 6 public governors, fit officers to 
each place, treasurers, aediles, questors, overseers of pupils, 
widows' goods, and all public houses, &c., and those once a 
year to make strict accounts of all receipts, expenses, to 
avoid confusion, et sic fiet ut non absumant (as Pliny to Tra 
jan,) quodpudeat dicere. They shall be subordinate to those 
higher officers and governors of each city, which shall not 
be poor tradesmen, and mean artificers, but noblemen and 
gentlemen, which shall be tied to residence in those towns 
they dwell next, at such set times and seasons ; for I see no 
reason (which * Hippolitus complains of) " that it should be 
more dishonourable for noblemen to govern the city than the 
country, or unseemly to dwell there now, than of old." T I 

> Vide Brlsonium de regno Perse alia procurent. Vide Isaacum Pontanum 

lib. 3, de his et Vegetium, lib. 2, cap. 8, de civ. Amstel. hive omnia, &c., Gotar- 

de Annona. * Not to make gold, but dumet alios. De Increm. urb. cap. 13. 

for matters of physic. Bresoniiis Ingenue foteor me non intelligere cur ig- 

Josephu*, lib. 21, antiquit. Jud. cap. 6. nobilius sit urbes bene muni tax colere 

Herod, lib. 8. So Lod. Vives thinks nunc quim olim, aut casae rustics prse- 

btwt. Com mineus, and others. * Plato ease quim urbi. Idem Ubertus Foliot.. 

8, de legg. iEdiles creari rult, qui fora, de Neapoli. ? Ne tantillnm quidem sou 

foateH, Tias, portus, plateas, et id genus iucultum reliuquitur, at rerun lit n 

Democritus to the Reader. 135 

will have no bogs, fens, marshes, vast woods, deserts, heaths, 
commons, but all inclosed ; (yet not depopulated, and there 
fore take heed you mistake me not ;) for that which is common, 
and every man's, is no man's ; the richest countries are still 
inclosed, as Essex, Kent, with us, &c., Spain, Italy ; and 
where inclosures are least in quantity, they are best l hus 
banded, as about Florence in Italy, Damascus in Syria, &c^ 
which are liker gardens than fields. I will net have a bar 
ren acre in all my territories, not so much as the tops of 
mountains ; where nature fails, it shall be supplied by art ; 
'lakes and rivers shall not be left desolate. All common 
highways, bridges, banks, corrivations of waters, aqueducts, 
channels, public works, building, &c., out of a 8 common stock, 
curiously maintained and kept in repair; no depopulations,, 
engrossing*, alterations of wood, arable, but by the consent 
of some supervisors that shall be appointed for that purpose, 
to see what reformation ought to be had in all places, what is 
amiss, how to help it, et quid quceque ferat regio, et quid quee- 
que recuset, what ground is aptest for wood, what for corn, 
what for cattle, gardens, orchards, fishponds, &c., with a char 
itable division hi every village, (not one domineering house 
greedily to swallow up all, which is too common with us) 
what for lords, 4 what for tenants ; and because they shall be 
better encouraged to improve such lands they hold, manure, 
plant trees, drain, fence, &c., they shall have long leases, a 
known rent, and known fine to free them from those intoler 
able exactions of tyrannizing landlords. These supervisors 
shall likewise appoint what quantity of land in each manor 

pollicem quldem agri in his regionibus Cotswol. and their soil much mended, 

gterilem aut infcecundum reperiri. Mar- Tusser, cap. 62, of his husbandry, is of 

cug Hemingius Augustanus de regno his opinion, one acre inclosed, is worth 

China 1 , 1. 1, c. 3. l M. Carew, in his three common. The country inclosed I 

surrey of Cornwall, saith that before that praise ; the other deliguteth not me, for 

country was inclosed, the husbandmen nothing of wealth it doth raise, &c. 

drank water, did eat little or no bread, 2 Incredibilis navigioruin copia, nihilo 

fol. 66, lib. 1, their apparel was coarse, pauciores in aquis, quim in continent! 

they went barelegged, their dwelling was commorantur. M. Kicceus ezpedit in 

ten-respondent; but since inclosure, they Sinas, 1. 1, c. 3. * To this purpose 

live decently, and have money to spend Arist. polit. 2, c. 6, allows a third part- of 

(fol. 23) ; when their fields were common, their revenues. Hippodamus half. * I to 

their wool was coarse, Cornish hair; but lex Agraria olim Roiuae. 
lino* inclosure, it is almost as good as 

136 Democritus to the Reader. 

is fit for the lord's demesnes, x what for holding of tenants 
how it ought to be husbanded, ul a magnetis equis, Minyce gent 
cognita remis, how to be manured, tilled, rectified, * hie 
tegetes veniunt, ittic foelicius uvee, arborei foetus alibi, atque 
iry'ussa virescunt Gramina, and what proportion is fit for all 
callings, because private professors are many times idiots, ill 
husbands, oppressors, covetous, and know not how to improve 
their own, or else wholly respect their own, and not public 

Utopian parity is a kind of government, to be wished for, 
* rather than effected, Respub. Christianopolitana, Campanel- 
la's city of the Sun, and that new Atlantis, witty fictions, but 
mere chimeras and Plato's community in many things is im 
pious, absurd and ridiculous, it takes away all splendour and 
magnificence. I will have several orders, degrees of nobility, 
and those hereditary, not rejecting younger brothers in the 
mean time, for they shall be sufficiently provided for by pen 
sions, or so qualified, brought up in some honest calling, they 
shall be able to live of themselves. I will have such a pro 
portion of ground belonging to every barony, he that buys 
the land shall buy the barony, he that by riot consumes his 
patrimony, and ancient demesnes, shall forfeit his honours. 4 
As some dignities shall be hereditary, so some again by elec 
tion, or by gift, (besides free offices, pensions, annuities,) like 
our bishoprics, prebends, the Basso's palaces in Turkey, the 
6 procurator's houses and offices in Venice, which, like the 
golden apple, shall be given to the worthiest, and best de 
serving both in war and peace, as a reward of their worth 
and good service, as so many goals for all to aim at (honot 
alit artes), and encouragements to others. For I hate these 
severe, unnatural, harsh, German, French, and Venetian de 
crees, which exclude plebeians from honours, be they never 
BO wise, rich, virtuous, valiant, and well qualified, they must 

1 Hie negates, illic veniunt fcelicius uv, Andreas, Lord Verulam. * So fa It 

Arborei foetus alibi, atque injuara Tires- in the kingdom of Naples and France. 

cunt Oramina. Virg. I Georg. * Lu- * See Contarenus and Osorius d* rebui 

oanui, 1. 6. * Virg. * Job Valent. jrestis EmanunlU. 

Democritiu to the Reader. 137 

not be patricians, but keep their own rank, this is nature 
bettum inferre, odious to God and men, I abhor it. My form 
of government shall be monarchical. 

* " nunquam libertas gratior extat, 
Quam sub Rege pio," &c. 

Few laws, but those severely kept, plainly put down, and in 
the mother tongue, that every man may understand. Every 
city shall have a peculiar trade or privilege, by which it shall 
be chiefly maintained ; 1 and parents shall teach their chil 
dren one of three at least, bring up and instruct them in the 
mysteries of their own trade. In each town these several 
tradesmen shall be so aptly disposed, as they shall free the 
rest from danger or offence ; fire-trades, as smiths, forge-meiv 
brewers, bakers, metal-men, &c., shall dwell apart by them 
selves ; dyers, tanners, felmongers, and such as use water in 
convenient places by themselves ; noisome or fulsome for bad 
smells, as butchers' slaughter-houses, chandlers, curriers, in 
remote places, and some back lanes. Fraternities and com 
panies, I approve of, as merchants' bourses, colleges of drug 
gists, physicians, musicians, &c., but all trades to be rated in 
the sale of wares, as our clerks of the market do bakers and 
brewers ; corn itself, what scarcity soever shall come, not to 
exceed such a price. Of such wares as are transported or 
brought in, a if they be necessary, commodious, and such as 
nearly concern man's life, as corn, wood, coal, &c., and such 
provision we cannot want, I will have little or no custom 
paid, no taxes ; but for such things as are for pleasure, de 
light, or ornament, as wine, spice, tobacco, silk, velvet, cloth 
of gold, lace, jewels, &c., a greater impost. I will have cer 
tain ships sent out for new discoveries every year, 8 and some 
discreet men appointed to travel into all neighbouring king* 

* Claudian 1. 7. " Liberty neyer is Emanuele rege Lusitano. Riccius d 

more gratifying than under a pious king.'' Sinis. * Hippol. i collibus de increm. 

* Herodotus Erato lib. 6. Cum ^Egyptiis urb. c. 20. Plato idem 7, de legibus, 

Lacedemonii in hoc congrunnt, quod quse ad vitam necessaria, et quibus ca- 

eorum pnecones, tibicines, coqui, et reli- rere non possumus, nullum depend! Tec- 

aui artifices, in paterno artifieio succe- tigal, &c. 3 Plato 12, de legibus. 40 

dunt, et coquus i coquo gignitur, et anuos natos vult, ut si quid memorabilt 

paterno opere perseverat. Idem Marcus yiderent apud exteros, hoc ipsnm in not 

Polus de Quinzay Idem Osorius de pub. recipiatur. 

138 Democritus to the Header. 

Joins by land, which shall observe what artificial inventions 
and good laws are in other countries, customs, alterations, or 
aught else, concerning war or peace, which may tend to the 
common good. Ecclesiastical discipline, penes Episcopos, 
subordinate as the other. No impropriations, no lay patrons 
of church livings, or one private man, but common societies, 
corporations, &c., and those rectors of benefices to be chosen 
out of the Universities, examined and approved, as the literati 
in China. No parish to contain above a thousand auditors. 
If it were possible, I would have such priests as should imi 
tate Christ, charitable lawyers should love their neighbours 
as themselves, temperate and modest physicians, politicians 
contemn the world, philosophers should know themselves, 
noblemen live honestly, tradesmen leave lying and cozening, 
magistrates, corruption, &c., but this is impossible, I must get 
such as I may. I will therefore have * of lawyers, judges, 
advocates, physicians, chirurgeons, &c., a set number, 2 and 
every man, if it be possible, to plead his own cause, to tell 
that tale to the judge which he doth to his advocate, as 
at Fez in Africa, Bantam, Aleppo, Ragusa, suam quisque 
causam dicere tenetur. Those advocates, chirurgeons, and 
"physicians, which are allowed to be maintained out of the 
4 common treasury, no fees to be given or taken upon pain 
of losing their places ; or if they do, very small fees, and 
when the * cause is fully ended. 6 He that sues any man 
shall put in a pledge, which if it be proved he hath wrong 
fully sued his adversary, rashly or maliciously, he shall for 
feit, and lose. Or else before any suit begin, the plaintiff 
shall have his complaint approved by a set delegacy to that 
purpose ; if it be of moment he shall be suffered as before, to 
proceed, if otherwise, they shall determine it. All causes 

1 Slmlerus In Helvetia. * Utopienses no; sic minus erlt ambagum, et veritai 

causidico.i excludunt, qui cauwa callide fucilius elicietur. Mor. Utop. I. 2 

t vitfre tmctent et disputant. Iniquissi- * Medici ex publlco victum suuiunt 

mum cement hominem ullis obligarl legi- Boter. 1. 1, c 5, de jEgyptiis. 4 De Ins 

bug, quae aut numerosiores 8unt, quim lege Patrit. 1. 3, tit. 8, de reip. I nstit. 

ut perlegi quean t, aut obnouriores quim * Nihil & clientibu8 patroni accipiaut, 

ut i qncivU ponsint intelligi. Volunt ut priusquam lis finita est. Barcl. Argen 

uani quisque causam agat, eamque refe- lib. 8. * It is so in most tree citiei in 

nt J udici quam narraturu* fuerat patro- Germany. 

Democritus to the Reader. 139 

shall be pleaded suppresso nomine, the parties' names con 
cealed, if some circumstances do not otherwise require. 
Judges and other officers shall be aptly disposed in each 
province, villages, cities, as common arbitrators to hear 
causes, and end all controversies, and those not single, but 
three at least on the bench at once, to determine or give sen 
tence, and those again to sit by turns or lots, and not to con 
tinue still in the same office. No controversy to depend 
above a year, but without all delays and further appeals to 
be speedily despatched, and finally concluded in that time 
allotted. These and all other inferior magistrates to be 
chosen * as the literati in China, or by those exact suffrages of 
the * Venetians, and such again not to be eligible, or capable 
of magistracies, honours, offices, except they be sufficiently 
* qualified for learning, manners, and that by the strict appro 
bation of reputed examiners ; 4 first scholars to take place, 
then soldiers ; for I am of Vigetius his opinion, a scholar de 
serves better than a soldier, because Unius cetatis &~nt guts 
fortiter jiunt, qua vero pro Militate Jieipub. scribuntur, ceter- 
na : a soldier's work lasts for an age, a scholar's forever. If 
they 6 misbehave themselves, they shall be deposed, and ac 
cordingly punished, and whether their offices be annual 6 or 
otherwise, once a year they shall be called in question, and 
give an account ; for men are partial and passionate, mer 
ciless, covetous, corrupt, subject to love, hate, fear, favour, 
&c., omne suit regno graviore regnum ; like Solon's Areopa- 
gites, or those Roman Censors, some shall visit others, and 
7 be visited invicem themselves, 8 they shall oversee that no 
prowling officer, under colour of authority, shall insult over 

1 Mat. Riccius exped. in Sinas, 1. 1, c. 5, mas babet, insigni per totam dig. 

Q8 examinatione electionum copiose agit, nitate insignitur, marchioni similis, aut 

&c. 2 Contar. de repub. Venet. 1. 1. duel apud nos. 4 Cedant arma togie. 

3 Osor 1. 11, de reb. gest. Eman. Qui in * As in Berne, Lucerne, Friburge, in 

literis maximos progressus fecerint maxi- Switzerland, a vicious liver is unoapable 

mis hoi ioribus afficiuntur, secundus ho- of any office ; if a Senator, instantly de- 

noris gradus militibus assignatur, pos- posed. Simlerus. Not above three 

tremi ordinis mecbanicis, doctorum years, Ariat. polit. 5, c. 8. 7 Nam quis 

hominum judiciis in altioiem locum custodiet ipsos custodes? * Cytreus in 

quisq ; prsefertur. et qui a plurimis ap- Greisgeia. Qui nou ex sublimi despician t 

probatur, ampliores in rep. dignitates inferiores, nee ut bestias conculcent sibl 

conaequitur. Qui in hoc examine pri- subditos, auctoritatis nomini confisi, &c. 

140 Democritus to the Reader. 

his inferiors, as so many wild beasts, oppress, domineer, flea, 
grind, or trample on, be partial or corrupt, but that there be 
(equabile jus, justice equally done, live as friends and breth 
ren together ; and which 1 Sesellius would have and so much 
desires in his kingdom of France, " a diapason and sweet har 
mony of kings, princes, nobles, and plebeians so mutually tied 
and involved in love, as well as laws and authority, as that 
they never disagree, insult or encroach one upon another." 
If any man deserve well hi his office he shall be rewarded. 

" quis eniin virtu tern amplectitur ipsam, 
Prcemia si tollas? " * 

He that invents anything for public good in any art or 
science, writes a treatise, a or performs any noble exploit, at 
home or abroad, 8 shall be accordingly enriched, 4 honoured, 
and preferred. I say with Hannibal in Ennius, Hostem qui 
feriet erit mihi Carthoginiensis, let him be of what condition 
he will, in all offices, actions, he that deserves best shall 
have best. 

Tilianus in Philonius, out of a charitable mind no doubt, 
wished all his books were gold and silver, jewels and pre 
cious stones, f to redeem captives, set free prisoners, and 
relieve all poor distressed souls that wanted means ; relig 
iously done, I deny not, but to what purpose ? Suppose this 
were so well done, within a little after, though a man had 
Crossus's wealth to bestow, there would be as many more. 
Wherefore I will suffer no ' beggars, rogues, vagabonds, or 
idle persons at all, that cannot give an account of their 

1 8e*ellius de rep. Qallorum. lib. 1 & 2. inter celeres celerrimo, non inter robusto* 

" For who would cultivate virtue itself, robustireimo, &c. t Nullum videres 

If you were to take away the reward? " rel in hao vel in vicinis regionibus pau- 

' 8i quis egreginm aut belloaut pace per- perem, nullum ohaeratum, &c. * Nul- 

fecerit. Sesel. 1. 1. * Ad regeudam lus mendicus apud Sinaa, nemini sino. 

rempub. soli literati admittuntur, nee ad quamvta oculis turbatus sit, mendicare 

earn rem gratia magiatratuutn aut regis permittitur, ornnes pro viribus laborare 

Indigent, omnia ezplorata cujusq ; scien- coguntur, creci molis trusatilibus versan- 

tia et rirtute pendent. Biccius, Hb. 1. die addicuntur, soli hospitiis gaudent, qui 

cap. 6. 4 In defuncti locum eumjussit ad labores aunt inepti. Oaor. 1. 11, de 

ubrogari. qui inter majores virtute reli- reb. Kman. Heming. de reg. Chin, 

quid prueiret; non fuit apud niortales 1. 1, o. 8. Ootard. Arth. Orient Ind 

nllum excellentius certamen, aut cujus deaor. 
Victoria magis esset expetenda, non enim 

Democritus to the Header. 141 

lives how they * maintain themselves. If they be impotent, 
lame, blind, and single, they shall be sufficiently maintained 
in several hospitals, built for that purpose ; if married and 
infirm, past work, or by inevitable loss, or some such like 
misfortune cast behind, by distribution of *corn, house-rent 
free, annual pensions or money, they shall be relieved, and 
highly rewarded for their good service they have formerly 
done ; if able, they shall be enforced to work. 8 " For I see 
no reason (as * he said) why an epicure or idle drone, a rich 
glutton, a usurer, should live at ease and do nothing, live 
in honour, in all manner of pleasures, and oppress others, 
when as in the mean time a poor labourer, a smith, a Car 
penter, an husbandman that hath spent his time in continual 
labour, as an ass to carry burdens to do the commonwealth 
good, and without whom we cannot live, shall be left in his 
old age to beg or starve, and lead a miserable life worse than 
a jument." As 6 all conditions shall be tied to their task, so 
none shall be overtired, but have their set times of recrea 
tions and holidays, indulgere genio, feasts and merrymeet- 
ings, even to the meanest artificer, or basest servant, once a 
week to sing or dance, (though not all at once,) or do what 
soever he shall please ; like * that Saccarum festum amongst 
the Persians, those Satumals in Rome, as well as his master. 
7 If any be drunk, he shall drink no more wine or strong 
drink in a twelvemonth after. A bankrupt shall be 8 Cata- 
demiatus in Amphitheatro, publicly shamed, and he that can 
not pay his debts, if by riot or negligence, he have been im 
poverished, shall be for a twelvemonth imprisoned, if in that 

1 Alex, ab Alex. 8, c. 12. * Sic olim toribna, inanium roluptatum artlflcibiia 

RotniB Isaac. Pontan de his nptime. generoeis et otiosis tanta munera prodigit, 

Amstel. 1. 2, c. 9. * Idem Aristot. at oontri agricolis, carbonariis, aurigig, 

pol. o, c. 8. Vitiosum qnum soli pau- fabris, &c., nibil prospicit, se I eorum 

perum liberi educantur ad laboros. no- abtisa labore florentis retntb, fame penset 

bilium et divitum in Yoluptatibus et et aerumnis, Mor. Utop. 1. 2. 5 In Se- 

deliciis. * QUSB haec injustitia ut nob- govia nemo otiosus, nemo mendicus nisi 

ilis quisplam, aut foenerator qui nihil per aetatem ant morbum opus facere non 

agat, lautani et splendidam vi tain agat, potest : null! deest unde vie t uin quaerat, 

otio et deliriis, qunm interim auriga, aut quo se exerceat. C'ypr. Echovius 

febei agricola, quo rtwpub. carere non Delit. Hispun. Nullns OenevaB otiosus, n 

potest, vitam adeo miseram ducat, ut septennta puer. Paulus Heuzner Itiner. 

pejorquam jumentorum sit ejus conditio? < Athenaeu.*, 1. 12. T Simlerus de rcpub. 

Iniqua resp quae dat parasitia adula- Helve t. * Spartian. olim Eomae nio 

142 JJemocritiu, to the Reader. 

space his creditors be not satisfied, * he shall be hanged. He 
* that commits sacrilege shall lose his hands ; he that bears 
false witness, or is of perjury convicted, shall have his tongue 
cut out, except he redeem it with his head. Murder, 8 adul 
tery, shall be punished by death, * but not theft, except it be 
some more grievous offence, or notorious offenders ; other 
wise they shall be condemned to the galleys, mines, be his 
slaves whom they have offended, during their lives. I hate 
all hereditary slaves, and that duram Persarum legem as 

I Brisonius calls it ; or as * Ammianus, impendio formidatas 
et abominandas leges, per quas ob noxam unius, omnis pro- 
pmquitas perit, hard law that wife and children, friends and 
allies, should suffer for the father's offence. 

No man shall marry until he * be twenty -five, no woman till 
she be twenty, 8 nisi aliter dispensatum fuerit. If one 9 die, the 
other party shall not marry till six months after ; and because 
many families are compelled to live niggardly, exhaust and 
undone by great dowers, 10 none shall be given at all, or very 
little, and that by supervisors rated, they that are foul shall 
have a greater portion ; if fair, none at all, or very little ; 

II howsoever not to exceed such a rate as those supervisors 
shall think fit. And when once they come to those years, 
poverty shall hinder no man from marriage, or any other 
respect, 12 but all shall be rather enforced than hindered, 
18 except they be " dismembered, or grievously deformed, in- 

1 He that provides not for his family, niseutn, Nevisanum, et alios de hao 

is worse than a thief Paul. * Al- quaestione. 8 Alfredus. 1 Apud 

fredi lex : utraq ; manus et linsrua prsec- Lacones olim yirgines sine dote nubebant. 

idatur, nisi earn capite redemerit. 8 Si Boter. 1. 8, c. 8. n Lege cautum non 

quis nuptam stupr.lrit, virga virilis ei ita pridera apud Venetos, ne quis Pa- 

praecidatur; si mulier, naaus et auricula tritius dotem excederet 1,600 coron. 

oraecidantur. Alfred! lex. En leges ipsi w Bux. Synag. Jud. Sic Judeei. Leo Afer 

Veneri Martique timcndas. < Pauperes Africse descript. ne sint aliter inconti- 

non peccant, quum extremft necessitate nentes ob reipub. bonuin. Ut August, 

coactl, rem alienam capiunt. Maldonat. Caesar, orat. ad caelibes Homanos olim 

mmmula quaest. 8, art. 8. Ego cum edocuit. 1:i Morbo laborans, qul in 

lllis sentlo qui licere putant a dlvite clam protein facile dlffunditur, ne genus hu- 

accipere, qui tenetnr pauper! subvenire. inanum foeda contagione laedatur, juven- 

Emmanuel Sa. Aphor. confess. * Lib. tute castratur, mulieres tales procul & 

2, de reg. Persarum. Lib. 24. consortio Tlrorum ablegantur, &c. Hec- 

' Aliter Aristoteles, a man at twenty-five, tor Boethius hist. lib. 1, de vet. Scoto- 

a woman at twenty, polit. Lex olim rum moribns. H Speciosissimi jn- 

Ucurgi, hodie Chinengium; Tide Plu- venes llberis dabunt operam. Plato 5, d 

tarchum, Kincium, Hemmlngium, Ar- legibus. 

Democritus to the Header. 143 

firm, or visited with some enormous hereditary disease, in 
body or mind ; in such cases upon a great pain, or mulct, 
1 man or woman shall not marry, other order shall be taken 
for them to their content. If people overabound, they shall 
be eased by 2 colonies. 

8 No man shall wear weapons in any city. The same 
attire shall be kept, and that proper to several callings, by 
which they shall be distinguished. * Luxus funerum shall be 
taken away, that intempestive expense moderated, and many 
others. Brokers, takers of pawns, biting usurers, I will not 
admit ; yet because hie cum hominibus non cum diis agitur, 
we converse here with men, not with gods, and for the hard 
ness of men's hearts, I will tolerate some kind of usury.' 
If we were honest, I confess, si probi essemus, we should 
have no use of it, but being as it is, we must necessarily 
admit it. Howsoever most divines contradict it, dicimu* 
inficias, sed vox ea sola reperta est, it must be winked at by 
politicians. And yet some great doctors approve of it, Cal 
vin, Bucer, Zanchius, P. Martyr, because by so many grand 
lawyers, decrees of emperors, princes' statutes, customs of 
commonwealths, churches' approbations, it is permitted, &c., 
I will therefore allow it. But to no private persons, nor to 
every man that will, to orphans only, maids, widows, or such as 
by reason of their age, sex, education, ignorance of trading, 
know not otherwise how to employ it ; and those so approved, 
not to let it out apart, but to bring then 1 money to a 6 common 
bank which shall be allowed in every city, as in Genoa, 
Geneva, Nuremberg, Venice, at * five, six, seven, not above 
eight per centum, as the supervisors, or cerarii prcefecti shall 

i The Saxons exclude dumb, blind, Seas, though with some reformation, 
leprous, and such like persons from all mons pietatis, or bank of charity, as Ma- 
inheritance, as we do fools. 2 Ut olim lines terms it, cap. 33, Lex mercat. 
Romani, Hispani hodie. &c. * Riccius part 2, that lend money upon easy 
lib. 11, cap. 5, de Sinarum expedit. sic pawns, or take money upon adventure 
Hispani cogunt Mauros anna deponere. for men's lives. ' 'I hat proportion 
So it is in most Italian cities. * Idem will make merchandise increase, land 
Plato 12, de legibus, it hath ever been dearer, and better improved, as he hath 
Immoderate, vide Gull. Stuckium antiq. judicially proved in his tract of usury, 
eonvival. lib. 1, cap. 26. * Plato 9, de exhibited to the Parliament anno 1821. 
legibus 3 As those Lombards beyond 

144 Democritus to the Header. 

think fit. l And as it shall not be lawful for each man to lie an 
usurer that will, so shall it not be lawful for all to take up 
money at use, not to prodigals and spendthrifts, but to mer 
chants, young tradesmen, such as stand in need, or know hon 
estly how to employ it, whose necessity, cause and condition 
the said supervisors shall approve of. 

I will have no private monopolies, to enrich one man, and 
beggar a multitude, a multiplicity of offices, of supplying by 
deputies, weights and measures, the same throughout, and 
those rectified by the Primum mobile, and sun's motion, 
threescore miles to a degree according to observation, 1,000 
geometrical paces to a mile, five foot to a pace, twelve inches 
to a foot, fec., and from measures known it is an easy matter 
to rectify weights, &c., to cast up all, and resolve bodies by 
algebra, stereometry. I hate wars if they be not ad popidi 
salutem, upon urgent occasion, *"ocKmu$ accipitrem, quia 
semper vivit in armis" "offensive wars, except the cause be 
very just, I will not allow of. For I do highly magnify that 
saying of Hannibal to Scipio, in * Livy, " It had been a 
blessed thing for you and us, if God had given that mind 
to our predecessors, that you had been content with Italy, 
we with Africa. For neither Sicily nor Sardinia are worth 
such cost and pains, so many fleets and armies, or so many 
famous Captains' lives." Omnia prius tentanda, fair means 
shall first be tried. * Peragit tranquiUa potestas, Quod vio- 
lenta nequit. I will have them proceed with all moderation ; 
but hear you, Fabius my general, not Minutius, nam\ qui 
Consilio nititur plus hostibus nocet, quam qui sine animi 
ratione, viribus ; And in such wars to abstain as much as 
is possible from * depopulations, burning of towns, massacring 

1 Hoc fere ZanchiuR com. In 4 cap. ad the hawk, because he always lives in bat- 

Ephea. sequiscimam vocat uauram, et tie." 3 Idem Plato de legibus. * Lib. 

charitati Christianas conaentaneam, modo 30. Optimum quidcm fuerat earn patribua 

non exlgant, &c., nee onines dent ad nostris mentem a dlis datam ease, ut vos 

ftentu. sed ii qui in pecunlia bona habent, Italiae, nos Africne imperio content! esae- 

et ob aetatem, wxiini, artis alicujua ig- inns. Neque enim Sicilia aut Sardinia 

norantiam, non poaaunt uti. Nee omni- satis digna precio aunt pro tot classibus, 

bus sed mercatoribua et iis qui honeste &c. * Clandian. t Thucydidea. 

Impendent, &c. * Idem apud Persas A depopnlatione, agrorum incendiis, et 

olim, lege Brisonlum * " We hate ejusmodi factia immanibua. Plato. 

Democritus to the Header. 145 

of infants, &c. For defensive wars, I will have forces still 
ready at a small warning, by land and sea, a prepared navy, 
soldiers in procinctu, ei quam * JBonftnius apud Hungaros 
tuos vult, virgam ferream, and money, which is nervus belli, 
still in a readiness, and a sufficient revenue, a third part as 
in old l Rome and Egypt, reserved for the commonwealth ; 
to avoid those heavy taxes and impositions, as well to defray 
this charge of wars, as also all other public defalcations, ex 
penses, fees, pensions, reparations, chaste sports, feasts, dona- 
ries, rewards, and entertainments. All things in this nature 
especially I will have maturely done, and with great 2 delib 
eration : ne quid *temere ne quid remisse ac timide fiat ; Sed 
quo feror hospes ? To prosecute the rest would require a 
volume. Manum de tabella, I have been over tedious in 
this subject ; I could have here willingly ranged, but these 
straits wherein I am included will not permit. 

From commonwealths and cities, I will descend to families, 
which have as many corsives and molestations, as frequent 
discontents as the rest. Great affinity there is betwixt a 
political and economical body ; they differ only in magnitude 
and proportion of business (so Scaliger 4 writes) as they have 
both likely the same period, as * Bodin and e Peucer hold, out 
of Plato, six or seven hundred years, so many tunes they 
have the same means of their vexation and overthrows ; as 
namely, riot, a common ruin of both, riot in building, riot in 
profuse spending, riot in apparel, &c., be it in what kind 
soever, it produceth the same effects. A 7 corographer of 
ours speaking obiter of ancient families, why they are so 
frequent in the north, continue so long, are so soon extin 
guished hi the south, and so few, gives no other reason but 
this, luxus omnia dissipavit, riot hath consumed all, fine 
clothes and curious buildings came into this island, as he 

* Hangar, dec. 1, lib. 9. 1 Sesellius, lento nequit. Clandian. Belltun 

lib. 2, de repub. Gal. valde enim est inde- nee timendum nee provocandum. Plin. 
coruin, ubi quod prater opinionem acci- Panegyr. Trajano. 4 Lib. 3. poet. cap. 
dit, dicere, Non putiram, presertim si 19. 5 Lib. 4, de repub. cap. 2. * Pen- 
res prae averi potuerit. Livius, lib. 1. cer. lib. 1, de divinat. 1 Camdeii if 

Dion. lib. 2. Diodorus Siculus, lib. 2. Cheshire. 

* Peragit tranquilla potest as, Quod vio- 

VUL. i. 10 

146 Democntus to the Reader 

Dotes in his annals, not so many years since ; non sine dit 
pendio hospitalitatis, to the decay of hospitality. Howbeil 
many times that word is mistaken, and under the name of 
bounty and hospitality, is shrouded riot and prodigality, and 
that which is commendable in itself well used, hath been mis 
taken heretofore, is become by his abuse, the bane and utter 
ruin of many a noble family. For some men live like the 
rich glutton, consuming themselves and their substance by 
continual feasting and invitations, with 1 Axilon in Homer, 
keep open house for all comers, giving entertainment to such 
as visit them, M keeping a table beyond their means, and a 
company of idle servants (though not so frequent as of old) 
are blown up on a sudden ; and as Actaeon was by his 
hounds, devoured by their kinsmen, friends, and multitude 
of followers. * It is a wonder that Paulus Jovius relates of 
our northern countries, what an infinite deal of meat we con 
sume on our tables ; that I may truly say, 'tis not bounty, 
not hospitality, as it is often abused, but riot and excess, 
gluttony and prodigality ; a mere vice ; it brings in debt, 
want, and beggary, hereditary diseases, consumes their for 
tunes, and overthrows the good temperature of their bodies. 
To this I might here well add their inordinate expense in 
building, those fantastical houses, turrets, walks, parks, &c., 
gaming, excess of pleasure, and that prodigious riot in ap 
parel, by which means they are compelled to break up house, 
and creep into holes. Sesellius in his commonwealth of 
4 France, gives three reasons why the French nobility were 
so frequently bankrupts : " First, because they had so many 
lawsuits and contentions one upon another, which were 
tedious and costly ; by which means it came to pass, tliat 
commonly lawyers bought them out of their possessions. 

1 Iliad. 6 lib. * Vide Puteani Co- causa forenses, alise ferantur ex aliis, in 

mum, Goelenlum de portentous cnenis immensum producantur, et magnos 

noetrorum tempornm. * Mirabtle dicta sumptus requirant, uncle fit ut jurifl 

e*t, quantum opsonlorum una domus administri plerumque nobilium posaes- 

ingulis diebus absunmt, sturnuntur stones adquirant, turn quod sumptuon* 

mensae in omne pone boras, ealentibus yivant, et & mercatoribus absorbentur rt 

aemper edullis. Descrip. Britan. Lib. gplendidisaime retiantur, &. 
1, d rep. Qallorum; quod tot lltes at 

Democritits to the Reader. 147 

A second cause was their riot, they lived beyond their means, 
and were therefore swallowed up by merchants." (La Nove, 
a French writer, yields five reasons of his countrymen's pov 
erty, to the same effect almost, and thinks verily if the gentry 
of France were divided into ten parts, eight of them would 
be found much impaired, by sales, mortgages, and debts, or 
wholly sunk in their estates.) " The last was immoderate 
excess in apparel, which consumed their revenues." How 
this concerns and agrees with our present state, look you. 
But of this elsewhere. As it is in a man's body, if either 
head, heart, stomach, liver, spleen, or any one part be mis- 
affected, all the rest suffer with it ; so is it with this econom 
ical body. If the head be naught, a spendthrift, a drunkard, 
a whoremaster, a gamester, how shall the family live at ease ? 
1 Ipsa si cupiat solus servare prorsw, non potest, hanc famil- 
iam, as Demea said in the comedy, Safety herself cannot 
save it. A good, honest, painful man many times hath a 
shrew to his wife ; a sickly, dishonest, slothful, foolish, careless 
woman to his mate ; a proud, peevish flirt ; a liquorish, prodi 
gal quean, and by that means all goes to ruin ; or if they differ 
in nature, he is thrifty, she spends all ; he wise, she sottish and 
soft ; what agreement can there be ? what friendship ? Like 
that of the thrush and swallow in ^sop, instead of mutual 
love, kind compellations, whore and thief is heard, they fling 
stools at one another's heads. 2 Qua intemperies vexat hanc 
familiam ? All enforced marriages commonly produce such 
effects, or if on their behalfs it be well, as to live and agree 
lovingly together, they may have disobedient and unruly 
children, that take ill courses to disquiet them, * " their son 
is a thief, a spendthrift, their daughter a whore ; " a step 
4 mother, or a daughter-in-law, distempers all ; 5 or else for 
want of means, many torturers arise, debts, dues, fees, dowries, 
jointures, legacies to be paid, annuities issuing out, by means 
of which, they have not wherewithal to maintain themselvee 

1 Ter. * Amphit. Plant. * Paling, nunquam Yivunt sine lite. BM in 
Kllius ant fur. * Catun enm mure, grata domJ. 

dno falli dmul in aede, Et glotes bins 

148 Democrittis to the Header. 

in that pomp as their predecessors have done, bring up or 
bestow their children to their callings, to their birth and 
quality, J and will not descend to their present fortunes. 
Oftentimes, too, to aggravate the rest, concur many other 
inconveniences, unthankful friends, decayed friends, bad 
neighbours, negligent servants, 2 seroi furaces, versipettes, col- 
Udij occlusa sibi mitte clavibus reserant, furtimque ; raptant^ 
consumunt, liguriunt ; casualties, taxes, mulcts, chargeable 
offices, vain expenses, entertainments, loss of stock, enmities, 
emulations, frequent invitations, losses, suretyship, sickness, 
death of friends, and that which is the gulf of all, improvi 
dence, ill husbandry, disorder and confusion, by which means 
they are drenched on a sudden in their estates, and at un 
awares precipitated insensibly into an inextricable labyrinth 
of debts, cares, woes, want, grief, discontent, and melancholy 

I have done with families, and will now briefly run over 
some few sorts and conditions of men. The most secure, 
happy, jovial, and merry in the world's esteem are princes and 
great men, free from melancholy; but for their cares, mis 
eries, suspicions, jealousies, discontents, folly, and madness, I 
refer you to Xenophon's Tyrannus, where king Hieron dis- 
courseth at large with Simonides the poet, of this subject. 
Of all others they are most troubled with perpetual fears, 
anxieties, insomuch that, as he said in 'Valerius, if thou 
knewest with what cares and miseries this robe were stuffed, 
thou wouldst not stoop to take it up. Or put case they be 
secure and free from fears and discontents, yet they are void 
4 of reason too oft, and precipitate in their actions, read all 
our histories, quos de stultis prodidere stulti, Iliades, JEneides. 
Annales, and what is the subject ? 

" Stultoram regain, et populoram continet sestus." 

1 When pride and beggary meet in a claps in the skies. * Plautus Anlular 

flunlly, they roar and howl, and cause as * Lib. 7, cap. 6. * Pellltnr in bellis sa 

many flashes of discontents, as fire and pientla, vigeriturres. Vetus proverb! vim 

water, when they concur, make thunder- ant regeoi aut fatuum nasci oportert 

Democritus to the Header. 149 

The giddy tumults and the foolish rage 
Of kings and people. 

How mad they are, how furious, and upon small occasions, 
rash and inconsiderate in their proceedings, how they dote, 
every page almost will witness, 

* deli runt reges, plectuntur Achivi." 

When doting monarohs urge 

Unsound resolves, then* subjects feel the scourge. 

Next in place, next in miseries and discontents, in all man 
ner of hairbrain actions, are great men, procul d Jove, procul 
a fulmine, the nearer the worse. If they live in court, they 
are up and down, ebb and flow with their princes' favours, 
Ingenium vultu statque caditque stto, now aloft, to-morrow 
down, as * Polybius describes them, " like so many casting 
counters, now of gold, to-morrow of silver, that vary in 
worth as the computant will ; now they stand for units, to 
morrow for thousands ; now before all, and anon behind." 
Beside, they torment one another with mutual factions, emu 
lations ; one is ambitious, another enamoured, a third in debt, 
a prodigal, overruns his fortunes, a fourth solicitous with 
cares, gets nothing, &c. But for these men's discontents, 
anxieties, I refer you to Lucian's Tract, de mercede con- 
ductis, a ^Eneas Sylvius (libidinis et stvltitice servos, he calls 
them), Agrippa, and many others. 

Of philosophers and scholars priscee sapientice dictatores, I 
have already spoken in general terms, those superintendents 
of wit and learning, men above men, those refined men, min 
ions of tha muses, 

* " mentemque habere qnftls bonam 
Et esse * corculis datum est." 

'These acute and subtle sophisters, so much honoured, have 

1 Lib. 1, hist. Rom. Similes tot baccu- Kpid. lib. 1. e. 18. 4 Hoe cognoment* 

lorum calculis, secundiim computantig cohonestati Romae, qui cgeteros mortalef 

arbitrium, modi aerei sunt, mod6 aurei; sapientia praestarent, testis Plin. lib. 7, 

ad nutum regia nunc beati sunt nunc cap. 84. * Insanire parant certa rationc 

miseri. 2 ^rumnosique Solones in Sa. modoque, mad by the book they, &. 
3. De miser, curialium. * F. Dousa 

150 Democritus to the Reader. 

as much need of hellebore as others. 1 medici mediam 

pertundite venam. Read Lucian's Piscator, and tell how he 
esteemed them ; Agrippa's Tract of the vanity of Sciences ; 
nay, read their own works, their absurd tenets, prodigious 
paradoxes, et risum teneatis amid f You shall find that of 
Aristotle true, nuRum magnum ingenium sine mixtura de~ 
mentice, they have a worm as well as others ; you shall find a 
fantastical strain, a fustian, a bombast, a vainglorious humour, 
an affected style, &c., like a prominent thread in an uneven 
woven cloth, run parallel throughout their works. And they 
that teach wisdom, patience, meekness, are the veriest diz- 
zards, hairbrains, and most discontent 2 " In the multitude 
of wisdom is grief, and he that increaseth wisdom, increaseth 
sorrow." I need not quote mine author ; they that laugh 
and contemn others, condemn the world of folly, deserve to 
be mocked, are as giddy-headed, and lie as open as any other. 
'Democritus, that common flouter of folly, was ridiculous 
himself, barking Menippus, scoffing Lucian, satirical Lucilius, 
Petronius, Varro, Persius, &c., may be censured with the 
rest, Loripedem rectus derideat, jffithiopem albus. Bale, 
Erasmus, Hospinian, Vives, Kemnisius, explode as a vast 
ocean of obs and sols, school divinity. * A labyrinth of in- 
tricable questions, unprofitable contentions, incredibilem deli' 
rationem, one calls it. If school divinity be so censured 
subtilis 6 Scotus lima veritatis, Occam irrefragaJnlis, cujus in 
genium vetera omnia ingenia subvertit, fyc. Baconthrope, Dr 
Besolutus, and Corculum Theologice, Thomas himself, Doctor 
6 Seraphicus, cui dictavit Angelus, fyc. What shall become 
of humanity ? Ars stutia, what can she plead ? What can 
her followers say for themselves ? Much learning, 7 cere 
diminuit-brum, hath cracked their sconce, and taken such 
root, that tribus Anticyris caput insanabile, hellebore itself 
can do no good, nor that renowned 8 lantern of Epictetus, by 

1 Jurenal. " Physicians ! open the Vit. (Jus. 1 Knniun. > Luoian 

middle Teln." Solomon. * Com- Ter mille dnchmis olim empta; student 

munla Irrlaor gtultittae. * Wit whither Inde sapientiam adipiscetur 
wUtr * Scaliger exercltat. 824. 

Democritus to the Reader. 151 

which if any man studied, he should be as wise as he was 
But all will not serve ; rhetoricians, in ostentationem loquaci' 
tatis multa agitant, out of their volubility of tongue, will talk 
much to no purpose, orators can persuade other men what 
they will, quo volunt, unde volunt, move, pacify, &c., but can 
not settle their own brains, what saith Tully ? Malo indeser- 
tam prudentiam, quam loquacem stultitiam ; and as * Seneca 
seconds him, a wise man's oration should not be polite or 
solicitous. 2 Fabius esteems no better of most of them, either 
in speech, action, gesture, than as men beside themselves, 
insanos declamatores ; so doth Gregory, Non mihi sapjt qui 
sermone, sed qui factis sapit. Make the best of him, a good 
orator is a turncoat, an evil man, bonus orator pessimus vir, 
his tongue is set to sale, he is a mere voice, as 8 he said of a 
nightingale, dot sine mente sonum, an hyperbolical liar, a 
flatterer, a parasite, and as 4 Ammianus Marcellinus will, a 
corrupting cozener, one that doth more mischief by his fair 
speeches, than he that bribes by money ; for a man may with 
more facility avoid him that circumvents by money, than him 
that deceives with glozing terms ; which made 6 Socrates so 
much abhor and explode them. 6 Fracastorius, a famous poet, 
freely grants all poets to be mad ; so doth 7 Scaliger ; and 
who doth not ? Aut insanit homo, aut versus facit (He's 
mad or making verses), Hor. Sat. vii. 1, 2, Insanire lubet, i. e. 
versus componere. Virg. 3 Eel ; So Servius interprets it, all 
poets are mad, a company of bitter satirists, detractors, or else 
parasitical applauders ; and what is poetry itself, but as Aus 
tin holds, Vinum erroris ab ebriis doctoribus propinatum ? 
You may give that censure of them in general, which Sir 
Thomas More once did of Germanus Brixius's poems in par 

" vehnntur 
In rate stultitise, sylvam habitant Furiae." 8 

1 Epist. 21, 1, lib. Non oportet ora- facere Tidetur qui oratione quim qui 

tionem sapientis esse politam aut solici- prsetio quern vis corrumpit : nam, &c. 

tarn. 2 Lib. 3. cap. 13, multo anhelitu 5 In Qorg. Platouis. * In naugerio. 

jactatione furentes pectus, frontem cae- 7 Si furor sit Lyseus, &c., quoties furit, 

denies, &o. * Lipsius, voces sunt, furit, furit, amans, bibens, et Poeta, &c. 

praterea nihil. Lib. 80, plus mail * " They are borne in the bark of folly, 

152 Democritus to the Reader. 

Budaeus, in an epistle of his to Lupsetus, will have civ? 
law to be the tower of wisdom ; another honours physic, the 
quintessence of nature ; a third tumbles them both down, and 
sets up the flag of his own peculiar science. Your super 
cilious critics, grammatical triflers, note-makers, curious anti 
quaries, find out all the ruins of wit, ineptiarum delicias, 
amongst the rubbish of old writers ; 1 Pro stultis habent nisi 
aliquid sufficiant invenire, quod in aliorum scriptis vertant 
vitioj all fools with them that cannot find fault ; they correct 
others, and are hot in a cold cause, puzzle themselves to find 
out how many streets in Rome, houses, gates, towers, Ho 
mer's country, JEneas's mother, Niobe's daughters, an Sap 
pho puWica fuerit ? ovum *prius extiterit an gattina ! $<?., 
et alia qua dediscenda essent scire, si scires, as "Seneca 
holds. What clothes the senators did wear in Rome, wbat 
shoes, how they sat, where they went to the closestool, how 
many dishes in a mess, what sauce, which for the present for 
an historian to relate, 4 according to Lodovic. Vives, is very 
ridiculous, is to them most precious elaborate stuff, they 
admired for it, and as proud, as triumphant in the mean 
time for this discovery, as if they had won a city, or con 
quered a province ; as rich as if they had found a mine of 
gold ore. Quosvis auctores absurdis commentis suis per- 
cacant et stercorant, one saith, they bewray and daub a com 
pany of books and good authors, with their absurd comments, 
eorrectorum sterqvilinia 8 Scaliger calls them, and show their 
wit in censuring others, a company of foolish note-makers 
bumblebees, dors, or beetles, inter stercora ut plurimum ver 
tantur, they rake over all those rubbish and dunghills, and 
prefer a manuscript many times before the Gospel itself, 
*thesaurum criticum, before any treasure, and with their 
deleaturg, alii legunt sic, meus codex sic habet, with theii 
vostremee editiones, annotations, castigations, &c., make books 
dear, themselves ridiculous, and do nobody good, yet if any 

and dwell in the grove of madness." eorrup. artium. * Lib. 2, In Ausontum, 
1 Uonu Utop. lib. 11. * Maerob. Satnr. cap. 19 et 32. Edit 7, TOlnm. Jano 
7, 16. * Eplflt. 1C. * Lib. de cauato Qutero. 

Democritus to the Reader. 168 

man dare oppose or contradict, they are mad, up in arms or* 
a sudden, how many sheets are written in defence, how bitter 
invectives, what apologies ? *Epiphittedes hce sunt ut mera 
nuffce. But I dare say no more of, for, with, or against 
them, because I am liable to their lash as well as others. 
Of these and the rest of our artists and philosophers, I will 
generally conclude they are a kind of madmen, as * Seneca 
esteems of them, to make doubts and scruples, how to read 
them truly, to mend old authors, but will not mend their own 
lives, or teach us ingenia sanare, memoriam qfficiorum in- 
gerere, ac fidem in rebtts humanis retinere, to keep our wits 
in order, or rectify our manners. Numquid tibi demens vide- 
tur, si istis operam impendent ? Is not he mad that draws 
lines with Archimedes, whilst his house is ransacked, and his 
city besieged, when the whole world is in combustion, or we 
whilst our souls are in danger, (mors sequitur, vita fugif) to 
spend our time in toys, idle questions, and things of no 

That 8 lovers are mad, I think no man will deny, Amare 
simttl et sapere, ipsi Jovi non datur, Jupiter himself cannot 
intend both at once. 

4 " Non bene conveniunt, nee in nnft sede morantur 
Majestas et amor." 

Tully, when he was invited to a second marriage, replied, 
he could not sirmd amare et sapere, be wise and love both 
together. 6 Est orcus iUe, vis est immedicabilis, est rabies fe 
insana, love is madness, a hell, an incurable disease ; im- 
potentem et insanam libidinem ' Seneca calls it, an impotent t 
and raging lust. I shall dilate this subject apart; in the 
mean time let lovers sigh out the rest. 

'Nevisanus the lawyer holds it for an axiom, "most 
women are fools," 8 consilium fceminis invalidum ; Seneca, 

1 Arlstophanls Ranis. * Lib. de Amatorio est amor insanus. Epist. 

beneficiis. s Delirus et amens dicatur 89. ' Sylvse nuptialis. 1. 1, num. 11. 

amans. Hor. Seneca. * Orld. Met. Omnes mul'ieres ut plurimusi etultsa 

"Majesty and Lore do not agree well, > Aristotle. 
nor dwell together." & Plutarch. 

154 Democritus to the Reader. 

men, be they young or old ; who doubts it, youth is mad as 
Elius in Tully, Stulti adolescentrtli, old age little better, deliri 
senes, Sfc. Theophrastus, in the 107th year of his age, ' said 
he then began to be wise, turn sapere ccepit, and therefore 
lamented his departure. If wisdom come so late, where 
shall we find a wise man ? Our old ones dote at threescore- 
and-ten. I would cite more proofs, and a better author, but 
for the present, let one fool point at another. a Nevisanus 
hath as hard an opinion of * rich men, " wealth and wisdom 
cannot dwell together," stultitiam patiuntur opes, * and they 
do commonly 6 infatuare cor hominis, besot men ; and as we 
see it, " fools have fortune ; " 6 Sapientia non invenitur in 
terra suaviter viventium. For beside a natural contempt of 
learning, which accompanies such kind of men, innate idle 
ness (for they will take no pains), and which 'Aristotle 
observes, ubi mens plurima, ibi minima fortuna, ubi plurima 
fortuna, ibi mens perexigua, great wealth and little wit go 
commonly together : they have as much brains some of 
them in their heads as in their heels; besides this inbred 
neglect of liberal sciences, and all arts, which should excolere 
mentem, polish the mind, they have most part some gullish 
humour or other, by which they are led ; one is an Epicure, 
an Atheist, a second a gamester, a third a whoremaster (fit 
subjects all for a satirist to work upon) ; 

" Hie nnptarum insanit amoribos, hie puerorum." 

One burns to madness for the wedded dame; 
Unnatural lusts another's heart inflame. 

9 one is mad of hawking, hunting, cocking ; another of carous 
ing, horse-riding, spending ; a fourth of building, fighting, &c^ 
Insanit veteres statuas Damasippus emendo, Damasippus hath 

1 Dolere se dlrit quod turn rita egred- * Fortuna niminm quern fbret, stnltum 

eretur. * Lib. I, num. 11, sapientia ficit. Job. 28. 7 Mag. moral, lib. 

et diTitiss vix simul possideri possunt. 2, et lib. 1, sat. 4. * Hor. lib. 1, sat. 4 

1 They get their wisdom by eating pie- Inoana gula. insanae obstructiones, in 

crust some 4 xfnjfiaTa rotf tfvyrotc sanum renandi studium discordla d 

yivtrat ajpoovvTi. Opes quldem mor- mens. Vu-g. ^n. 
Ullbus iunt amentia. Theognls. 

Democritus to the Reader. 155 

an humour of his own, to be talked of; 1 Heliodorus the 
Carthaginian, another. In a word, as Scaliger concludes of 
them all, they are Statuce erectce stukitice, the very statues or 
pillars of folly. Choose out of all stories him that hath been 
most admired, you shall still find, multa ad laudem, multa ad 
vituperationem magnified, as 2 Berosus of Semiramis ; omnes 
mortales militia, triumphis, divitiis, fyc., turn et luxu, ccede, 
cceterisgue vitiis antecessit, as she had some good, so had she 
many bad parts. 

Alexander, a worthy man, but furious in his anger, over 
taken in drink ; Caesar and Scipio valiant and wise, but vain 
glorious, ambitious ; Vespasian a worthy prince, but covet 
ous ; 8 Hannibal, as he had mighty virtues, so had he many 
vices ; unam virtutem mitte vitia comitantur, as Machiavel of 
Cosmo de Medici, he had two distinct persons in him. I 
will determine of them all, they are like these double or 
turning pictures ; stand before which you see a fair maid, on 
the one side an ape, on the other an owl ; look upon them 
at the first sight, all is well, but further examine, you shall 
find them wise on the one side, and fools on the other; in 
some few things praiseworthy, in the rest incomparably 
faulty. I will say nothing of their diseases, emulations, dis 
contents, wants, and such miseries ; let poverty plead the 
rest in Aristophanes's Plutus. 

Covetous men, amongst others, are most mad, 4 They have 
all the symptoms of melancholy, fear, sadness, suspicion, &c., 
as shall be proved in its proper place. 

" Danda est Hellebori multo pars maxima avaris.' 

Misers make Anticyra their own ; 
Its hellebore reserv'd for them alone. 

And yet methinks prodigals are much madder than they, 

1 Heliodorus Carthagintensis ad ex- suspects. * Liyy. Ingentes virtutes. 

tremum orbis sarcophago testamento me ingentia rltla. 4 Hor. Quiaquis am- 

hie jussi condler, et ut viderem an quls bitione mala ant argent! pa Jet amore 

insanior ad me visendum usque ad hrec Qulsquifl luxurift, tristiquesi perstitkw* 

loca penetraret. Ortellus In Gad. Per. 
1 If It be his work, which Gasper Veretua 

156 Democritus to the Header. 

oe of what condition they will, that bear a public or private 
purse ; as ' Dutch writer censured Richard the rich duke of 
Cornwall, suing to be emperor, for his profuse spending, 
qui effudit pecuniam ante pedes principium Electorum sicut 
aquam, that scattered money like water ; I do censure them, 
Stulta Anglia (saith he) guts tot denarii$ sponte est privata, 
stulti principes Alemanice, qui nobtte jus suum pro pecunid 
vendiderunt ; spendthrifts, bribers, and bribe-takers are fools, 
and so are a all they that cannot keep, disburse, or spend 
their moneys well. 

I might say the like of angry, peevish, envious, ambitious ; 

* Anticyras melior sorbere meracas; Epicures, Atheists, Schis 
matics, Heretics ; hi omnes habent imaginationem Icesam (saith 
Nymannus) " and their madness shall be evident." 2 Tim. 
iii. 9. 4 Fabatus, an Italian, holds seafaring men all mad ; 
" the ship is mad, for it never stands still ; the mariners are 
mad, to expose themselves to such imminent dangers ; the 
waters are raging mad, in perpetual motion ; the winds are 
as mad as the rest, they know not whence they come, whither 
they would go ; and those men are maddest of all that go to 
sea ; for one fool at home, they find forty abroad." He was 
a madman that said it, and thou peradventure as mad to read 
it. 8 Faelix Platerus is of opinion all alchemists are mad, out 
of their wits ; e Atheneus saith as much of fiddlers, et musa- 
rum luscinias, 7 Musicians, omnes tibicines insaniunt ; ubi 
temel ejflant, avolat ittico mens, in comes music at one ear, 
out goes wit at another. Proud and vainglorious persons 
are certainly mad ; and so are 8 lascivious ; I can feel their 
pulses beat hither ; horn-mad some of them, to let others lie 
with their wives, and wink at it 

To insist * in all particulars, were an Herculean task, to 

i Cronlea Slavonic* ad annum 1257, de gieng, 40 marl inrenit. Gaspar Ens. 

cujus pecunlajain incredibilia dixerunt. More?. * Cap. de alien, mentis. 

* A fool and his money are soon parted. Dipnosophist. lib. 8. 1 Tibicinei 

* Oral, de imag. ambitiosus et audax mente Capti. Erastn. Chi. 14, oer. 7. 
nariget Anticyras. Naris stulta, qua * Prov. 80. Insana libido. Hie rof?o non 
eontinuo moretnr; nautas stulti qui tie furor est, non est haec mentula demens. 
periculifi ezponunt; aqua insana quse sto Mart. ep. 74. 1. 8. Mille puellarnm 
fremlt, &c. ; a8r jactatur, &c. ; qui marl et puerorum rallle Jurorea 

se commlf.tit stolidum unum terra fu- 

Democritus to the Reader. 157 

'reckon up "insanas substructiones, insanos lab res, insanum 
luxum, mad labours, mad books, endeavours, carnages, gross 
ignorance, ridiculous actions, absurd gestures ; insanam gulam. 
insaniam vittarum, insana jurgia, as Tully terms them, mad 
ness of villages, stupend structures ; as those ^Egyptian Pyra 
mids, Labyrinths and Sphinxes, which a company of crowned 
asses, ad ostcntationem opum, vainly built, when neither the 
architect nor king that made them, or to what use and pur 
pose, are yet known ; to insist in their hypocrisy, inconstancy, 
blindness, rashness, deinentem temeritatem, fraud, cozenage, 
malice, anger, impudence, ingratitude, ambition, gross super 
stition, 8 tempora infecta et adulatione sordida, as in Tiberius's 
times, such base flattery, stupend, parasitical fawning and 
colloguing, &c., brawls, conflicts, desires, contentions, it would 
ask an expert Vesalius to anatomize every member. Shall 
I say ? Jupiter himself, Apollo, Mars, &c., doted ; and 
monster-conquering Hercules that subdued the world, and 
helped others, could not relieve himself in this, but mad he 
was at last. And where shall a man walk, converse with 
whom, in what province, city, and not meet with Signior 
Deliro, or Hercules Furens, Maenades, and Corybantes ? 
Their speeches say no less. 4 E fungis nati homines, or else 
they fetched their pedigree from those that were struck by 
Samson with the jawbone of an ass. Or from Deucalion 
and Pyrrha's stones, for durum genus sumus, 6 marmorei 
sumus, we are stony-hearted, and savour too much of the 
stock, as if they had all heard that enchanted horn of Astol- 
pho, that English duke in Ariosto, which never sounded but 
all his auditors were mad, and for fear ready to make away 
with themselves ; ' or landed in the mad haven in the Euxine 
sea of Daphnis insana, which had a secret quality to demen- 
tate ; they are a company of giddy-heads, afternoon men, it 

1 Uter est insanior horum ? Hor. Ovid, semisculpti. Arianus periplo marts 

Virg. Plin. * Plin. lib. 36. * Tacl- Eurini portus ejus meminit, et Gillius, 

tus 3, Anpal. * Ovid. 7, met. E fungis 1. 3, de Bosphor. Thracio et lanms insana 

nati homines ut olim Corinthi primserl quae allata in convivium conviras omnef 

illius loci accolee, quia stolidi et fetui fun- insanil affecit. Quliel. Stucchius com- 

gis nati dicebantur, idem et alibi dicas. ment., &o. 
t Famian de bajulia, de marmora 

158 Demccritus to the Header. 

is Midsummer moon still, and the dogdays last all the year 
long, they are all mad. Whom shall I then except ? Ulricua 
Huttenus l nemo, nam nemo omnibus horis sapit, Nemo nasci- 
tur sine vitiis, Crimine Nemo caret, Nemo sorte sua vivit con- 
tentus, Nemo in amore sapit, Nemo bonus, Nemo sapiens, 
Nemo est ex omni parte beatus, fyc.,* and therefore Nich 
olas Nemo, or Monsieur Nobody shall go free, Quid valeat 
nemo, Nemo referre potest f But whom shall I except in the 
second place ? such as are silent, vir sapit qui pauca loqui' 
tur ; 3 no better way to avoid folly and madness, than by 
taciturnity. Whom in a third ? all senators, magistrates ; 
for all fortunate men are wise, and conquerors valiant, and so 
are all great men, non est bonum ludere cum diis, they are 
wise by authority, good by their office and place, his licet 
impune pessimos esse (some say) we must not speak of them, 
neither is it fit ; per me sint omnia protinus alba, I will not 
think amiss of them. Whom next ? Stoics ? Sapient 
Stoicus, and he alone is subject to no perturbations, as ' Plu 
tarch scoffs at him, " he is not vexed with torments, or burnt 
with fire, foiled by his adversary, sold of his enemy ; though 
he be wrinkled, sand-blind, toothless, and deformed ; yet he 
is most beautiful, and like a god, a king in conceit, though not 
worth a groat." " He never dotes, never mad, never sad, 
drunk, because virtue cannot be taken away," as * Zeno holds, 
" by reason of strong apprehension," but he was mad to say 
so. 8 Anticyrte caelo huic est opus aut dolabrd, he had need 
to be bored, and so had all his fellows, as wise as they would 
seem to be. Chrysippus himself liberally grants them to be 
fools as well as others, at certain times, upon some occasions, 
amitti virtutem ait per ebrietatem, aut atribilarium morbum, it 

1 Lepldum poems die Inscriptum. tus. Eti rugosun, senex edentulug, 

* " No one is wise at all hours, no one lusrus, defonnis. formosus tumen, et deo 

born without faults, no one free from similis, felix, dives, rex nullius egeng, 

crime, no one content with his lot, no etui denarlo non sit diirnus. * Ilium 

one In love wise, no good, or wise man conteudnnt nonlnjuriiafflci, non InsanlJ, 

perfectly happy." * Stultltlam simu- non inebrlari, quia virtus non eripitur ob 

Isrp non potea nlnl taciturnltate. * Ex- constantes comprehenMones. Lips. phys. 

tort'.m non crndatur, ambustug non Stoic, lib. 8, diffl 18. 6 Tarreu* Hebuf 

Iwdltnr. pmxtratus In Incta. oon vinoi- epig. 102, 1, 8. 
tor ; non fit captirus ab hoste renunda- 

Democritus to the Readei. 159 

may be lost by drunkenness or melancholy, he may be some 
times crazed as well as the rest ; l ad summum sapiens nisi 
quum pituita molesta. I should here except some Cynics, 
Menippus, Diogenes, that Theban Crates ; or to descend to 
these times, that omniscious, only wise fraternity * of the 
Rosicrucians, those great theologues, politicians, philosophers, 
physicians, philologers, artists, &c., of whom S. Bridget, 
Albas Joacchimus, Leicenbergius, and such divine spirits 
have prophesied, and made promise to the world, if at least 
there be any such (Hen. 8 Neuhusius makes a doubt of it, 
4 Valentinus Andreas and others) or an Elias artifex their 
Theophrastian master; whom though Libavius and many 
deride and carp at, yet some will have to be " the 6 renewer 
of all arts and sciences," reformer of the world, and now liv 
ing, for so Johannes Montanus Strigoniensis, that great patron 
of Paracelsus, contends, and certainly avers 6 " a most divine 
man," and the quintessence of wisdom wheresoever he is ; for 
he, his fraternity, friends, &c., are all 5 " betrothed to wisdom," 
if we may believe their disciples and followers. I must needs 
except Lipsius and the Pope, and expunge their name out 
of the catalogue of fools. For besides that parasitical testi 
mony of Dousa, 

" A Sole exoriente Mseotidas usque paludes, 
Nemo est qui justo se sequiparare queat." * 

Lipsius saith of himself, that he was 8 humani generis quidem 
peedagogus voce et stylo, a grand signior, a master, a tutor of 
us all, and for thirteen years he brags how he sowed wisdom 
in the Low Countries, as Ammonius the philosopher some 
times did in Alexandria, * cum humanitate liter as et sapien- 
tiam cum prudentia : antistes sapientice, he shall be Sapientum 
Octavus. The Pope is more than a man, as 10 his parats 

1 Hor. * Fratres sanct. Rosete crucis. ing Sun to the Maeotid Lake, there wai 

* An sint, qnales pint, unde nomen illud not one that could fairly be put in com 
Mciverint. * Turri Babel. 5 Om- parison with them." Sc lus hlc est 
nium artium et scientiarum instaurator. sapiens alii volitant Telut umbras. * IB 

Divinus ille yir auctor notarum in epist. ep. ad Balthas. Moretum. 10 Rqeeti- 
Hog. Bacon, ed. Hambur. 1608. " Sa- unculae ad Patavum. Felinus cum reli 
pientise desponsati. * " From the Ris- quia. 

160 Democritus to the Reader. 

often make him, a demi-god, and besides his holiness cannot 
err, in Cathedra belike ; and yet some of them have been 
magicians, Heretics, Atheists, children, and as Platina saith 
of John 22. Etsi vir literatus, multa stoliditatem et Icevitatem 
prce se ferentia egit, stolidi et socordis vir ingenii, a scholar 
sufficient, yet many things he did foolishly, lightly. I can 
say no more than in particular, but in general terms to the 
rest, they are all mad, their wits are evaporated, and as 
Ariosto feigns 1. 34, kept in jars above the moon. 

M Some lose their wits with love, some with ambition, 
Some following * Lords and men of high condition. 
Some in fair jewels rich and costly set, 
Others in Poetry their wits forget, 
Another thinks to be an Alchemist, 
Till all be spent, and that his number's mist." 

Convicted fools they are, mad men upon record ; and I am 
afraid past cure many of them, * crepunt inguina, the symp 
toms are manifest, they are all of Gotam parish : 

" Quura furor haud dubius, quum sit manifesta phrenesis," 
(Since madness is indisputable, since frenzy is obvious,) 

what remains then * but to send for Lorarios, those officers 
to carry them all together for company to Bedlam, and set 
Rabelais to be their physician. 

If any man shall ask in the mean time, who I am that so 
boldly censure others, tu nuUane habes vitia? have I no 
faults? 4 Yes, more than thou hast, whatsoever thou art. 
Nos numerus sum-its, I confess it again, I am as foolish, as 
mad as any one. 

'" Insanus vobis videor, non deprecor ipse, 
Quo minus insanus," 

1 do not deny it, demens de populo dematur. My comfort is, 

1 Magnum ylrum sequl est sapere, tage. * Aliquantulum tamen inde m 

some think; others desipere. Catul. eolabor, quod uni cum multis et sapien- 

* Plant. Meneo. - In Sat. 14. * Or tibus et celeberrimis viris ipge inslpiena 

to send for a cook to the Anttcyne to aim, quod ee Menippus Lucianiin Necyo- 

nake hellebore pottage, settle-brain pot- maiitia. 8 Petrouiua In Catalecc. 

Democrituis to the Reader. 161 

I have more fellows, and those of excellent note. And though 
I be not so right or so discreet as I should be, yet not so 
mad, so bad neither, as thou perhaps takest me to be. 

To conclude, this being granted, that all the world is i 
melancholy, or mad, dotes, and every member of it, I have 
ended my task, and sufficiently illustrated that which I took 
upon me to demonstrate at first At this present I have no 
more to say ; His sanam mentem Democritus, I can but wish 
myself and them a good physician, and all of us a better 

And although for the above-named reasons, I had a just 
cause to undertake this subject, to point at these particular 
species of dotage, that so men might acknowledge their im 
perfections, and seek to reform what is amiss ; yet I have a 
more serious intent at this time ; and to omit all impertinent 
digressions, to say no more of such as are improperly melan 
choly, or metaphorically mad, lightly mad, or in disposition, 
as stupid, angry, drunken, silly, sottish, sullen, proud, vain 
glorious, ridiculous, beastly, peevish, obstinate, impudent, ex 
travagant, dry, doting, dull, desperate, hairbrain, &c., mad, 
frantic, foolish, heteroclites, which no new 1 hospital can hold, 
no physic help; my purpose and endeavour is, in the fol 
lowing discourse to anatomize this humour of melancholy, 
through all its parts and species, as it is an habit, or an ordi 
nary disease, and that philosophically, medicinally, to show 
the causes, symptoms, and several cures of it, that it may be 
the better avoided. Moved thereunto for the generality of 
it, and to do good, it being a disease so frequent, as a Mercu- 
rialis observes, " in these our days ; so often happening," 
saith "Laurentius, "in our miserable times," as few there 
are that feel not the smart of it. Of the same mind is ^Elian 
Montalius, 4 Melancthon, and others ; 6 Julius Caesar Claudi- 
nus calls it the " fountain of all other diseases, and so com- 

1 That I mean of Andr. Vale. Apolog. * Consult. 98, adeo nostris temporlbna 

manip. 1. 1 et 26, Apol. * Hsec affec- frequenter ingruit tit nullus fere ab ejus 

tio nostris temporibus frequenttasima. labe immunis reperiatur et omnium fere 

8 Cap. 15, de Mel. * De animo nostro marborum occasio existat. 

hoc saeculo morbus frequentissimug. 

voi* t, 11 

162 Democritus to the Header. 

mon in this crazed age of ours, that scarce one of a thousand 
is free from it ; " and that splenetic hypochondriacal wind 
especially, which proceeds from the spleen and short ribs. 
Being then a disease so grievous, so common, I know not 
wherein to do a more general service, and spend my time 
better, than to prescribe means how to prevent and cure so 
universal a malady, an epidemical disease, that so often, so 
much crucifies the body and mind. 

If I have overshot myself in this which hath been hitherto 
said, or that it is, which I am sure some will object, too fan 
tastical, u too light and comical for a Divine, too satirical for 
one of my profession," I will presume to answer with 
1 Erasmus, in like case, 'tis not I, but Democritus, Democ 
ritus dixit ; you must consider what it is to speak in one's 
own or another's person, an assumed habit and name ; a 
difference betwixt him that affects or acts a prince's, a phi 
losopher's, a magistrate's, a fool's part, and him that is so 
indeed ; and what liberty those old satirists have had ; it is a 
cento collected from others ; not I, but they that say it 

2 " Dixero si quid forte jocosius, hoc mihi juris 
Cum venia dabis." 

Yet some indulgence I may justly claim, 
If too familiar with another's fame. 

Take heed, you mistake me not If I do a little forget 
myself, I hope you will pardon it And to say truth, why 
should any man be offended, or take exceptions at it ? 

" Licnit, semperque licebit, 
Parcere personis, dicere de vitiis." 

It lawful was of old, and still will be, 
To speak of vice, but let the name go free 

I hate their vices, not their persons. If any be displeased, 
or take aught unto himself, let him not expostulate or cavil 
with him that said it (so did * Erasmus excuse himself to 

1 Mor. Encom. A quis calumnletur ytndicet, non habet quod expogtnlet cum 

levius esse quam decet Theologum, ant eo qul no.ripsH, ipte si volet, secum agat 

mordaciuB quam decent Chrutianum. injurtam, utpote sui prodltor. qul deo- 

Hor. Sat. 4, 1. 1. Epi. ad I orpium laravit hoc ad e propne pertinore. 
4e Moria. si qulspiam offendatur et aibl 

Democritus to the Seackr. 163 

Dorp? us, si parva licet componere magnis) and so do I ; "but 
let him be angry with himself, that so betrayed and opened 
his own faults in applying it to himself: " * if he be guilty 
and deserve it, let him amend, whoever he is, and not be 
angry. " He that hateth correction is a fool," Prov. xii. 1. 
If he be not guilty, it concerns him not ; it is not my freeness 
of speech, but a guilty conscience, a galled back of his own 
that makes him wince. 

" Snspicione si quis errabit su&, 
Et rapiet ad se, quod erit commune omnium, 
Stnltfc nudabit animi conscientiam." * 

I deny not this which I have said savours a little of Democ 
ritus ; a Quamvis ridentem dicere verum quid vetat ; one may 
speak in jest, and yet speak truth. It is somewhat tart, I 
grant it; acriora orexim excitant embammata, as he said, 
sharp sauces increase appetite, * nee cibus ipse jurat morsu 
fraudatw aceti. Object then and cavil what thou wilt, I 
ward all with * Democritus's buckler, his medicine shall salve 
it; strike where thou wilt, and when; Democritus dixit, 
Democritus will answer it. It was written by an idle fellow, 
at idle times, about our Saturnalian or Dyonisian feasts, when 
as he said, nuttum libertati periculum est, servants in old Rome 
had liberty to say and do what them list When our coun 
trymen sacrificed to their goddess 6 Vacuna, and sat tippling 
by their Vacunal fires, I writ this, and published this oflrtf 
Bxyev, it is neminis nihil. The time, place, persons, and all 
circumstances apologize for me, and why may I not then be 
idle with others ? speak my mind freely ? If you deny me 
this liberty, upon these presumptions I will take it ; I say 
again, I will take it. 

' " Si qnis est qui dictum in se inclementius 
Existimavit esse, sic existimet." 

1 Si qnis se Itesum clamabit, ant con- hos ictus Democriti pharmaeos. s Bus* 
scientiam prodit suam, aut certe metum. ticorum dea preesse vacantibus et otiosig 
Phsedr. lib. 3. J5sop. Fab. * If any putabatur, cui post labores agricola sac- 
one shall err through his own suspicion, rificabat. Plin. 1. 3, c. 12. Grid. 1. 6. 
and shall apply to himself what is com- Fast. Jam quoque cum fiunt antiqnse 
mon to all, he will foolishly betray a con- sacra Vaaunae, ante Vacunales stantqn 
eiousness of guilt. 2 Hor. 3 Mart, sedentque focos. Bosinus. * Ter. pro" 
I 7. 22. * Ut lubet feriat, abstergant Eunuch. 

164 Democritus to the Reader. 

If any man take exceptions, let him turn the buckle of his 
girdle, I care not. I owe thee nothing (Reader), I look for 
no favour at thy hands, I am independent, I fear not 

No, I recant, I will not, I care, I fear, I confess my fault, 
acknowledge a great offence, 

M motos prstat componere fluctns." 
(let's first assuage the troubled waves.) 

I have overshot myself, I have spoken foolishly, rashly, un 
advisedly, absurdly, I have anatomized mine own folly. And 
now methinks upon a sudden I am awaked as it were out of 
a dream ; I have had a raving fit, a fantastical fit, ranged up 
and down, in and out, I have insulted over the most kind of 
men, abused some, offended others, wronged myself; and 
now being recovered, and perceiving mine error, cry with 
1 Orlando, Solvite me, pardon (o boni) that which is past, and 
I will make you amends in that which is to come; I promise 
you a more sober discourse in my following treatise. 

If through weakness, folly, passion, s discontent, ignorance, 
I have said amiss, let it be forgotten and forgiven. I ac 
knowledge that of 8 Tacitus to be true, Asperce facetiae ubi 
nimis ex vero traxere, acrem sui memoriam relinquunt, a bitter 
jest leaves a sting behind it ; and as an honourable man ob 
serves, * " They fear a satirist's wit, he their memories." I 
may justly suspect the worst; and though I hope I have 
wronged no man, yet in Medea's words I will crave pardon. 

" Illud jam voce extrema peto, 
Ke si qua noster dubius effudit dolor, 
Maneant in anirno verba, sed melior tibl 
Memoria nostri subeat, haec irae data 
Obliterentur " 

And in my last words this I do desire, 
That what in passion I have said, or ire, 
May be forgotten, and a better mind 
Be had of us, hereafter as you find. 

> Afloat. 1. 39. Staf. 58. * Ut enlm ep. lib. 8. * Annul. 15. * Sir Fran 
ex studils gaudium.sic stadia ez hilari- cu Bacon In his Essays, now Viscount 8t 
tato proveniunt. Pllnius Maximo HUO, Albani 

Democritus to the Reader. 165 

I earnestly request every private man, as Scaliger did Car 
dan, not to take offence. I will conclude in his lines, Si me 
cognitum haberes, non solum donares nobis hasfacetias nostras, 
sed etiam indignum duceres, tarn humanum animum, lene in- 
genium, vel minimam suspicionem deprecari oportere. If thou 
knewest my * modesty and simplicity, thou wouldst easily 
pardon and forgive what is here amiss, or by thee miscon 
ceived. If hereafter anatomizing this surly humour, my 
hand slip, as an unskilful 'prentice I lance too deep, and cut 
through skin and all at unawares, make it smart, or cut awry, 
1 pardon a rude hand, an unskilful knife, 'tis a most difficult 
thing to keep an even tone, a perpetual tenor, and not some 
times to lash out ; difficile est Satyram non scribere, there be 
so many objects to divert, inward perturbations to molest, and 
the very best may sometimes err ; aliquando bonus dormitat 
Homerus (sometimes that excellent Homer takes a nap), it 

is impossible not in so much to overshoot ; opere in longo 

fas est obrepere somnum. But what needs all this? I hope 
there will no such cause of offence be given; if there be, 
8 " Nemo aliquid recognoscat, nos mentimur omnia. I'll deny 
all (my last refuge), recant all, renounce all I have said, if 
any man except, and with as much facility excuse, as he can 
accuse ; but I presume of thy good favour, and gracious ac 
ceptance (gentle reader). Out of an assured hope and con 
fidence thereof, I will begin. 

* Quod Probos Persii Burypddtof vir- * Prol. quer. Plaut. " Let not any one 

ginali yerecundia Persium fuisse dicit, ** ***** **>&& to himself, they ara all 

ego, &c. i Quas aut incuria fudit, aut ut fictions." porum cayit natura. Hor. 


fu vero cavesis edico qnisqais es, ne temere sugilles Auctorem hujusce 
operis, aat cavillator irrideas. Imo ne vel ex aliorum censura tacite oblo- 
quaris (vis dicam verbo) ne quid nasutolus inepte improbes, aut falso fingas. 
Nam si talis revera sit, qualem prae se fert Junior Democritus, seniori Do- 
mocrito saltern affinis, aut ejus Genium vel taut ilium sapiat; actum de te, 
jensorem ceque ac delatorem 1 aget e contra (petulanti splene cum sit), sut- 
flabit te in jocos, comminuet in sales, addo etiaru, et deo ritui te sacrifica- 

Iterum moneo, no qaid cavillere, nedum Democritum Jwuorem conviciis 
infames, aut ignominiose vituperes, de te non male sentientem: tu idem 
audias ab amico cordato, quod olim vulgus AbderUanum ab ^BippocraU, 
concivem bene meritum et popularem suum Democritum, pro insano 
habeas. Ne tu Democrite sapis, stulti autem et insani AbderiUe. 

* " Abderitanas poctora plebis babes." 
Haec te paucis admonitum volo (male feriate Lector), abi. 


WHOEVER you may be, I caution yon against rashly defaming the au 
thor of this work, or cavilling in jest against him. Nay, do not silently 
reproach him in consequence of others' censnre, nor employ your wit in 
foolish disapproval, or false accusation. For, should Democritus Junior 
prove to be what he professes, even a kinsman of his elder namesake, or 
be ever so little of the same kidney, it is all over with you ; he will be 
come both accuser and judge of you in your spleen, will dissipate you in 
jests, pulverize you into salt, and sacrifice you, I can promise you, to the 
god of Mirth. 

I further advise you, not to asperse, or calumniate, or slander, Democri 
tus Junior, who possibly does not think ill of you, lest you may hear from 
some discreet friend, the same remark the people of Abdera did from Hip 
pocrates, of their meritorious and popular fellow-citizen, whom they had 
looked on as a madman ; " It is not that you, Democritus, that art wise 
but that the people of Abdera are fools and madmen." " You have your 
self an Abderitian soul ; " and having just given you, gentle reader, these 
few words of admonition, farewell 

1 Si me comm&rit, mellus non tangere negotium, Bed rerum omnium receptacu- 

elatno. Hor. 2 Hippoc. epist. Dama- luiii deprehend), ejusque ingenium demi- 

geto. Accersltus sum ut Democritum ratus sum. Abderitanos vero tanquam 

tanquam insanum curarem, sed post- non sanos aceusavi, veratri potione ipsoa 

quaiu conreni, non per Jovem desipientise potius eguisse dicens. 3 Mart. 

HEKACLITK fleas, misero sic convenit mo, 

Nil nisi turpe vides, nil nisi triste vides. 
Bide etiam, quantumque lubet, Democrite ride, 

Non nisi vana Tides, non nisi stulta vides. 
Is fletn, hie risu modb gaudeat, unus utrique 

Sit licet usque labor, sit licet usque dolor. 
Nunc opus est (nam totus eheu jam desipit orbis) 

Mille Heraclitis, milleque Democritis. 
Nunc opus est (tanta est insania) transeat omnis 

lluudus in Auticyraa, grameu in Helleborum. 

Weep, Heraclitus, it suits the age, 

Unless you see nothing base, nothing sad. 
Laugh, Democritus, as much as yon please, 

Unless you see nothing either vain or foolish. 
Let one rejoice in smiles, the other in tears ; 

Let the same labour or pain be the office of both. 
Now (for alas! how foolish the world has become), 

A thousand Heraclitus', a thousand Democritus' are required. 
Mow (so much does madness prevail), all the world most be 

Sent to Antic yra, to graze on Hellebore. 





Sin, concupiscence, &c. 

In diseases, 




Of the body 
800, which are 

Intemperance, all second causes, &. 

Epidemical, as Plague, Plica, &c. 
Particular, as Gout, Dropsy, &c. 

Sect. 1. 

In disposition ; as all perturbation! 



evil affect 

on, &c. 



Of the head 



Subs. 2. 

O..1.. Q 


aUOS. o. 


Habits, as 



Subs. 4. 

Choreus sancti Viti. 



Possession or obsession of 


Melancholy. See <p. 

Its Equivocations, in Disposition, Improper, &c. Subsect. 5. 
Memb. 2. ^.i^ .. i Humours,4. Blood, Phlegm,&e. 

To its expli 


( Spirits; vital, natural, animal. 

cation, a 
of anatomy, 
in which 

hath or r Similar; spermatical, or flesh, 

Si containing J JT 6 ^ ^r 8 -' & K f^f' * 
a. (\IML mug -I Djggimjigjp. brain, heart, liver, 

I &c. Subs. 4. 

parts of 

Soulandlts^ultie^H^ 2t t 7. 8. 


< Rational. Subsect. 9, 10, 11. 

Memb. 3. 


Melancholy : 
In which < 

Its definition, name, difference, Subs. 1. 
The part and parties affected, affectation, &c. Subs. 2. 
The matter of melancholy, natural, unnatural, &c. Subs. 4. 

Species, or 


ShoS rif o 

?^j ] causes, symptoms, 


M 1 wholi 

^prognostics, cures, 

which are 


Indefinite; as Love-melancholy, the subject of the third 


Its Causes in general. Sect. 2. A. 

Its Symptoms or signs. Sect 

8. B. 

Its Prognostics or indications. Sect. 4. 
Its cures; the subject of the second Partition. 


Synopsis of the First Partition. 

As from Qod immediately , or by second causes. Suts . 1 


Or from the 

devil immediately, with a digression of tht 

natural. ' 


iture of 

spirits and devils. Sub 

j. 2 

Or mediately, by magicians, witches. Subs. 3. 

Primary, as stars, proved by aphorisms, signs from 

physiognomy, metoposcopy, chiromancy. Subs. 4. 

Congenite, i Old age, temperament. Subs. 6. 
inward { Parents, it being an hereditary dis 

'i ^ 



C ease, Subs. Q 


Necessary, see y . 


Nurses, Sub.i. 1. 



Education. S. 2. 
Terrors, affrights, 










bitter jests, S.4. 
Loss of liberty, 

ou aru, , 


servitude, im> 


remote, ad 

prisonm't, S.o. 
Poverty and 




want, Subs. 6. 

Sect. 2. 


A heap of other 

Causes of 


or adven 



accidents, death 
of friends, low, 
&c. Subs. 7. 




which are 


which the body 

works on the mind, 



ad this malady ia 


caused by precedent 


inward, an 


seases; as agues, 


pox, &c. or tempera- 



are innate, Subs.l. 

Memb. 5. 

Or by particular parts 



^tempered, as 


rain, heart, spleen, 

liver,mesentery, py- 


rus, stomach, &o. 

Particular to the three species. See n. 

Sub,. 2. 

Innate humour, or from distomperatura 


T.. J 

A hot brain, corrupted blood in the brain. 


Excess of venery, or defect. 

Agues, or some precec; 

ent disease. 


head Mel- 

Fumes arising from the stomach, &c. 

ancholy are, 


Heat of the sun Immoderate. 


to. 8. 

A blow on the head. 

Overmuch use of hot wines, spices, garlie, 
onions,hotbaths,overniuch waking, &o. 


Idleness, solitariness, o 

r overmuch itudr. 


vehement labour, &c. 


Passions, perturbations, &c. 

cause*. < 
Sect. 2. 

Of hypoehon- 
driacal, or 


Default of spleen, belly, bowels, stomach, 
mesentery, miseraic veins, liver, &o. 

mo o 

windy Melan- 


Months or hemorrhoids stopped, or any 



other ordinary evac 


Outward {' Those six non-natural things abused. 

Over all the 


Liver distempered, stopped, over-Lot, apt 

body are, 

to engender melancholy, temperature 

Sui*. 6. 





IBad diet, suppression of hemorrhoids, 


&c., and such evacuations, passions, 
cares, &c., those six non-natural thing! 


Synopsis of the First Partition. 





Sect. 2. 

ing in 


Bread; coarse and black, &c. 
Drink ; thick, thin, sour, &e. 
Water unclean, milk, oil, vinegar, wine, sp ces, &c. 

! Parts; heads, feet, entrails, fat, bacc u, blood, &o . 
Kinds I Beef ' P rk > venison, hares, goats, pig- 
' ( eons, peacocks, fen-fowl, &c. 




Of fish ; all shell-fish, hard and slimy fish, &c. 
Of herbs; pulse, cabbage, melons, garlic, 

onions, &c. 

All roots, raw fruits, hard and windy meats. 
Quali- ( Preparing, dressing, sharp sauces, gait meats, indurate, 
ty,as in ( soused, Cried, broiled, or made dishB, &c. 

i Disorder in eating, immoderate eating, or at unseason- 

i able times > &c -> Subs - 2 - 

( Custom; delight, appetite, altered, &c., Subs. 8. 
Retention and i Costiveness, hot baths, sweating, issues stopped, 
evacuation, < Venus in excess, or in defect, phlebotomy, purging, 
Subs. 4. ( &c. 

Ah-; hot, cold, tempestuous, dark, thick, foggy, moorish, &c., Subs. 5. 
Exercise, ( Unseasonable, excessive, or defective, of body or mind, solita- 
Subs. 6. ( riness, idleness, a life out of action, &c. 
Sleep and waking, unseasonable, iuordioate,overmuch, overlittle,&c.Suta.7. 
Sorrow, cause and symptom, Subs. 4. Fear, 
cause and symptom, Subs. 5. Shame, re 
pulse, disgrace, &c., Subs. 6. Envy and 
malice, Subs. 7. Emulation, hatred, tac- 
tion, desire of revenge, Subs. 8- Anger a 
cause, Subs. 9. Discontents, cares, miser 
ies, &c., Subs. 10. 

Vehement desires, ambition, Sub*. 11. Cov- 
etousness, <jnAapyvplav, Subs. 12. Lovo 
of pleasures, gaming in excess, &c., Subs. 
13. Desire of praise, pride, vainglory, &c., 
Subs. 14. Love of learning, study in ex 
cess, with a digression of the misery of 
scholars, and why the muses are melan 
choly, Subs. 15. 

Memb. 3, Sect. 2. 
Passions and 
perturbations of 
the mind. 
Subs. 2. With 
a digression of 
the force of 
Subs. 2, and di 
vision of passions 
into, Subs, a 



' Body, as ill digestion, crudity, wind, dry brains, hard belly, thick blood, 

much waking, heaviness and palpitation of heart, leaping hi many 


places, &c., Subs. 1. 



Fear and sorrow without a just cause, suspicion jealousy, 


to all or 


tent, solitariness, irksomeness, continual cogita- 



tions, restless thoughts, vain imaginations, Sc,e.,Subs.2. 


Celestial influences, as fy ~l tf , &c., parts of the body, 



, brain, spleen, stomach, &c. 

3 . 

Sanguine are merry still, laughing, pleasant, 



meditating ou plays, women, music, &c. 



Phlegmatic, slothful, dull, heavy, &c. 



Choleric, furious, impatient, subject to hear 

toms of 



and see strange apparitions, &c. 
Black, solitary, sad ; they think they are be 

Mini ir 

lar to 

witched, dead, &c. 





Or mixed of these four humours adust, or not adust, 

ither ' 




tely varied, &c. 

Sect. 3. 



Their e 

everal f Ambitious, thinks himself a king. a lr>rd ; 

i ing to 


customs, con 
ditions, incli 

covetous. runs on his money; lascivious, 
on his mistress ; religious, hath revela 



tions, visions, is a prophet, or troubled 

pline, &o. 

in mind; a scholar, on his book, &c. 

Pleasant at first, hardly discerned ; after 



wards harsh & intolerable, if inveterate. 

a i-1,.. 

01 time oo vuo 

Hence some make S i' r 1 < t a i 

tended or re- 

three degrees. \ Exequi loquutum. 



By fits, or continuate, as the object 


varies, pleasing or displeasing. 

Simple, or as it is mixed 

with other diseases, apoplexies, gout, canintii 

appetitus, &c., so the symptoms are various. 


Synopsis of the First Partition. 

Head mel 





cal or 



symptoms to 
the three dig- . 

Subs. 2. 

tinct species. 

Sfct. 8. 



the body. ' 

Subs. 3. 

Symptoms o 

mind, &c 

A reason 

of these 



Mcmb. 8. 

In body 

In mind. 

In body 

In mind. 


of melancholy. 


Headache, binding and heaviness, vertigo, 
lightness, singing of the ears, much 
wakiug, fixed eyes, high colour, red eyes. 
hard belly, dry body ; DO great sign or 
melancholy in the other parts. 

Continual fear, sorrow, suspicion, discon 
tent, superfluous cares, solicitude, anxie 
ty, perpetual cogitation of such toys they 
are possessed with, thoughts like dreams, 

Wind, rumbling in the guts, bellyache, heat 
in the bowel8,convul8ions,erudities, short 
wind, sour and sharp belchings, cold 
sweat, pain in the left side, suffocation, 
palpitation, heaviness of the heart, singing 
in the ears, much spittle, and moist, &c. 

Fearful, sad, suspicious, discontent, anxie 
ty, &c. Lascivious by reason of much 
wind, troublesome dreams, affected by 
fits, &o. 

K~J ( Black, most part lean, broad veins, gross, 
In body J thick blood, thejr hemorrhoids common- 
or ( ly stopped, &c. 

In mind. 
Symptoms of nuns', maids', and widows' melancholy, in body and 

Why they are so fearful, sad, suspicious without a 
cause, why solitary, why melancholy men are witty, 
why they suppose they hear and see strange voices, 
visions, apparitions. 

Why they prophesy, and speak strange language! ; 
whence comes their crudity, rumbling, convulsions, 
cold sweat, heaviness of heart, palpitation, cardiaca, 
fearful dreams, much waking, prodigious fantasies. 

Morphew, scabs, itch, breaking out, &e. 

Black jaundice. 

If the hemorrhoids voluntarily open. 

If varices appear. 

Leanness, dryness, hollow-eyed, &c. 

Inveterate melancholy is incurable. 

If cold, it degenerates often Into epilepsy, 

apoplexy, dotage, or into blindness. 
If hot, into madness, despair, and violent 

The grievousness of this above all other 

The diseases of the mind are more grievoul 

i Fearful, sad, solitary, hate light, ai 
1 from company, fearful dreams, &c. 

Tending to good, as 

Tending to evil, as 

Corollaries and ques 


taw (ui, this case of mel 

ancholy, for a man to offer violence to 
himself. Neg. 

How a melancholy or mad man offering 
violence to himself, is to be censured 



Marts Excellency, Fatt, Miseries, Infirmities ; The causes of 

Man's Excellency. ,] MAN, the most excellent and noble 
creature of the world, " the principal and mighty work of 
God, wonder of nature," as Zoroaster calls him; audacis 
naturae miracidum, " the * marvel of marvels," as Plato ; 
u the a abridgment and epitome of the world," as Pliny ; 
Microcosmus, a little world, a model of the world, "sover 
eign lord of the earth, viceroy of the world, sole commander 
and governor of all the creatures in it ; to whose empire they 
are subject in particular, and yield obedience ; far surpassing 
all the rest, not in body only, but in soul ; 4 Imaginis Imago, 
* created to God's own 8 image, to that immortal and incor 
poreal substance, with all the faculties and powers belonging 
unto it ; was at first pure, divine, perfect, happy, 7 " created 
aftr God in true holiness and righteousness ; " Deo con 
gruent, free from all manner of infirmities, and put in Para 
dise tc know God, to praise and glorify him, to do his will, 

1 Magnum miracnlum. * Mnndl Imago, Me in homine Dei. * Oen. 1. 

epitome, naturae deliciae. * Finis rerum Imago mundi in corpora, Del in aninuu 

omnium, cui sublunaria servtunt. Seal- Exemplumque dei quisqu' est in imagini 

Ig. exercit. 865, sec. 3. Vales de sacr. parra. ' Eph. iv. 24. 
1'hil. e. 5. * Ut in nomismate Cawaris 

174 Diseases in General. [Part. 1. sec. I. 

Ut diis consimiles parturiat deos (as an old poet saith) tc 
propagate the church. 

Man's Fall and Misery."] But this most noble creature, 
Heu tristis, et lachrymosa commutatio ( a one exclaims) O piti 
ful change ! is fallen from that he was, and forfeited his 
estate, become miserabilis komuncio, a cast-away, a caitiff, 
one of the most miserable creatures of the world, if he be 
considered in his own nature, an unregenerate man, and so 
much obscured by his fall that (some few relics excepted) 
he is inferior to a beast, 3 " Man in honour that understandeth 
not, is like unto beasts that perish," so David esteems him ; 
a monster by stupend metamorphosis, * a fox, a dog, a hog, 
what not ? Quantum mutatus ab iUo ? How much altered 
from that he was ; before blessed and happy, now miserable 
and accursed ; 4 u He must eat his meat in sorrow," subject 
to death and all manner of infirmities, all kind of calamities. 

A Description of Melancholy. ~\ 6 " Great travail is created 
for all men, and an heavy yoke on the sons of Adam, from 
the day that they go out of their mother's womb, unto that 
day they return to the mother of all things. Namely, their 
thoughts, and fear of their hearts, and their imagination of 
things they wait for, and the day of death. From him that 
sitteth in the glorious throne, to him that sitteth beneath in 
the earth and ashes ; from him that is clothed in blue silk 
and weareth a crown, to him that is clothed in simple linen. 
Wrath, envy, trouble, and unquietness, and fear of death, and 
rigour, and strife, and such things come to both man and 
beast, but sevenfold to the ungodly." All this befalls him 
in this life, and peradventure eternal misery in the life to 

Impulsive Cause of Man's Misery and Infirmities.'] The 
impulsive cause of these miseries in Man, this privation of 
destruction of God's image, the cause of death and diseases, 
of all temporal and eternal punishments, was the sin of our 

1 Palanterltu. Psal. xUx. 20. Chrys. 28, Gen. Gen. lii. 18. * EC- 

* Lnsoivil superat eqnum, impudentift clus. iv. 1, 2, 8, 4, 6, 8. 
eanem, astu rulpem, furore leonem. 

Mem. I, subs. 1.] Diseases in General. 175 

first parent Adarn, 1 in eating of the forbidden fruit, by the 
devil's instigation and allurement. His disobedience, pride, 
ambition, intemperance, incredulity, curiosity ; from whence 
proceeded original sin, and that general corruption of man 
kind, as from a fountain flowed all bad inclinations and actual 
transgressions which cause our several calamities inflicted 
upon us for our sins. And this belike is that which our 
fabulous poets have shadowed unto us in the tale of 2 Pan 
dora's box, which being opened through her curiosity, filled 
the world full of all manner of diseases. It is not curiosity 
alone, but those other crying sins of ours, which pull these 
several plagues and miseries upon our heads. For Ubi pec- 
catum, ibi proceUa, as 8 Chrysostom well observes. 4 " Fools 
by reason of their transgression, and because of their iniqui 
ties, are afflicted. 6 Fear cometh like sudden desolation, and 
destruction like a whirlwind, affliction and anguish," because 
they did not fear God, 6 " Are you shaken with wars ? " as 
Cyprian well urgeth to Demetrius, " are you molested with 
dearth and famine ? is your health crushed with raging dis 
eases ? is mankind generally tormented with epidemical mal 
adies ? 'tis all for your sins," Hag. i. 9, 10 ; Amos i. ; Jer. 
vii. God is angry, punisheth and threateneth, because of 
their obstinacy and stubbornness, they will not turn unto 
him. 7 " If the earth be barren then for want of rain, if dry 
and squalid, it yield no fruit, if your fountains be dried up, 
your wine, corn, and oil blasted, if the air be corrupted, and 
men troubled with diseases, 'tis by reason of their sins ; " 
which like the blood of Abel cry loud to Heaven for ven 
geance, Lam. v. 15. " That we have sinned, therefore our 
hearts are heavy," Isa. lix. 11, 12. "We roar like bears, 
and mourn like doves, and want health, &c., for our sins and 

i Gen. ill. 17. * Ilia cadena legmen frangitur, qudd humannm genna luig 

manibus decusslt, et una pernidem im- populatione vastatur ; ob peccatum om- 

miait mlseris mortalibus atram. Hesiod. nia. Cypr. 1 Si raro desuper pluvia 

1, oper. 8 Horn. 6, ad pop. An tioch. descendat, si terra situ pulveris squalleat, 

Psal. cvii. 17. B Pro. I. 27. Qudd si vix jejunas et pallidas herbas sterili* 

autem crebrius bella cpncutiant, qudd gleba prodncat, si turbo yineam dcbilitet 

sterilitas et fames solicitudinem cwmu- &c. Cypr. 
lent, quod ssevientibus niorbis valetudo 

176 Diseases in General. [Part. I. sec. 1 

trespasses." But this we cannot endure to hear or to take 
notice of, Jer. ii. 30. " We are smitten in vain and receive 
no correction ; " and cap. v. 3. " Thou hast stricken them, 
but they have not sorrowed ; they have refused to receive 
correction ; they have not returned. Pestilence he hath sent, 
but they have not turned to him," Amos iv. 1 Herod could 
not abide John Baptist, nor 2 Domitian endure Apollonius to 
tell the causes of the plague at Ephesus, his injustice, incest, 
adultery, and the like. 

To punish therefore this blindness and obstinacy of ours as 
a concomitant cause and principal agent, is God's just judg 
ment in bringing these calamities upon us, to chastise us, I 
say, for our sins, and to satisfy God's wrath. For the law 
requires obedience or punishment, as you may read at large, 
Deut. xxviii. 15. " If they will not obey the Lord, and keep 
his commandments and ordinances, then all these curses shall 
come upon them. 8 Cursed in the town and in the field, &c. 

* Cursed in the fruit of the body, &c. 8 The Lord shall send 
thee trouble and shame, because of thy wickedness." And a 
little after, * " The Lord shall smite thee with the botch of 
Egypt, and with emrods, and scab, and itch, and thou canst 
not be healed. 7 With madness, blindness, and astonishing 
of heart." This Paul seconds, Rom. ii. 9, " Tribulation and 
anguish qn the soul of every man that doth evil." Or else 
these chastisements are inflicted upon us for our humiliation, 
to exercise and try our patience here in this life, to bring us 
home, to make us to know God ourselves, to inform and 
teach us wisdom. 8 " Therefore is my people gone into 
captivity, because they had no knowledge ; therefore is the 
wrath of the Lord kindled against his people, and he hath 
stretched out his hand upon them." He is desirous of our 
salvation. 9 Nostrce salutis avidus, saith Lemnius, and for 
that cause pulls us by the ear many times, to put us in mind 

Mat. xiT. 8. * Phllostratns, lib. 8, Deua quo* dlllglt. casHgat. * IM. T. 18, 

Tit. Apollonil. Injustitiam ejus, et scele- Terse 15. * Nostrae salutis avidus con- 

rataa nuptiafl, et cetera quae pneter ra- tinenter aurefl Telieat, ac calamitate su- 

tionem fererat, morborum causas dlzit. binde new exercet. Levinua Leinn. 1. 2, 

* 16. IS. * 20. Verse 27. ' 28. e. 29, de occult, nat. mir. 

Mem. I, subs, i.] Diseases in General. 177 

of our duties : u That they which erred might have under 
standing, (as Isaiah speaks xxix. 21,) and so to be reformed.* 
I am afflicted, and at the point of death," so David confess- 
eth of himself, Psalm Ixxxviii. 9, 15. " Mine eyes are 
sorrowful through mine affliction ; " and that made him turn 
unto God. Great Alexander in the midst of all his pros 
perity, by a company of parasites deified, and now made a 
god, when he saw one of his wounds bleed, remembered that 
he was but a man, and remitted of his pride. In morbo recol- 
ligit sv animus,* as 1 Pliny well perceived ; " In sickness the 
mind reflects upon itself, with judgment surveys itself, and 
abhors its former courses ; " insomuch that he concludes to 
his friend Marius, 2 " that it were the period of all philosophy, 
if we could so continue, sound, or perform but a part of that 
which we promised to do, being sick." Whoso is wise then, 
will consider these things, as David did (Psal. cxliv., verse 
last) ; and whatsoever fortune befall him, make use of it. If 
he be in sorrow, need, sickness, or any other adversity, seri 
ously to recount with himself, why this or that malady, mis 
ery, this or that incurable disease is inflicted upon him ; it 
may be for his good, 8 sic expedit, as Peter said of his daugh 
ter's ague. Bodily sickness is for his soul's health, periisset 
nisi periisset, had he not been visited, he had utterly per 
ished ; for 4 " the Lord correcteth him whom he loveth, even 
as a father doth his child in whom he delighteth." If he be 
safe and sound on the other side, and free from all manner of 
infirmity ; 6 et cui 

u Gratia, forma, valetudo contingat abunde 
Et mundus victus, non deficiente crumena," 

" And that he have grace, beauty, favour, health, 
A cleanly diet, and abound in wealth." 

Yet in the midst of his prosperity, let him remember that 

* Vexario dat intellectum. Isa. xxviii. languoris non sum memor hujuB amoris. 

19. In sickness the mind recollects itself. - Summum esse totius philosophise, ut 

* Lib. 7. Cum judicio, mores et fucta re- tales esse perseveremus, quales nos futu- 

eognoscit et se intuetur. Dum fero Ian- ros esse inflrmi profltemur. * Petrarch 

guorem, fero religion?? amorem. Expers * Prov. iii. 12 Hor. Epia. lib. 1, 4. 

VOL. I. 12 

178 Diseases in General. [Part. i. sec. 1 

caveat of Moses, * " Beware that he do not forget the Lord 
his God ; " that he be not puffed up, but acknowledge them 
to be his good gifts and benefits, and * " the more he hath, to 
be more thankful," (as Agapetianus adviseth) and use them 

Instrumental Causes of our Infirmities.] Now the instru 
mental causes of these our infirmities, are as diverse as the 
infirmities themselves ; stars, heavens, elements, &c. And 
all those creatures which God hath made, are armed against 
sinners. They were indeed once good in themselves, and 
that they are now many of them pernicious unto us, is not in 
their nature, but our corruption, which hath caused it. For 
from the fall of our first parent Adam, they have been 
changed, the earth accursed, the influence of stars altered, 
the four elements, beasts, birds, plants, are now ready to 
offend us. " The principal things for the use-^f man, are 
water, fire, iron, salt, meal, wheat, honey, milk, oil, wine, 
clothing, good to the godly, to the sinners turned to evil," 
Ecclus. xxxix. 26. " Fire, and hail, and famine, and dearth, 
all these are created for vengeance," Ecclus. xxxix. 29. The 
heavens threaten us with their comets, stars, planets, with 
their great conjunctions, eclipses, oppositions, quartiles, and 
such unfriendly aspects. The air with his meteors, thunder 
and lightning, intemperate heat and cold, mighty winds, tem 
pests, unseasonable weather ; from which proceed deartli, 
famine, plague, and all sorts of epidemical diseases, consum 
ing infinite myriads of men. At Cairo in Egypt, every third 
year, (as it is related by 2 Boterus, and others) 300,000 die 
of the plague ; and 200,000, in Constantinople, every fifth 
jr seventh at the utmost. How doth the earth terrify and 
oppress us with terrible earthquakes, which are most fre 
quent in * China, Japan, and those eastern climes, swallowing 
up sometimes six cities at once ? How doth the water rage 
with his inundations, irruptions, flinging down towns, cities, 

1 Deut. Till. 11. Qui stat videat ne debitorem feteri. * Boterus tie Iimt. 

cmdat. * Quanto majorihiis beneflcits urbium. * Lege hist, relationeiu Lod. 
fc Deo cumulatur, tanto obligatiorem M Froia de rebus Japonicis ad annum 1696 

Mem. 1, subs. 1.] Diseases in General. 179 

villages, bridges, &c., besides shipwrecks ; whole islands are 
sometimes suddenly overwhelmed with all their inhabitants 
in * Zealand, Holland, and many parts of the continent 
drowned, as the 2 lake Erne in Ireland ? 8 Nihilque prater 
arcium cadavera patenti cemimus freto. In the fens of 
Friesland ] 230, by reason of tempests, 4 the sea drowned 
multa hominum miHia, et jumenta sine numero, all the coun 
try almost, men and cattle in it. How doth the fire rage, 
that merciless element, consuming in an instant whole cities ? 
What town of any antiquity or note hath not been once, 
again and again, by the fury of this merciless element, de 
faced, ruinated, and left desolate ? In a word, 

' a Ignis pepercit, unda ruergit, aeris 
Vis pestUentis sequori ereptum necat, 
Bello saperstes, tabidus morbo pent." 

u Whom fire spares, sea doth drown; whom sea, 
Pestilent air doth send to clay; 
Whom war 'scapes, sickness takes away." 

To descend to more particulars, how many creatures are 
at deadly feud with men ? Lions, wolves, bears, &c. Some 
with hoofs, horns, tusks, teeth, nails; How many noxious 
serpents and venomous creatures, ready to offend us with 
stings, breath, sight, or quite kill us? How many pernicious 
fishes, plants, gums, fruits, seeds, flowers, &c., could I reckon 
up on a sudden, which by their very smell many of them, 
touch, taste, cause some grievous malady, if not death itself? 
Some make mention of a thousand several poisons ; but these 
are but trifles in respect. The greatest enemy to man, is 
man, who by the devil's instigation is still ready to do mis 
chief, his own executioner, a wolf, a devil to himself, and 
others. * We are all brethren in Christ, or at least should 
be, members of one body, servants of one Lord, and yet no 
fiend can so torment, insult over, tyrannize, vex, as one man 

1 Guicciard. descript. Belg. anno 1421. the open sea. * Munster. 1. 8. Cos. 

* Girahlus Cambrens. * Janus Donga, cap. 462. 5 Buchanan. Baptist, 

ap. lib. 1, car. 10. And we perceive noth- * Homo homini lupus, homo homini d 

ing, except the dead bodies of cities in mon. 

180 Diseases in General, [Part. I sec. 1 

doth another. Let me not fall therefore (saith David, when 
wars, plague, famine were offered) into the hands of men, 
merciless and wicked men : 

# " Vix sunt homines hoc nomine digni, 
Qukmque lupi, saevae plus feritatis habent." 

We can most part foresee these epidemical diseases, and 
likely avoid them ; Dearths, tempests, plagues, our astrologers 
foretell us ; Earthquakes, inundations, ruins of houses, con 
suming fires, come by little and little, or make some noise 
beforehand ; but the knaveries, impostures, injuries and vil- 
lanies of men no art can avoid. We can keep our professed 
enemies from our cities, by gates, walls, and towers, defend 
ourselves from thieves and robbers by watchfulness and 
weapons ; but this malice of men, and their pernicious en 
deavours, no caution can divert, no vigUancy foresee, we 
have so many secret plots and devices, to mischief one 

Sometimes by the devil's help as magicians, * witches: 
sometimes by impostures, mixtures, poisons, stratagems, sin 
gle combats, wars, we hack and hew, as if we were ad inter- 
necionem nati, like Cadmus's soldiers born to consume one 
another. ' Tis an ordinary thing to read of a hundred and 
two hundred thousand men slain in a battle. Besides all 
manner of tortures, brazen bulls, racks, wheels, strappadoes, 
guns, engines, &c. a Ad unum corpus humanum supplicia 
plura, quam membra : We have invented more torturing in 
struments than there be several members in a man's body, 
as Cyprian well observes. To come nearer yet, our own 
parents by their offences, indiscretion and intemperance, are 
our mortal enemies. * " The fathers have eaten sour grapes, 
and the children's teeth are set on edge." They cause our 
grief many times, and put upon us hereditary diseases, inevi 
table infirmities ; they torment us, and we are ready to injure 
our posterity; 

Grid, de Trist. 1. 5, Eleg. 8. 1 Miscent aconite noyercw. * Lib. 2 Vpbt 

2, ad Donatum. * Kxech. xTiii. 2. 

Mem. 1, eubp 1.] Diseases in General. 181 

i " mox dnturi progeniem vitiosiorem." 

44 And yet with crimes to us unknown, 
Our sons shall mark the coming age their own.'* 

and the latter end of the world, as 2 Paul foretold, is still 
like to be the worst. We are thus bad by nature, bad by 
kind, but far worse by art, every man the greatest enemy 
unto himself. We study many times to undo ourselves, 
abusing those good gifts which God hath bestowed upon us, 
health, wealth, strength, wit, learning, art, memory to our 
own destruction, * Perditio tua ex te. As 4 Judas Maccabeus 
killed Apollonius with his own weapons, we arm ourselves 
to our own overthrows ; and use reason, art, judgment, all 
that should help us, as so many instruments to undo us. 
Hector gave Ajax a sword, which so long as he fought 
against enemies, served for his help and defence ; but after 
he began to hurt harmless creatures with it, turned to his 
own hurtless bowels. Those excellent means God hath 
bestowed on us, well employed, cannot but much avail us ; 
but if otherwise perverted, they ruin and confound us ; and 
so by reason of our indiscretion and weakness they commonly 
do, we have too many instances. This St. Austin acknowl- 
edgeth of himself in his humble confessions, " promptness of 
wit, memory, eloquence, they were God's good gifts, but he 
did not use them to his glory." If you will particularly 
know how, and by what means, consult physicians, and they 
will tell you, that it is in offending in some of those six non- 
natural things, of which I shall 6 dilate more at large ; they 
are the causes of our infirmities, our surfeiting, and drunken 
ness, our immoderate insatiable lust, and prodigious riot. 
Plures crapula, quam gladiiis, is a true saying, the board 
consumes more than the sword. Our intemperance it is, 
that pulls so many several incurable diseases upon our heads, 
that hastens "old age, perverts our temperature, and brings 
upon us sudden death. And last of all, that which crucifies 

i Hor. 1. 3, Od. 6. 2Tim. 111. 2. * Part. 1, Sec. 2, Memb. 2. Nequltl 

1 Ezcc. xviii. 31. Thy destruction is est quse te non sinet ease senem. 
from thyself. 21 Mace. iii. 12. 

182 Def. t Aum., Div. of Diseases. [Part. I. sec. 1 

us most, is our own folly, madness, (quos Jupiter perdit, cfo- 
mental ; by subtraction of his assisting grace God permits it,) 
weakness, want of government, our facility and proneness in 
yielding to several lusts, in giving way to every passion and 
perturbation of the mind ; by which means we metamorphose 
ourselves and degenerate into beasts. All which that prince 
of * poets observed of Agamemnon, that when he was well 
pleased, and could moderate his passion, he was os oculo$- 
que Jovi par ; like Jupiter in feature, Mars in valour, Pallaa 
in wisdom, another god ; but when he became angiy, he was 
a lion, a tiger, a dog, &c., there appeared no sign or likeness 
of Jupiter in him ; so we, as long as we are ruled by reason, 
correct our inordinate appetite, and conform ourselves to 
God's word, are as so many saints ; but if we give reins to 
lust, anger, ambition, pride, and follow our own ways, we 
degenerate into beasts, transform ourselves, overthrow our 
constitutions, a provoke God to anger, and heap upon us this 
of melancholy, and all kinds of incurable diseases, as a just 
and deserved punishment of our sins. 

SUBSECT. II. The Definition, Number, Division of Disease*. 

WHAT a disease is, almost eveiy physician defines. * Fer- 
nelius calleth it an " Affection of the body contrary to na 
ture." 4 Fuschius and Crato, " an hinderance, hurt, or alter 
ation of any action of the body, or part of it" 6 Tholosanus, 
" a dissolution of that league which is between body and soul, 
and a perturbation of it ; as health the perfection, and makes 
to the preservation of it." 6 Labeo in Agellius, " an ill habit 
of the body, opposite to nature, hindering the use of it* 
Others otherwise, all to this effect 

Number of Diseases.] How many diseases there are, is a 
question not yet determined ; 7 Pliny reckons up three hun 

1 Homer. Iliad. Intemperantia. c. 8, a quo primum vitiatur actto 

luxus, ingluvles, et infinita hujuamodi * Dissolutio foederis in corpora, ut sanitM 

flagitia, quse cli vinos poenog merentur. est consummntio. Lib. 4, cap. 2. 

Crato. Fern. Path.l. 1, c. 1. Mor- Morbus est habitus contra naturam. qul 

i>u est affectug contra naturam corpori usum ejiis, &c. " Cap. 11, lib 7 
Inwdcns. < Fusch. Instit. 1. 8, Sect. 1, 

Mem. 1, sabs. 2.] Def., Num., Div. of Diseases, 183 

dred from the crown of the head to the sole of the foot ; else 
where he saith, morborum infinita multitudo, their number ig 
infinite. Howsoever it was in those times, it boots not ; in 
our days I am sure the number is much augmented : 

* " maciee, et nova febrium 
Terns incubat cohors." 

For besides many epidemical diseases unheard of, and alto 
gether unknown to Galen and Hippocrates, as scorbutum, 
smallpox, plica, sweating sickness, morbus Gallicus, &c., we 
have many proper and peculiar almost to every part. 

No man free from some Disease or other.'] No man 
amongst us so sound, of so good a constitution, that hath 
not some impediment of body or mind. Quisque suos 
patimur manes, we have all our infirmities, first or last, more 
or less. There will be peradventure in an age, or one of a 
thousand, like Zenophilus the musician in * Pliny, that may 
happily live one hundred and five years without any manner 
of impediment ; a Pollio Romulus, that can preserve himself 
** with wine and oil ; " a man as fortunate as Q. Metellus, 
of whom Valerius so much brags ; a man as healthy as 
Otto Herwardus, a senator of Augsburg in Germany, whom 
8 Leovitius the astrologer brings in for an example and 
instance of certainty in his art ; who because he had the 
significators in his geniture fortunate, and free from the 
hostile aspects of Saturn and Mars, being a very cold man, 
4 " could not remember that ever he was sick." 6 Paracelsus 
may brag that he could make a man live four hundred years 
or more, if he might bring him up from his infancy, and diet 
him as he list ; and some physicians hold, that there is no 
certain period of man's life ; but it may still by temperance 
and physic be prolonged. We find in the mean time, by 

* Horat. lib. 1, ode 3. " Emaciation, * ExempHs genitur. prsefixis Ephemer. 

and a new cohort of fevers broods over cap. de inflrmitat. * Qui. quoad pue- 

the earth." ! Cap. 50, lib 7. Centum ritiae ultimam memoriam recordari potesi 

et quinque vixit armos sin* tillo incom- non meminit se tegrotum docubuisse. 

OMdo. * Intus mulso. foras oleo. * Lib. de vita long* 

184 Diseases of the Head. [Part. L sec. 1 

common experience, that no man can escape, but that of 
1 Hesiod is true : 

" IIA77 fjh> -yap ydia KOKUV, 
Novaoi 6' avdpuirounv ty' fiftEpy W M wxrl 

u Th' earth's full of maladies, and full the sea, 
Which set upon us both by night and day." 

Division of Diseases.'] If you require a more exact 
division of these ordinary diseases which are incident to 
men, I refer you to physicians ; 2 they will tell you of acute 
and chronic, first and secondary, lethales, salutares, errant, 
fixed, simple, compound, connexed, or consequent, belonging 
to parts or the whole, in habit, or in disposition, &c. My 
division at this time (as most befitting my purpose) shall be 
into those of the body and mind. For them of the body, a 
brief catalogue of which Fuschius hath made, Institut. lib. 3, 
sect. 1, cap. 11, I refer you to the voluminous tomes of 
Galen, Areteus, Rhasis, Avicenna, Alexander, Paulus JEtius, 
Gordonerius; and those exact Neoterics, Savanarola, Capi- 
vaccius, Donatus Altomarus, Hercules de Saxonia, Mer- 
curialis, Victorius Faventinus, Wecker, Piso, &c., that have 
methodically and elaborately written of them all. Those of 
the mind and head I will briefly handle, and apart. 

SUBSECT. HI. Division of the Diseases of the Head. 

THESE diseases of the mind, forasmuch as they have their 
chief seat and organs in the head, which are commonly re 
peated amongst the diseases of the head which are divers, and 
vary much according to their site. For in the head, as there 
be several parts, so there be divers grievances, which accord 
ing to that division of * Heurnius, (which he takes out of Ar- 
culanus,) are inward or outward (to omit all others which 
pertain to eyes and ears, nostrils, gums, teeth, mouth, palate, 
tongue, wesel, chops, face, &c.) belonging properly to the 

1 Oper. et Dies * See Fernelius Path. * Prsefat. de morbis capita. In caplte at 
lib. 1, cap. 9, 10. 11, 12. Fuschius instit. variae habitant partes, ita variae querala 
L 8, Met. 1, c. 7. Wecker. Sjrat. ibi eyeniunt. 

Mem. 1, subs. 3.] Div. of the Diseases of the Head. 185 

brain, as baldness, falling of hair, furfaire, lice, &c. * Inward 
belonging to the skins next to the brain, called dura and pia. 
mater, as all headaches, &c., or to the ventricles, caules, kels, 
tunicles, creeks, and parts of it, and their passions, as caro, 
vertigo, incubus, apoplexy, falling sickness. The diseases of 
the nerves, cramps, stupor, convulsion, tremor, palsy; or 
belonging to the excrements of the brain, catarrhs, sneezing, 
rheum?, distillations; or else those that pertain to the sub 
stance of the brain itself, in which are conceived frenzy, 
lethargy, melancholy, madness, weak memory, sopor, or Coma 
Vigilia et vigil Coma. Out of these again I will single such 
as properly belong to the fantasy, or imagination, or reason 
itself, which 2 Laurentius calls the diseases of the mind ; and 
Hildesheim, morbos imaginationis, aut rationis l&sce, (diseases 
of the imagination, or of injured reason,) which are three or 
four in number, frenzy, madness, melancholy, dotage, and 
their kinds ; as hydrophobia, lycanthropia, Chorus Sancti Viti, 
morbi dcemoniaci, (St. Vitus's dance, possession of devils,) 
which I will briefly touch and point at, insisting especially in 
this of melancholy, as more eminent than the rest, and that 
through all his kinds, causes, symptoms, prognostics, cures ; 
as Lonicerus hath done de apoplexid, and many other of such 
particular diseases. Not that I find fault with those which 
have written of this subject before, as Jason Pratensis, Lau 
rentius, Montaltus, T. Bright, &c., they have done very well 
in their several kinds and methods ; yet that which one omits, 
another may haply see ; that which one contracts, another 
may enlarge. To conclude with * Scribanius, " that which 
they had neglected, or profunctorily handled, we may more 
thoroughly examine ; that which is obscurely delivered iu 
them, may be perspicuously dilated and amplified by us ; " 
and so made more familiar and easy for every man's capacity, 
and the common good, which is the chief end of my dis 

1 Of which read Heurnius, Montaltus, minus recte fortasse dixerint, DOS examl 

Hildesheim, Quereetan, Jason Pratensis, nare, melius dijudieare, corrigere stude 

&c. 8 Cap. 2, de melatichol. a cap. amus. 
2, de Phisiologia sagarnm; Quod alii 

186 Diseases of the Mind. [Part. L see 1 

SUBSECT. IV. Dotage, Frenzy, Madness, Hydrophobia, Ly 
canthropia, Chorus sancti Viti, Extasis. 

Delirium, Dotage."] DOTAGE, fatuity, or folly, is a com 
mon name to all the following species, as some will have it. 
1 Laurentius and a Altomarus comprehended madness, melan 
choly, and the rest under this name, and call it the summum 
genus of them all. If it be distinguished from them, it is 
natural or ingenite, which comes by some defect of the 
organs, and over-much brain, as we see in our common fools ; 
and is for the most part intended or remitted in particular 
men, and thereupon some are wiser than others ; or else it 
is acquisite, an appendix or symptom of some other disease, 
which comes or goes ; or if it continue, a sign of melancholy 

Frenzy."] Phrenitis, which the Greeks derive from the 
word <t>mv is a disease of the mind, with a continual madness 
or dotage, which hath an acute fever annexed, or else an in 
flammation of the brain, or the membranes or kels of it, with 
an acute fever, which causeth madness and dotage. It differs 
from melancholy and madness, because their dotage is with 
out an ague ; this continual, with waking, or memory de 
cayed, &c. Melancholy is most part silent, this clamorous ; 
and many such like differences are assigned by physicians. 

Madness.'] Madness, frenzy, and melancholy are con 
founded by Celsus and many writers ; others leave out 
frenzy, and make madness and melancholy but one disease, 
which 'Jason Pratensis especially labours, and that they 
differ only secundum majus or minus, in quantity alone, the 
one being a degree to the other, and both proceeding from 
one cause. They differ intenso et remisso gradu, saith 4 Gor- 
donius, as the humour is intended or remitted. Of the same 
mind is 6 Areteus, Alexander Tertullianus, Guianerius, Savan 

' Cap. 4, dfl mol. Art. Med. 7. tndine et modo nolum distent, et altet 

1 Pleriqne medici uno complezu per- gradus ad alterum existiit. Jason Pra- 

etrlnKunt hos duos niorbos. quod ex tens. * Lib. Med. * Pars mature 

e^dem causa oriantur, quodque magnl- mihi yidetur. 

Mem. 1, snbs. 4.] Diseases of the Mind. 187 

arola. Heurnius ; and Galen himself writes promiscuously of 
them both by reason of their affinity ; but most of our ne- 
oterics do handle them apart, whom I will follow in this trea 
tise. Madness is therefore defined to be a vehement dotage ; 
or raving without a fever, far more violent than melancholy, 
full of anger and clamour, horrible looks, actions, gestures, 
troubling the patients with far greater vehemency both of 
body and mind, without all fear and sorrow, with such impet 
uous force and boldness, that sometimes three or four men 
cannot hold them. Differing only in this from frenzy, that 
it is without a fever, and their memory is most part better. 
It hath the same causes as the other, as choler adust, and 
blood incensed, brains inflamed, &c. * Fracastorius adds, 
" a due time, and full age to this definition, to distinguish it 
from children, and will have it confirmed impotency, to sepa 
rate it from such as accidentally come and go again, as by 
taking henbane, nightshade, wine," &c. Of this fury there 
be divers kinds ; a ecstasy, which is familiar with some per 
sons, as Cardan saith of himself, he could be in one when he 
list ; in which the Indian priests deliver their oracles, and the 
witches in Lapland, as Olaus Magnus writeth, 1. 3, cap. 18. 
Extasi omnia preedicere, answer all questions in an extasis 
you will ask ; what your friends do, where they are, how 
they fare, &c. The other species of this fury are enthusi 
asms, revelations, and visions, so often mentioned by Gregory 
and Beda in their works; obsession or posession of devils, 
sibylline prophets, and poetical furies ; such as come by eat 
ing noxious herbs, tarantulas' stinging, &c., which some reduce 
to this. The most known are these, lycanthropia, hydropho 
bia, chorus sancti viti. 

Lycanthropia.^ Lycanthropia, which Avicenna calls Cu- 
cubuth, others Lupinam insaniam, or Wolf-madness, when 
men run howling about graves and fields in the night, and 

1 Insjinns est, qul rotate debita. et tern- erandi circa intellectum. lib 2, de Intel- 

ore debito per sc, non moment-men m et lectione. - Of which read Foeliz Plate* 

fugacem, ut Tin], solani. Hyosoyami, sed cap. 3, de mentis alienatione. 
ronfirmatam habet impotentiaui bene op- 

188 Diseases of the Mind. [Part. I. sec. 1. 

will not be persuaded but that they are wolves, or some sucfc 
beasts. * ^Etius and 2 Paulus call it a kind of melancholy ; 
but I should rather refer it to madness, as most do. Some 
make a doubt of it whether there be any such disease. 
8 Donat ab Altomari saith, that he saw two of them in his 
time ; 4 Wierus tells a story of such a one at Padua, 1541, 
that would not believe to the contrary, but that he was a 
wolf. He hath another instance of a Spaniard, who thought 
himself a bear ; 6 Forrestus confirms as much by many ex 
amples ; one amongst the rest of which he was an eye-wit 
ness, at Alcmaer in Holland, a poor husbandman that still 
hunted about graves, and kept in churchyards, of a pale, 
black, ugly, and fearful look. Such belike, or little better, 
were King Praetus's ' daughters, that thought themselves kine. 
And Nebuchadnezzar in Daniel, as some interpreters hold, 
was only troubled with this kind of madness. This disease 
perhaps gave occasion to that bold assertion of 7 Pliny, " some 
men were turned into wolves in his time, and from wolves to 
men again ; " and to that fable of Pausania?, of a man that 
was ten years a wolf, and afterwards turned to his former 
shape ; to 8 Ovid's tale of Lycaon, &c. He that is desirous 
to hear of this disease, or more examples, let him read Austin 
in his eighteenth book de Givitate Dei, cap. 5. Mizaldus, cent 
5, 77. Sckenkiu$i lib. 1. Hildesheim, spicel. 2, de Mania. 
Forrestiis, lib. 10, de morbis cerebri. Olaus Magnus, Vin~ 
centius's Bettavicensis, spec. met. lib. 31, c. 122. Pieri us, Bo- 
dine, Zuinger, Zeilger, Peucer, Wierus, Spranger, &c. This 
malady, saith Avicenna, troubleth men most in February, 
and is nowadays frequent in Bohemia and Hungary, accord 
ing to * Heurnius. Schernitzius will have it common in Li 
vonia, They lie hid most part all day, and go abroad in the 
night, barking, howling, at graves and deserts 5" *"they 
Jiave usually hollow eyes, scabbed legs and thighs, very dry 

1 Lib. 6. cap. 11. Lib. 8, cap. 16. 22, homines interdum lupos fieri ; et con 

Cap. 9, Art. med. De pnestig. Dae- tra. Met. lib. 1. Cap. de Man 

tnonum. 1. 3. cap. 21. Obserrat. lib. Ulcerata crnra, ritis tpsla adest inimodi 

10, de morbis cerebri, cap. 15. Uip- ca. pallidi, lingua slcca. 
pocrates, lib. de inaitnia. r Lib. 8, cap. 

Mem. 1, subs. 4.] Diseases of the Mind. 189 

and pale," l saith Altomarus ; he gives a reason there of all 
the symptoms, and sets down a brief cure of them. 

Hydrophobia is a kind of madness, well known in every 
village, which comes by the biting of a mad dog, or scratch 
ing, saith a Aurelianus ; touching, or smelling alone sometimes 
as " Sckenkius proves, and is incident to many other creat 
ures as well as men ; so called because the parties affected 
cannot endure the sight of water, or any liquor, supposing 
still they see a mad dog in it. And which is more wonder 
ful ; though they be very dry, (as in this malady they are,) 
they will rather die than drink ; 4 Caelius Aurelianus, an an 
cient writer, makes a doubt whether this Hydrophobia be a 
passion of the body or the mind. The part affected is the 
brain ; the cause, poison that comes from the mad dog, which 
is so hot and dry, that it consumes all the moisture in the 
body. 6 Hildesheim relates of some that died so mad ; and 
being cut up, had no water, scarce blood, or any moisture left 
hi them. To such as are so affected, the fear of water begins 
at fourteen days after they are bitten, to some again not till 
forty or sixty days after; commonly, saith Heurnius, they 
begin to rave, fly water and glasses, to look red, and swell in 
the face, about twenty days after (if some remedy be not 
taken in the mean time) to lie awake, to be pensive, sad, to 
see strange visions, to bark and howl, to fall into a swoon, and 
oftentimes fits of the falling sickness. * Some say, little things 
like whelps will be seen in their urine. If any of these signs 
appear, they are past recovery. Many times these symptoms 
will not appear till six or seven months after, saith 7 Codron- 
chus ; and sometimes not till seven or eight years, as Gnia- 
nerius ; twelve as Albertus ; six or eight months after, as 
Galen holds. Baldus, the great lawyer, died of it ; an Au 
gustine friar, and a woman in Delft, that were 8 Forrestus' 
patients, were miserably consumed with it. The common 
cure in the country (for such at least as dwell near the sea 

l Cap. 9, art. Hydrophobia. Lib. 8, Sckenkius, 7 lib. de Venenis. 1 Lib 
eap. 9. * Lib. 7, de Venenis. < Lib. de Hydrophobia. SQbserrat. Iff). 10, 25 
8, cap. 18, de morbis acutis. * Spicel. 2 

1 DO Diseases of the Mind. [Part. I. sec. 1 

side) is to duck them over head and ears in sea-water ; some 
use charms ; every good wife can prescribe medicines. But 
the best cure to be had in such cases, is from the most ap 
proved physicians ; they that will read of them, may consult 
with Dioscorides, lib. 6, c. 37, Heurnius, Hildesheim, Capi- 
vaccius, Forrestus, Sckenkius, and before all others Codron- 
chus an Italian, who hath lately written two exquisite books 
on the subject. 

Chorus sancti Viti, or S. Vitus* dance ; the lascivious 
dance, l Paracelsus calls it, because they that are taken from 
it, can do nothing but dance till they be dead or cured. It is 
so called, for that the parties so troubled were wont to go to 
S. Vitus for help, and after they had danced there awhile, 
they were 2 certainly freed. 'Tis strange to hear how long 
they will dance, and in what manner, over stools, forms, 
tables ; even great bellied women sometimes (and yet never 
hurt their children) will dance so long that they can stir 
neither hand nor foot, but seem to be quite dead. One 
in red clothes they cannot abide. Music above all things 
they love, and therefore magistrates in Germany will hire 
musicians to play to them, and some lusty, sturdy com 
panions to dance with them. This disease hath been 
very common in Germany, as appears by those relations of 
8 Sckenkius, and Paracelsus in his book of madness, who 
brags how many several persons he hath cured of it Felix 
Platerus de mentis alienat. cap. 3, reports of a woman in 
Basil whom he saw, that danced a whole month together. 
The Arabians call it a kind of palsy. Bodine, in his fifth 
book de Repub. cap. 1, speaks of this infirmity ; Monavius 
in his last epistle to Scoltizius, and in another to Dudithus, 
where you may read more of it. 

The last kind of madness or melancholy, is that demoniacal 
(if I may so call it) obsession or possession of devils, which 
Platerus and others would have to be preternatural ; stupend 

1 Lasciram Choream. To. 4, de morbia plurimum rcm ipsam comprobante 
amen ti urn. Tract. 1. * Erentu at * Lib. 1, cap. de Mania 

Mem. 1, SUDS. 6.J Melancholy in Disposition. 191 

things are said of them, their actions, gestures, contortions, 
fasting, prophesying, speaking languages they were never 
taught, &c. Many strange stories are related of them, which, 
because some will not allow, (for Deacon and Darrel have 
written large volumes on this subject pro and con.) I volun 
tarily omit. 

1 Fuschius, institut, lib. 3, sec. 1, cap. 11, Felix Plater, 
a Laurentius, add to these another fury that proceeds from 
love, and another from study, another divine or religious 
fury ; but these more properly belong to melancholy ; of all 
which I will speak * apart, intending to write a whole book 
of them. 

SUBSECT. V. Melancholy in Disposition, improperly so 
called, Equivocations. 

MELANCHOLY, the subject of our present discourse, is 
either in disposition or habit. In disposition, is that tran 
sitory melancholy which goes and comes upon every small 
occasion of sorrow, need, sickness, trouble, fear, grief, pas 
sion, or perturbation of the mind, any manner of care, dis 
content, or thought, which causeth anguish, dulness, heaviness 
and vexation of spirit, any ways opposite to pleasure, mirth, 
joy, delight, causing frowardness in us, or a dislike. In 
which equivocal and improper sense, we call him melancholy 
that is dull, sad, sour, lumpish, ill-disposed, solitary, any way 
moved, or displeased. And from these melancholy dispo 
sitions, 8 no man living is free, no stoic, none so wise, none so 
happy, none so patient, so generous, so godly, so divine, that 
can vindicate himself; so well composed, but more or less, 
some time or other he feels the smart of it Melancholy in 
this sense is the character of mortality, f " Man that is born 
of a woman, is of short continuance, and full of trouble." 
Zeno, Cato, Socrates himself, whom 4 JElian so highly com- 

1 Cap. 3, de mentis alienat. * Cap. in Psal. yiii. 5. t Job. i. 14. < Omni 

4. de mel. * PART. 3. * De quo tempore Socratem dem vultu videri, 

homine seeuritas, de quo certum gaudi- sive domum rediret siye domo egredero 

um? quocunque se conrertit, in terrenis tur. 
rebus amuritueliuem animiiuveniet. Aug 

192 Melancholy in Disposition. [Part. I. sec. 1. 

mends for a moderate temper, that " nothing could disturb 
him, but going out, and coming in, still Socrates kept the 
same serenity of countenance, what misery soever befell him," 
(if we may believe Plato his disciple,) was much tormented 
with it. Q. Metellus, in whom l Valerius gives instance of 
all happiness, " the most fortunate man then living, born in 
that most flourishing city of Rome, of noble parentage, a 
proper man of person, well qualified, healthful, rich, honour 
able, a senator, a consul, happy in his wife, happy in his 
children," &c., yet this man was not void of melancholy, he 
had his share of sorrow. 2 Polycrates Samius, that flung his 
ring into the sea, because he would participate of discontent 
with others, and had it miraculously restored to him again 
shortly after, by a fish taken as he angled, was not free from 
melancholy dispositions. No man can cure himself; the very 
gods had bitter pangs, and frequent passions, as their own 
* poets put upon them. In general, 4 " as the heaven, so is 
our life, sometimes fair, sometimes overcast, tempestuous, and 
serene ; as in a rose, flowers and prickles ; in the year itself, 
a temperate summer sometimes, a hard winter, a drought, 
and then again pleasant showers; so is our life intermixed 
with joys, hopes, fears, sorrows, calumnies ; " Invicem cedunl 
dolor et voluptas, there is a succession of pleasure and pain. 

8 " medio de fonte leporum, 
Surgit amari aliquid in ipsis floribus angat." 

u Even in the midst of laughing there is sorrow," (as 6 Solo 
mon holds ;) even in the midst of all our feasting and jollity, 
as, 'Austin infers in his Com. on the 41st Psalm, there is 
grief and discontent. Inter delicias semper aliquid scevi nos 

1 Lib. 7. cap. 1. Natus in florenttanima obscuratur. In rosarfo florea splnis In- 

totlus orbis civitate, nobillsslmls parenti- termixti. Vita simills aeri. ndum modi, 

bu. corporls vires habuit et mrissimas gudum. tompest-is. oerenitas: ita vices 

aniini dotes, uxorem consplcuam, pudi- rerum sunt. praemia gaudiifi. et seqnaces 

earn, felices liberog, consulate decns. so- curie. * Lucretius. 1.4, 1124. "Prov. 

quentes trhimphos, &c. * JElian. xiv. 13. Extremum gaudii luctus occu- 

Homer. Iliad. * LipninK, cent. 8, ep. pat. ' Natalitia inquit celebrantur, 

46, ut cirlnm. sir nos homines gumus : nuptiae hie sunt; at ibi quid celebratur 

Ulud ex IntorvaUo nubihiis obducitur et ouod non dolet, quod non transit? 

Mem. I, subs. 5.] Melancholy in Disposition. 198 

t^ for a pint of honey thou shalt here likely find a 
gallon of gall, for a dram of pleasure a pound of pain, for an 
inch of mirth an ell of moan ; as ivy doth an oak, these 
miseries encompass our life. And it is most absurd and 
ridiculous for any mortal man to look for a perpetual tenure 
of happiness in this life. Nothing so prosperous and pleas 
ant, but it hath * some bitterness in it, some complaining, some 
grudging; it is all yfom>7rwcpov, a mixed passion, and like a 
checker table, black and white men, families, cities, have 
their falls and wanes ; now trines, sextiles, then quartiles and 
oppositions. We are not here as those angels, celestial pow 
ers and bodies, sun and moon, to finish our course without all 
offence, with such constancy, to continue for so many ages ; 
but subject to infirmities, miseries, interrupted, tossed and 
tumbled up and down, carried about with every small blast, 
often molested and disquieted upon each slender occasion, 
8 uncertain, brittle, and so is all that we trust unto. * " And 
he that knows not this is not armed to endure it, is not fit to 
live in this world (as one condoles our time), he knows not 
the condition of it, where, with a reciprocality, pleasure and 
pain are still united, and succeed one another in a ring." 
Exi e mundo, get thee gone hence if thou canst not brook it ; 
there is no way to avoid it, but to arm thyself with patience, 
with magnanimity, to * oppose thyself unto it, to suffer afflic 
tion as a good soldier of Christ ; as 6 Paul adviseth constantly 
to bear it. But forasmuch as so few can embrace this good 
counsel of his, or use it aright, but rather as so many brute 
beasts give a way to their passion, voluntary subject and pre 
cipitate themselves into a labyrinth of cares, woes, miseries, 

1 Apnleins 4, florid. Nihil qnicqnid flafrn fortunes quos in sublime ertule- 

horniui tarn prosperum divinitus datum, runt, improvise recursu destitutes iu 

quin el admixtum sit aliquid difflcultatis, profundo miseriarum valle miserabiliter 

ut etiatn amplissima quaque Isetitft, sub- immergunt. Valerius, lib. 6, cap. 11. 

eit quaepiam vel parva querimonia, con- 8 Huic seculo parum aptus eg, aut potius 

jugatione quudam mellis t fellis. omnium nostrorum conditionem iguoras, 

8 Caduca nimirum et fragilia, et puerili- quibus reciproco quodam nexu, &c. Lor- 

bus consentanea crepundi s, sunt ista chanus Qollobelgicug, lib. 3, ad annum 

quse Tires et opes humanae vocantur, af- 1598. * Horsum omnia studia dirigl 

fluunt subito, repents delabuntur, nullo debent, ut humana fortiter feramua 

in loco, nulla in persona, stabilibus nixa & 2 Tim 11. 8. 
r&dicibus consistunt, sed incertissimo 

VOL. I. 13 

194 Melancholy in Disposition. [Part. I. sec. 1. 

and suffer their souls to be overcome by them, cannot arm 
themselves with that patience as they ought to do, it falleth 
out oftentimes that these dispositions become habits, and 
u many affects contemned (as * Seneca notes) make a disease. 
Even as one distillation, not yet grown to custom, makes a 
cough ; but continual and inveterate causeth a consumption 
of the lungs ; " so do these our melancholy provocations ; and 
according as the humour itself is intended, or remitted in 
men, as their temperature of body, or rational soul is better 
able to make resistance ; so are they more or less affected. 
For that which is but a flea-biting to one, causeth insufferable 
torment to another ; and which one by his singular modera 
tion, and well-composed carriage can happily overcome, a 
second is no whit able to sustain, but upon every small occa 
sion of misconceived abuse, injury, grief, disgrace, loss, cross, 
humour, &c., (if solitary, or idle,) yields so far to passion, that 
his complexion is altered, his digestion hindered, his sleep 
gone, his spirits obscured, and his heart heavy, his hypochon- 
dries misaffected ; wind, crudity, on a sudden overtake him, 
and he himself overcome with melancholy. As it is with a 
man imprisoned for debt, if once in the jail, every creditor 
will bring his action against him, and there likely hold him. 
If any discontent seize upon a patient, in an instant all other 
perturbations (for qua data porta ruunt) will set upon him, 
and then like a lame dog or broken-winged goose he droops 
and pines away, and is brought at last to that ill habit or 
malady of melancholy itself. So that as the philosophers 
make 2 eight degrees of heat and cold, we may make eighty- 
eight of melancholy, as the parts affected are diversely seized 
with it, or have been plunged more or less into this infernal 
gulf, or waded deeper into it. But all these melancholy fits, 
howsoever pleasing at first, or displeasing, violent and tyran 
nizing over those whom they seize on for the time ; yet these 
fits I say, or men affected, are but improperly so called, be- 

1 Eplst. 96, Ub. 10, afTectus freqnenteg turaim fecit, awidua et violenta phthlsim 
eontemptique morbum faciunt. Distil- * Calidum ad octo Mgidum ad ocfo 
latio una nee adhuc in morem adaucta, Una hirundo non fitcit sestatem 

Mem. 2, subs. 1.] Digression of Anatomy. 195 

cause they continue not, but come and go, as by some objects 
they are moved. This melancholy of which we are to treat, 
is a habit, morbus sonticus, or chronieus, a chronic or contin- 
uate disease, a settled humour, as 1 Aurelianus and 2 others 
call it, not errant, but fixed ; and as it was long increasing, so 
now being (pleasant, or painful) grown to an habit, it will 
hardly be removed. 


SUBSECT. I. Digression of Anatomy. 

BEFORE I proceed to define the disease of melancholy, 
what it is, or to discourse farther of it, I hold it not imperti 
nent to make a brief digression of the anatomy of the body 
and faculties of the soul, for the better understanding of that 
which is to follow ; because many hard words will often 
occur, as myrache, hypochondries, emrods, &c., imagination, 
reason, humours, spirits, vital, natural, animal, nerves, veins, 
arteries, chylus, pituita; which by the vulgar will not so 
easily be perceived, what they are, how cited, and to what 
end they serve. And besides, it may peradventure give 
occasion to some men to examine more accurately, search 
further into this most excellent subject, and thereupon with 
that royal * prophet to praise God, (" for a man is fearfully 
and wonderfully made, and curiously wrought,") that have 
time and leisure enough, and are sufficiently informed in all 
other worldly businesses, as to make a good bargain, buy and 
sell, to keep and make choice of a fair hawk, hound, horse, 
&c. But for such matters as concern the knowledge of them 
selves, they are wholly ignorant and careless ; they know not 
what this body and soul are, how combined, of what parts 
and faculties they consist, or how a man differs from a dog. 

1 Lib. 1, o. 6. * Fu9chius, 1. 8, see. 1, cap. 7. HUdesheim, fol. ISO. Pwl 

196 Division of the Body. [Part. I. sec. 1 

And what can be more ignominious and filthy (as * Melanc- 
thon well inveighs) " than for a man not to know the struc 
ture and composition of his own body, especially since the 
knowledge of it tends so much to the preservation of his 
health, and information of his manners ? " To stir them up, 
therefore, to this study, to peruse those elaborate works of 
2 Galen, Bauhines, Plater, Vesalius, Falopius, Laurentius, 
Remelinus, &c., which have written copiously in Latin ; or 
that which some of our industrious countrymen have done in 
our mother tongue, not long since, as that translation of * Co 
lumbus and 4 Microcosmographia, in thirteen books, I have 
made this brief digression. Also because 6 Wecker, * Melanc- 
thon, 7 Fernelius, 8 Fuschius, and those tedious Tracts de 
Animd (which have more compendiously handled and written 
of this matter) are not at all times ready to be had, to give 
them some small taste, or notice of the rest, let this epi 
tome suffice. 

SUBSECT. II. Division of the Body, Humours, Spirits. 

OF the parts of the body there may be many divisions ; 
the most approved is that of * Laurentius, out of Hippocrates ; 
which is, into parts contained, or containing. Contained are 
either humours or spirits. 

Humours."] A humour is a liquid or fluent part of the 
body, comprehended in it, for the preservation of it ; and is 
either innate, or born with us, or adventitious and acquisite. 
The radical or innate, is daily supplied by nourishment, 
which some call cambium, and make those secondary hu 
mours of ros and gluten to maintain it ; or acquisite, to main 
tain these first four primary humours, coming and proceed 
ing from the first concoction in the liver, by which means 
chylus is excluded. Some divide them into profitable and 
excrementitious. But 10 Crato out of Hippocrates will have 

1 De anlraa. Tnrpe enim eat homini * De Him part. * History of man. 

Ignorare sul corporis (ut ita dlcam) aedl- * D. Crooke. * In By n taxi. De 

ncitim,pr8esertlm cum adyaletudinem et Anima. T Instlt. lib. 1. 8 Phyriol. 

mores hc eognitio plurimum conducat. 1. 1, 2. Anat. 1. 1, o. 18. IU ID 

Mem. 2, subs. 2.] Division of the Body. 197 

all four to be juice, and not excrements, without which no 
living creature can be sustained ; which four, though they b 
comprehended in the mass of blood, yet they have their 
several affections, by which they are distinguished from one 
another, and from those adventitious, peccant, or l diseased 
humours, as Melancthon calls them. 

Blood.~\ Blood is a hot, sweet, temperate, red humour, pre 
pared in the meseraic veins, and made of the most temperate 
parts of the chylus in the liver, whose office is to nourish the 
whole body, to give it strength and colour, being dispersed 
by the veins through every part of it. And from it spirits 
are first begotten in the heart, which afterwards by the arte 
ries are communicated to the other parts. 

Pituita, or phlegm, is a cold and moist humour, begotten 
of the colder part of the chylus (or white juice coming out 
of the meat digested in the stomach), in the liver ; his office 
is to nourish and moisten the members of the body, which as 
the tongue are moved, that they be not over dry. 

Choler is hot and dry, bitter, begotten of the hotter parts 
of the chylus, and gathered to the gall ; it helps the natural 
heat and senses, and serves to the expelling of excrements. 

Melancholy.'] Melancholy, cold and dry, thick, black, and 
sour, begotten of the more feculent part of nourishment, and 
purged from the spleen, is a bridle to the other two hot 
humours, blood and choler, preserving them in the blood, 
and nourishing the bones. These four humours have some 
analogy with the four elements, and to the four ages in man. 

Serum, Sweat, Tears."] To these humours you may add 
serum, which is the matter of urine, and those excremen- 
titious humours of the third concoction, sweat and tears. 

Spirits.] Spirit is a most subtile vapour, which is ex 
pressed from the blood, and the instrument of the soul, to 
perform all his actions ; a common tie or medium between 
the body and the soul, as some will have it ; or as a Paracel- 

Micro, succos, sine quibua animal sustentari non potest. 1 Morboeoa humoiee 
* Spiritalis anima. 

198 Similar Parts. [Part. L eec. 1 

BUS, a fourth soul of itself. Melancthon holds the fountain of 
these spirits to be the heart begotten there, and afterward 
conveyed to the brain, they take another nature to them. 
Of these spirits there be three kinds, according to the three 
principal parts, brain, heart, liver; natural, vital, animal. 
The natural are begotten in the liver, and thence dispersed 
through the veins, to perform those natural actions. The 
vital spirits are made in the heart of the natural, which by 
the arteries are transported to all the other parts ; if the 
spirits cease, then life ceaseth, as in a syncope or swooning. 
The animal spirits formed of the vital, brought up to the 
brain, and diffused by the nerves, to the subordinate mem 
bers, give sense and motion to them all. 

SUBSECT. III. Similar Parts. 

Similar Parts.] CONTAINING parts, by reason of their 
more solid substance, are either homogeneal or heterogeneal, 
similar or dissimilar; so Aristotle divides them, lib. 1, cap. 
1, de Hist. Animal. ; Laurentitis, cap. 20, lib. 1. Similar, 
or homogeneal, are such as, if they be divided, are still 
severed into parts of the same nature, as water into water. 
Of these some be spermatical, some fleshy or carnal. * Sper- 
matical are such as are immediately begotten of the seed, 
which are bones, gristles, ligaments, membranes, nerves, 
arteries, veins, skins, fibres or strings, fat. 

Bones.~\ The bones are dry and hard, begotten of the 
thickest of the seed, to strengthen and sustain other parts ; 
some say there be 304, some 307, or 313 in man's body. 
They have no nerves in them, and are therefore without 

A gristle is a substance softer than bone, and harder than 
the rest, flexible, and serves to maintain the parts of motion. 

Ligaments are they that tie the bones together, and other 
parts to the bones, with their subserving tendons; mem 
branes' office is to cover the rest. 

1 Laureutiua, cap. 20, lib. 1. Anat. 

Mem. 2, subs. 3.] Similar Parts. 199 

Nerves, or sinews, are membranes without, and full of 
marrow within ; they proceed from the brain, and carry the 
animal spirits for sense and motion. Of these some be 
harder, some softer; the softer serve the senses, and there 
be seven pair of them. The first be the optic nerves, by 
which we see ; the second move the eyes ; the third pair 
serve for the tongue to taste; the fourth pair for the 
taste in the palate; the fifth belong to the ears; the sixth 
pair is most ample, and runs almost over all the bowels ; the 
seventh pan* moves the tongue. The harder sinews serve 
for the motion of the inner parts, proceeding from the mar 
row in the back, of whom there be thirty combinations, seven 
of the neck, twelve of the breast, &c. 

Arteries.'] Arteries are long and hollow, with a double skin 
to convey the vital spirits ; to discern which the better, they 
say that Vesalius the anatomist was wont to cut up men 
alive. * They arise in the left side of the heart, and are 
principally two, from which the rest are derived, aorta and 
venosa ; aorta is the root of all the other, which serve the 
whole body ; the other goes to the lungs, to fetch air to re 
frigerate the heart. 

Veins."] Veins are hollow and round, like pipes, arising 
from the liver, carrying blood and natural spirits ; they feed 
all the parts. Of these there be two chief, Vena porta and 
Vena cava, from which the rest are corrivated. That Vena 
porta is a vein coming from the concave of the liver, and 
receiving those meseraical veins, by whom he takes the 
chylus from the stomach and guts, and conveys it to the 
liver. The other derives blood from the liver to nourish all 
the other dispersed members. The branches of that Vena 
porta are the meseraical and haemorrhoides. The branches 
of the Cava are inward or outward. Inward, seminal or 
emulgent. Outward, in the head, arms, feet, &c., and have 
several names. 

Fibrce, Fat, Flesh.] Fibrae are strings, white and solid, 

I In these they observe the beating of the pulso. 

200 Dissimilar Parts. [Part. I. sec. 1 

dispersed through the whole member, and right, oblique, 
transverse, all which have their several uses. Fat is a 
similar part, moist, without blood, composed of the most thick 
and unctuous matter of the blood. The 1 skin covers the 
rest, and hath Cuticulum, or a little skin under it. Flesh is 
soft and ruddy, composed of the congealing of blood, &c. 

SUBSECT. IV. Dissimilar Parts. 

DISSIMILAR parts are those which we call organical, or 
instrumental, and they be inward or outward. The chiefest 
outward parts are situate forward or backward ; forward, 
the crown and foretop of the head, skull, face, forehead, 
temples, chin, eyes, ears, nose, &c., neck, breast, chest, upper 
and lower part of the belly, hypochondries, navel, groin, 
flank, &c. ; backward, the hinder part of the head, back, 
shoulders, sides, loins, hipbones, os sacrum, buttocks, &c. Or 
joints, arms, hands, feet, legs, thighs, knees, &c. Or com 
mon to both, which, because they are obvious and well 
known, I have carelessly repeated, eaque prcecipua et 
grandiora tantum ; quod reliquum ex libris de animd qui 
volet, accipiat. 

Inward organical parts, which cannot be seen, are divers 
in number, and have several names, functions, and divisions . 
but that of a Laurentius is most notable, into noble or ignoble 
parts. Of the noble there be three principal parts, to which 
all the rest belong, and whom they serve brain, heart, 
liver ; according to whose site, three regions, or a threefold 
division, is made of the whole body. As first of the head, in 
which the animal organs are contained, and brain itself, which 
by his nerves give sense and motion to the rest, and is, as it 
were, a privy counsellor and chancellor to the heart. The 
second region is the chest, or middle belly, in which the heart 
as king keeps his court, and by his arteries communicates 
life to the whole body. The third region is the lower belly, 

1 Cnjua eat pan elmularl* a ri cuti- rta est et perrulgata partium diyislo la 
flea ut Interior* muniat. Capivac. Anat. priucipes et ignobiles partes. 
pag .262. * Anat. lib. 1, c. 19. Oleb- 

Mem. 2, subs. 4.] Anatomy of the Body. 201 

in which the liver resides as a Legal a latere, with the rest of 
those natural organs, serving for concoction, nourishment 
expelling of excrements. This lower region is distinguished 
from the upper by the midriff, or diaphragma, and is sub 
divided again by l some into three concavities or regions, 
upper, middle, and lower. The upper of the hypochondries, 
in whose right side is the liver, the left the spleen ; from 
which is denominated hypochondriacal melancholy. The 
second of the navel and flanks, divided from the first by the 
rim. The last of the water course, which is again subdivided 
into three other parts. The Arabians make two parts of this 
region, Epigastrium and Hypogastrium, upper or lower. 
Epigastrium they call Mirach, from whence comes Mirachi- 
alis Melancholia, sometimes mentioned of them. Of these 
several regions I will treat in brief apart ; and first of the 
third region, in which the natural organs are contained. 

De Animd. The Lower Region, Natural Organs.] But 
you that are readers in the mean time, " Suppose you were 
now brought into some sacred temple, or majestical palace 
(as a Melancthon saith), to behold not the matter only, but 
the singular art, workmanship, and counsel of this our great 
Creator. And it is a pleasant and profitable speculation, if it 
be considered aright." The parts of this region, which pre 
sent themselves to your consideration and view, are such as 
serve to nutrition or generation. Those of nutrition serve to 
the first or second concoction ; as the oesophagus or gullet, 
which brings meat and drink into the stomach. The ventricle 
or stomach, which is seated in the midst of that part of the 
belly beneath the midriff, the kitchen, as it were, of the first 
concoction, and which turns our meat into chylus. It hath 
two mouths, one above, another beneath. The upper is 
sometimes taken for the stomach itself ; the lower and nether 
door (as Wecker calls it) is named Pylorus. This stomach 
is sustained by a large kell or kaull, called omentum ; which 

1 D. Crook out of Galen and others, um quoddam vos duci putetU, &c. 8ua 
TM rero Tel uti in tempi urn ac sacrari- Tis et u tills cognitio. 

202 Anatomy of the Body. [Part I set. i 

some will have the same with peritoneum, or rim of the belly. 
From the stomach to the very fundament are produced the 
guts, or intestina, which serve a little to alter and distribute 
the chylus, and convey away the excrements. They are 
divided into small and great, by reason of their site and sub 
stance, slender or thicker; the slender is duodenum, or 
whole gut, which is next to the stomach, some twelve inches 
long, saith l Fuschius. Jejunum, or empty gut continuate to 
the other, which hath many meseraic veins annexed to it, 
which take part of the chylus to the liver from it. Ilion the 
third, which consists of many crinkles, which serves with the 
rest to receive, keep, and distribute the chylus from the 
stomach. The thick guts are three, the blind gut, colon, and 
right gut. The blind is a thick and short gut, having one 
mouth, in which the ilion and colon meet ; it receives the 
excrements, and conveys them to the colon. This colon hath 
many windings, that the excrements pass not away too fast ; 
the right gut is straight, and conveys the excrements to the 
fundament, whose lower part is bound up with certain 
muscles called sphincters, that the excrements may be the 
better contained, until such time as a man be willing to go to 
the stool. In the midst of these guts is situated the mesen- 
terium or midriff, composed of many veins, arteries, and 
much fat, serving chiefly to sustain the guts. All these parts 
serve the first concoction. To the second, which is busied 
either in refining the good nourishment or expelling the bad, 
is chiefly belonging the liver, like in colour to congealed 
blood, the shop of blood, situate in the right hypercondry, in 
figure like to a half-moon Generosum membrum, Melancthon 
styles it, a generous part; it serves to turn the chylus to 
blood, for the nourishment of the body. The excrements of 
it are either choleric or watery, which the other subordinate 
parts convey. The gall placed in the concave of the liver, 
extracts choler to it ; the spleen, melancholy ; which is sit 
uate on the left side, over against the liver, a spongy matter 

l Lib. 1, cp. 12, Sect. 6 

Mem. 2, subs. 4.] Anatomy of the Body. 203 

that draws this black choler to it by a secret virtue, and feeds 
upon it, conveying the rest to the bottom of the stomach, to 
stir up appetite, or else to the guts as an excrement. That 
watery matter the two kidneys expurgate by those emulgent 
veins and ureters. The emulgent draw this supeifluous 
moisture from the blood ; the two ureters convey it to the 
bladder, which by reason of his site in the lower belly, is apt 
to receive it, having two parts, neck and bottom ; the bottom 
holds the water, the neck is constringed with a muscle, which, 
as a porter, keeps the water from running out against our 

Members of generation are common to both sexes, or pe 
culiar to one ; which, because they are impertinent to my 
purpose, I do voluntarily omit. 

Middle Region.~\ Next in order is the middle region, or 
chest, which comprehends the vital faculties and parts ; which 
(as I have said) is separated from the lower belly by the 
diaphragma or midriff, which is a skin consisting of many 
nerves, membranes ; and amongst other uses it hath, is the 
instrument of laughing. There is also a certain thin mem 
brane, full of sinews, which covereth the whole chest within, 
and is called pleura, the seat of the disease called pleurisy, 
when it is inflamed ; some add a third skin, which is termed 
Mediastinus, which divides the chest into two parts, right and 
left ; of this region the principal part is the heart, which is 
the seat and fountain of life, of heat, of spirits, of pulse and 
respiration the sun of our body, the king and sole com 
mander of it the seat and organ of all passions and affec 
tions. Primum vivens, ukimum moriens, it lives first, and 
dies last in all creatures. Of a pyramidical form, and not 
much unlike to a pineapple ; a part worthy of * admiration, 
that can yield such variety of affections, by whose motion it 
is dilated or contracted, to stir and command the humours in 
the body. As in sorrow, melancholy ; in anger, choler ; in 

1 Haec res est prsrcipue digna admin- tar, cor, quod omnes res tristes <>t beta 
lioue, quod tatita affectuum rarietate cie- statim corda feriunt et movent 

204 Anatomy of the Body. [Part. I. sec. l 

joy, to send the blood outwardly ; in sorrow, to call it in ; 
moving the humours, as horses do a chariot. This heart, 
though it be one sole member, yet it may be divided into two 
creeks right and left. The right is like the moon increasing, 
bigger than the other part, and receives blood from Vena cava 
distributing some of it to the lungs to nourish them ; the rest 
to the left side, to engender spirits. The left creek hath the 
form of a cone, and is the seat of life, which, as a torch doth 
oil, draws blood unto it, begetting of it spirits and fire ; and 
as fire in a torch, so are spirits in the blood ; and by that 
great artery called aorta, it sends vital spirits over the body, 
and takes ah* from the lungs by that artery which is called 
venosa ; so that both creeks have their vessels, the right two 
veins, the left two arteries, besides those two common anfrac 
tuous ears, which serve them both ; the one to hold blood, 
the other air, for several uses. The lungs is a thin spongy 
part, like an ox hoof (saith l Fernelius), the town-clerk or 
crier ( 2 one terms it), the instrument of voice, as an orator to 
a king ; annexed to the heart, to express their thoughts by 
voice. That it is the instrument of voice, is manifest, in that 
no creature can speak, or utter any voice, which wanteth 
these lights. It is besides the instrument of respiration, or 
breathing ; and its office is to cool the heart, by sending air 
unto it, by the venosal artery, which vein comes to the lungs 
by that aspera arteria, which consists of many gristles, mem 
branes, nerves, taking in air at the nose and mouth, and by 
it likewise exhales the fumes of the heart 

In the upper region serving the animal faculties, the chief 
organ is the brain, which is a soft, marrowish, and white sub 
stance, engendered of the purest part of seed and spirits, in 
cluded by many skins, and seated within the skull or brain 
pan ; and it is the most noble organ under heaven, the 
dwelling-house and seat of the soul, the habitation of wisdom, 
memory, judgment, reason, and in which man is most like 

1 Physio. 1. 1. c. 8. * Ut orator red : sic pulmo rocLs instrumentum an lect! tui 
cordl, &c. Hekneth. 

Mem. 2, cubs. 5.] Anatomy of the Soul. 205 

unto God ; and therefore nature hath covered it with a skull 
of hard bone, and two skins or membranes, whereof the one 
is called dura mater, or meninx, the other pia mater. The 
dura mater is next to the skull, above the other, which in 
cludes and protects the brain. When this is taken away, the 
pia mater is to be seen, a thin membrane, the next and im 
mediate cover of the brain, and not covering only, but enter 
ing into it. The brain itself is divided into two parts, the 
fore and hinder part ; the fore part is much bigger than the 
other, which is called the little brain in respect of it This 
fore part hath many concavities distinguished by certain ven 
tricles, which are the receptacles of the spirits, brought 
hither by the arteries from the heart, and are there refined 
to a more heavenly nature, to perform the actions of the soul. 
Of these ventricles there are three right, left, and middle. 
The right and left answer to their sight, and beget animal 
spirits ; if they be any way hurt, sense and motion ceaseth. 
These ventricles, moreover, are held to be the seat of the 
common sense. The middle ventricle is a common concourse 
and concavity of them both, and hath two passages the one 
to receive pituita, and the other extends itself to the fourth 
creek ; in this they place imagination and cogitation, and so 
the three ventricles of the fore part of the brain are used. 
The fourth creek behind the head is common to the cerebel 
or little brain, and marrow of the backbone, the last and 
most solid of all the rest, which receives the animal spirits 
from the other ventricles, and conveys them to the marrow 
in the back, and is the place where they say the memory is 

SUBSECT. V. Of the Soul and her Faculties. 

ACCORDING to * Aristotle, the soul is defined to be tvreM' 
leta, perfectio et actus primus corporis organici, vitam habentit 
in potentia ; the perfection or first act of an organical body 
having power of life, which most 'philosophers approve 

1 De anim. e. 1. Scalig. exerc. 807. Tolet. in lib. de anima. cap 1, *c. 

206 Anatomy of the Soul. [Part. l. c. L 

But many doubts arise about the essence, subject, seat, dis 
tinction, and subordinate faculties of it For the essence and 
particular knowledge, of all other things it is most hard (be it 
of man or beast) to discern, as 1 Aristotle himself, 2 Tully, 
'Picus Mirandula, 4 Tolet, and other Neoteric philosophers 
confess : * " We can understand all things by her, but what 
she is we cannot apprehend." Some therefore make one 
soul, divided into three principal faculties ; others, three 
distinct souls. Which question of late hath been much 
controverted by Picolomineus and Zabarel. 6 Paracelsus will 
have four souls, adding to the three grand faculties a spiritual 
soul ; which opinion of his, Campanella, in his book de sensu 
rerum* much labours to demonstrate and prove, because car 
casses bleed at the sight of the murderer ; with many such 
arguments : And 7 some again, one soul of all creatures what 
soever, differing only in organs ; and that beasts have reason 
as well as men, though, for some defect of organs, not in such 
measure. Others make a doubt whether it be all in all, and 
all in every part ; which is amply discussed in Zabarel 
amongst the rest. The "common division of the soul is 
into three principal faculties vegetal, sensitive, and rational, 
which make three distinct kinds of living creatures vegetal 
plants, sensible beasts, rational men. How these three prin 
cipal faculties are distinguished and connected, Humano in- 
genio inaccessum videtur, is beyond human capacity, as 
Taurellus, Philip, Flavius, and others suppose. The in 
ferior may be alone, but the superior cannot subsist without 
the other ; so sensible includes vegetal, rational both ; which 
are contained in it (saith Aristotle) ut trigonus in tetragono, 
as a triangle in a quadrangle. 

Vcietal Soul."] Vegetal, the first of the three distinct fac 
ulties, is defined to be " a substantial act of an organical body, 

1 1, De anltna. cap. 1. 'Tuscul. qusest. f Ocellus, lib. 2, e. 81. Plutarch, in 

Lib. 6, Doct. Va. Qeutil. c. 18, pag. 1216. Grille Lips. Cen. 1, ep. 60. Jossivw da 

* Aristot. * Anitnl quseque intelligl- Risu et Fletu, Ayerroes, Campanella, &c 

tnus, et tamen qua Bit ipsa intelligere * Philip, de Anima. ca. 1. Ccelius 20, 

non ralemus. Spiritualem animam a antiq. cap. 8. Plutarch, de placit. phtloa. 

reliquis distinctam tuetur, etiatn in ca- De Tit. et mort. part. 2, c. 3, prop. 1, d 

darere inhterentem post mortem per all- Tit. et mort. 2, c. 22. 
quot menseg. * Lib. 8, cap 31. 

Mem. 2, subs. 6.] Anatomy of the Soul. 207 

by which it is nourished, augmented, and begets an Jthei like 
onto itself." In which definition, three several operations are 
specified altrix, auctrix, procreatrix ; the first is * nutrition, 
whose object is nourishment, meat, drink, and the like ; his 
organ the liver in sensible creatures ; in plants, the root or 
sap. His office is to turn the nutriment into the substance 
of the body nourished, which he performs by natural heat. 
This nutritive operation hath four other subordinate functions 
or powers belonging to it attraction, retention, digestion, 

Attraction.'] 'Attraction is a ministering faculty, which, 
as a loadstone doth iron, draws meat into the stomach, or as 
a lamp doth oil ; and this attractive power is very necessary 
in plants, which suck up moisture by the root, as another 
mouth, into the sap, as a like stomach. 

Retention.'] Retention keeps it, being attracted into the 
stomach, until such time it be concocted ; for if it should pass 
away straight, the body could not be nourished. 

Digestion.'] Digestion is performed by natural heat ; for 
as the flame of a torch consumes oil, wax, tallow, so doth it 
alter and digest the nutritive matter. Indigestion is opposite 
unto it, for want of natural heat. Of this digestion there be 
three differences maturation, elixation, assation. 

Maturation.'] Maturation is especially observed in the 
fruits of trees; which are then said to be ripe, when the 
seeds are fit to be sown again. Crudity is opposed to it, 
which gluttons, epicures, and idle persons are most subject 
unto, that use no exercise to stir natural heat, or else choke 
it, as too much wood puts out a fire. 

Elixation.'] Elixation is the seething of meat in the stom 
ach, by the said natural heat, as meat is boiled hi a pot ; to 
which corruption or putrefaction is opposite. 

Assation,'] Assation is a concoction of the inward moisture 
by heat ; his opposite is a semiustulation. 

Order of Concoction fourfold.] Besides these three sev- 

1 Nutritio est aliment! tran=mutatio. Tiro naturalis. Seal, exerc. 101, Me. 17 
See more of Attraction in Seal. exer. 843. 

208 Anatomy of the Soul. [Part. I. sec. 1 

eral operations of digestion, there is a fourfold order of con 
coction : mastication, or chewing in the mouth ; chilification 
of this so chewed meat in the stomach ; the third is in the 
liver, to turn this chylus into blood, called sanguification ; the 
last is assimulation, which is in every part. 

Expulsion.'] Expulsion is a power of nutrition, by which 
it expels all superfluous excrements, and relics of meat and 
drink, by the guts, bladder, pores ; as by purging, vomiting, 
spitting, sweating, urine, hairs, nails, &c. 

Augmentation.'] As this nutritive faculty serves to nourish 
the body, so doth the augmenting faculty (the second opera 
tion or power of the vegetal faculty) to the increasing of it 
hi quantity, according to all dimensions, long, broad, thick, 
and to make it grow till it come to his due proportion and 
perfect shape ; which hath his period of augmentation, as of 
consumption ; and that most certain, as the poet observes : 

" Stat sna caique dies, breve et irreparabile tempos 
Omnibus est vita." 

" A term of life is set to every man, 
Which is but short, and pass it no one can." 

Generation."] The last of these vegetal faculties is gener 
ation, which begets another by means of seed, like unto itself, 
to the perpetual preservation of the species. To this faculty 
they ascribe three subordinate operations : the first to turn 
nourishment into seed, &c. 

Life and Death concomitants of the Vegetal Faculties.'] 
Necessary concomitants or affections of this vegetal faculty 
are life and his privation, death. To the preservation of life 
the natural heat is most requisite, though siccity and humid 
ity, and those first qualities, be not excluded. This heat is 
likewise in plants, as appears by their increasing, fructifying, 
&c., though not so easily perceived. In all bodies it must 
have radical * moisture to preserve it, that it be not con 
sumed ; to which preservation our clime, country, tempera 
ture, and the good or bad use of those six non-natural things 
avail much. For as this natural heat and moisture decays, 

Vita eonditit in calido et hnmldo. 

Mem. 2, subs. 6.] Anatomy of the SouL 209 

BO doth our life itself; and if not prevented before by some 
violent accident, or interrupted through our own default, is 
in the end dried up by old age, and extinguished by death 
for want of matter, as a lamp for defect of oil to maintain it 

SUBSECT. VI. Of the sensible SouL 

NEXT in order is the sensible faculty, which is as far be 
yond the other in dignity as a beast is preferred to a plant, 
having those vegetal powers included in it. 'Tis defined an 
u Act of an organical body by which it lives, hath sense, ap 
petite, judgment, breath, and motion." His object in general 
is a sensible or passible quality, because the sense is affected 
with it. The general organ is the brain, from which princi 
pally the sensible operations are derived. This sensible soul 
is divided into two parts, apprehending or moving. By the 
apprehensive power we perceive the species of sensible things 
present, or absent, and retain them as wax doth the print of 
a seal. By the moving, the body is outwardly carried from 
one place to another ; or inwardly moved by spirits and 
pulse. The apprehensive faculty is subdivided into two 
parts, inward or outward. Outward, as the five senses, of 
touching, hearing, seeing, smelling, tasting, to which you may 
add Scaliger's sixth sense of titillation, if you please ; or that 
of speech, which is the sixth external sense, according to 
Lullius. Inward are three common sense, fantasy, mem 
ory. Those five outward senses have their object hi outward 
things only and such as are present, as the eye sees no colour 
except it be at hand, the ear sound. Three of these senses 
are of commodity, hearing, sight, and smell ; two of necessity, 
touch, and taste, without which we cannot live. Besides, the 
sensitive power is active or passive. Active in sight, the eye 
sees the colour ; passive when it is hurt by his object, as the 
eye by the sunbeams. According to that axiom, Visibile forte 
destruit sensum. 1 Or if the object be not pleasing, as a bad 
sound to the ear, a stinking smell to the nose, &c. 

1 ' Too bright an object destroys the organ." 

VOL. I. 14 

210 Anatomy of the Soul. [Part. I. see. 1 

Sigld] Of these five senses, sight is held to be most 
precious, and the best, and that by reason of his object, it 
sees the whole body at once. By it we learn, and discern 
all things, a sense most excellent for use ; to the sight three 
things are required ; the object, the organ, and the medium. 
The object in general is visible, or that which is to be seen, 
as colours, and all shining bodies. The medium is the illu 
mination of the air, which comes from ' light, commonly 
called diaphanum ; for in dark we cannot see. The organ is 
the eye, and chiefly the apple of it, which by those optic 
nerves, concurring both in one, conveys the sight to the com 
mon sense. Between the organ and object a true distance 
is required, that it be not too near, nor too far off. Many 
excellent questions appertain to this sense, discussed by phi 
losophers ; as whether this sight be caused intra mitiendo, vel 
extra mittendo, fyc., by receiving in the visible species, or 
sending of them out, wjhich a Plato, * Plutarch, 4 Macrobius, 
' Lactantius, and others dispute. And besides it is the sub 
ject of the perspectives, of which Alhazen the Arabian, Vi- 
tellio, Roger Bacon, Baptista Porta, Guidus Ubaldus, Aqui- 
lonius, &c., have written whole volumes. 

Hearing."] Hearing, a most excellent outward sense, " by 
which we learn and get knowledge." His object is sound, 
or that which is heard ; the medium, air ; organ the ear. To 
the sound, which is a collision of the air, three things are 
required ; a body to strike, as the hand of a musician ; the 
body struck, which must be solid and able to resist; as a 
bell, lutestring, not wool, or sponge; the medium, the air; 
which is inward, or outward; the outward being struck or 
collided by a solid body, still strikes the next air, until it 
come to that inward natural air, which as an exquisite organ 
is contained in a little skin formed like a drum-head, and 
struck upon by certain small instruments like drum-sticks, 
conveys the sound by a pair of nerves, appropriated to that 

1 Lumen eat ettu penpicui. Lumen pnet. Phllo*. 4. * Lao. ep. 8, de opif 
ft luce proyenit, lux eat in corpora lucido. Del, 1. 
2 Batur . 7, e. 14. * In Phsedon * De 

Mem. 2, subs. 6.] Anatomy of the Soul. 211 

use, to the common sense, as to a judge of sounds. There is 
great variety and much delight in them ; for the knowledge 
of which, consult with Boethius and other musicians. 

Smelling."] Smelling is an " outward sense, which appre 
hends by the nostrils drawing in air ; " and of all the rest it 
is the weakest sense in men. The organ in the nose, or two 
small hollow pieces of flesh a little above it ; the medium the 
air to men, as water to fish ; the object, smell, arising from a 
mixed body resolved, which, whether it be a quality, fume, 
vapour, or exhalation, I will not now dispute, or of their 
differences, and how they are caused. This sense is an organ 
of health, as sight and hearing, saith l Agellius, are of dis 
cipline; and that by avoiding bad smells, as by choosing 
good, which do as much alter and affect the body many times, 
as diet itself. 

Taste."] Taste, a necessary sense, " which perceives all 
savours by the tongue and palate, and that by means of a 
thin spittle, or watery juice." His organ is the tongue with 
his tasting nerves ; the medium, a watery juice ; the object, 
taste, or savour, which is a quality in the juice, arising from 
the mixture of things tasted. Some make eight species or 
kinds of savour, bitter, sweet, sharp, salt, &c., all which sick 
men (as in an ague) cannot discern, by reason of their organs 

Touching.'] Touch, the last of the senses, and most ignoble, 
yet of as great necessity as the other, and of as much pleas 
ure. This sense is exquisite in men, and by his nerves 
dispersed all over the body, perceives any tactile quality. 
His organ the nerves ; his object those first qualities, hot, 
dry, moist, cold ; and those that follow them, hard, soft, thick, 
thin, &c. Many delightsome questions are moved by phi 
losophers about these five senses; their organs, objects, 
mediums, which for brevity I omit. 

1 Lib. 19, cap. a. 

212 Anatomy of the Soul. [Part. I. BOO. 1 

SUBSECT. VII. Of the Inward Senses. 
Common Sense.] INNER senses are three in number, so 
called, because they be within the brain-pan, as common 
sense, fantasy, memory. Their objects are not only things 
present, but they perceive the sensible species of things to 
come, past, absent, such as were before in the sense. This 
common sense is the judge or moderator of the rest, by 
whom we discern all differences of objects ; for by mine 
eye I do not know that I see, or by mine ear that I hear, but 
by my common sense, who judgeth of sounds and colours ; 
they are but the organs to bring the species to be censured ; 
so that all their objects are his, and all their offices are his. 
The fore part of the brain is his organ or seat. 

Fantasy.'] Fantasy, or imagination, which some call esti 
mative, or cogitative (confirmed, saith 1 Fernelius, by fre 
quent meditation), is an inner sense which doth more fully 
examine the species perceived by common sense, of things 
present or absent, and keeps them longer, recalling them to 
mind again, or making new of his own. In tune of sleep 
this faculty is free, and many times conceives strange, 
stupend, absurd shapes, as hi sick men we commonly observe. 
His organ is the middle cell of the brain ; his objects all the 
species communicated to him by the common sense, by com 
parison of which he feigns infinite other unto himself. In 
melancholy men this faculty is most powerful and strong, and 
often hurts, producing many monstrous and prodigious things, 
especially if it be stirred up by some terrible object, pre 
sented to it from common sense or memory. In poets and 
painters imagination forcibly works, as appears by their 
several fictions, antics, images ; as Ovid's house of sleep, 
Psyche's palace hi Apuleius, &c. In men it is subject and 
governed by reason, or at least should be ; but in brutes it 
hath no superior, and is ratio brutorum, all the reason they 

l Phb. 1. 6, e. 8. 

Mem. 2, subs. 8.] Anatomy of the SouL 213 

Memory.'] Memory lays up all the species which the senses 
have brought in, and records them as a good register, that 
they may be forthcoming when they are called for by fan 
tasy and reason. His object is the same with fantasy, 
his seat and organ the back part of the brain. 

Affections of the Senses, sleep and waking.'] The affec 
tions of these senses are sleep and waking, common to all 
sensible creatures. " Sleep is a rest or binding of the out 
ward senses, and of the common sense, for the preservation 
of body and soul " (as * Scaliger defines it) ; for when the 
common sense resteth, the outward senses rest also. The 
fantasy alone is free, and his commander reason; as ap 
pears by those imaginary dreams, which are of divers kinds, 
natural, divine, demoniacal, &c., which vary according to 
humours, diet, actions, objects, &c., of which Artemidorus, 
Cardanus, and Sambucus, with their several interpreters, 
have written great volumes. This ligation of senses pro 
ceeds from an inhibition of spirits, the way being stopped by 
which they should come ; this stopping is caused of vapours 
arising out of the stomach, filling the nerves, by which the 
spirits should be conveyed. When these vapours are spent, 
the passage is open, and the spirits perform their accustomed 
duties; so that "waking is the action and motion of the 
senses, which the spirits dispersed over all parts cause." 


SUBSECT. VIII. Of the Moving Faculty. 

Appetite."] THIS moving faculty is the other power of the 
sensitive soul, which causeth all those inward and outward 
animal motions in the body. It is divided into two faculties, 
the power of appetite, and of moving from place to place. 
This of appetite is threefold, so some will have it ; natural, as 
it signifies any such inclination, as of a stone to fall downward, 
and such actions as retention, expulsion, which depend not 
on sense, but are vegetal, as the appetite of meat and drink j 

1 Exerclt. 280. 

214 Anatomy of the Soul [Part. L eo. 1 

hungei and thirst. Sensitive is common to men and brutes. 
Voluntary, the third, or intellective, which commands the 
other two in men, and is a curb unto them, or at least should 
be, but for the most part is captivated and overruled by 
them ; and men are led like beasts by sense, giving reins to 
their concupiscence and several lusts. For by this appetite 
the soul is led or inclined to follow that good which the 
senses shall approve, or avoid that which they hold evil ; his 
object being good or evil, the one he embraceth, the other he 
rejecteth ; according to that aphorism, Omnia appetunt bonum, 
all things seek their own good, or at least seeming good. 
This power is inseparable from sense, for where sense is, 
there are likewise pleasure and pain. His organ is the same 
with the common sense, and is divided into two powers, or 
inclinations, concupiscible or irascible ; or (as J one translates 
it) coveting, anger, invading, or impugning. Concupiscible 
covets always pleasant and delightsome things, and abhors 
that which is distasteful, harsh, and unpleasant. Irascible, 
8 quasi aversans per iram et odium, as avoiding it with anger 
and indignation. All aifections and perturbations arise out 
of these two fountains, which, although the Stoics make light 
of, we hold natural, and not to be resisted. The good affec 
tions are caused by some object of the same nature ; and if 
present, they procure joy, which dilates the heart and pre 
serves the body ; if absent, they cause hope, love, desire, and 
concupiscence. The bad are simple or mixed; simple for 
some bad object present, as sorrow, which contracts the heart, 
macerates the soul, subverts the good estate of the body, 
hindering all the operations of it, causing melancholy, and 
many times death itself; or future, as fear. Out of these 
two arise these mixed affections and passions of anger, which 
is a desire of revenge ; hatred, which is inveterate anger ; 
zeal, which is offended with him who hurts that he loves ; 
and ImxatpeKonia, & compound affection of joy and hate, when 
we rejoice at other men's mischief, and are grieved at their 

T. W. Jefuite, in hti Passion* of the Minde. * Velcurio. 

Mem. 2, snbs. 8.] Anatomy of the Soul. 215 

prosperity ; pride, self-love, emulation, envy, shame, &c., of 
which elsewhere. 

Moving from place to place, is a faculty necessarily follow 
ing the other. For in vain were it otherwise to desire and 
to abhor, if we had not likewise power to prosecute or eschew, 
by moving the body from place to place ; by this faculty, 
therefore, we locally move the body, or any part of it, and go 
from one place to another. To the better performance of 
which, three things are requisite : that which moves ; by 
what it moves ; that which is moved. That which moves, is 
either the efficient cause, or end. The end is the object, 
which is desired or eschewed ; as in a dog to catch a hare, 
&c. The efficient cause in man is reason, or his subordinate 
fantasy, which apprehends good or bad objects ; in brutes 
imagination alone, which moves the appetite, the appetite this 
faculty, which, by an admirable league of nature, and by me 
diation of the spirit, commands the organ by which it moves ; 
and that consists of nerves, muscles, cords, dispersed through 
the whole body, contracted and relaxed as the spirits will, 
which move the muscles, or * nerves in the midst of them, 
and draw the cord, and so per consequent, the joint, to the 
place intended. That which is moved, is the body or some 
member apt to move. The motion of the body is divers, as 
going, running, leaping, dancing, sitting, and such like, re 
ferred to the predicament of situs. Worms creep, birds fly, 
fishes swim ; and so of parts, the chief of which is respiration 
or breathing, and is thus performed. The outward air is 
drawn in by the vocal artery, and sent by mediation of the 
midriff to the lungs, which, dilating themselves as a pair of 
bellows, reciprocally fetch it in, and send it out to the heart 
to cool it ; and from thence now being hot, convey it again, 
still taking in fresh. Such a like motion is that of the pulse, 
of which, because many have written whole books, I will say 

1 Herri i spirit u morentur, spiritus ab anima, Melanct 

216 Anatomy of the Soul. [Part. I. sec. 1 


SUBSECT. EL Of the Rational Soul. 
IN the precedent subsections I have anatomized those in 
ferior faculties of the soul ; the rational remaineth, " a pkas- 
ant but a doubtful subject " (as 1 one terms it), and with the 
like brevity to be discussed. Many erroneous opinions are 
about the essence and original of it ; whether it be fire, as 
Zeno held ; harmony, as Aristoxenus ; number, as Xenocra- 
tes ; whether it be organical, or inorganical ; seated in the 
brain, heart or blood ; mortal or immortal ; how it comes into 
the body. Some hold that it is ex traduce, as Phil. 1, de 
Anima, Tertullian, Lactantius de opific. Dei, cap. 19. Hugo, 
lib. de Spiritu et Anima, Vincentius Bettavic. spec, natural, 
lib. 23, cap. 2, et 11. Hippocrates, Avicenna, and many 
a late writers ; that one man begets another, body and soul ; 
or as a candle from a candle, to be produced from the seed ; 
otherwise, say they, a man begets but half a man, and is 
worse than a beast that begets both matter and form ; and 
besides the three faculties of the soul must be together in 
fused, which is most absurd as they hold, because in beasts 
they are begot, the two inferior I mean, and may not be well 
separated in men. * Galen supposeth the soul crasin esse, to 
be the temperature itself; Trismegistus, Musaeus, Orpheus, 
Homer, Pindarus, Phaerecides Syrus, Epictetus, with the 
Chaldees and ^Egyptians, affirmed the soul to be immortal, 
as did those British * Druids of old. The 4 Pythagoreans 
defend Metempsychosis ; and Palingenesia, that souls go from 
one body to another, epota prius Lethes undd, as men into 
wolves, bears, dogs, hogs, as they were inclined hi their lives, 
or participated in conditions. 

t " inque ferinas 
Possumus ire domus, pecudumque in corpora condi." 

' Velcurio. Jucundum et anceps sub- * Bead JSneaa Gazeua dial, of the Immor- 

Jectum. > Qoclenius In "tv^oX. pag. tality of the Soul. t Ovid. Met. 1& 

802. Bright In Phys. Scrib. 1. 1. David " We > who ma y take "P our abode ln *& 

Crusius, Melancthon, Hippius Hernius, bwwtB, or be lodged iu the breasts of oat. 

Lerinua Lemnlua, &o. * Lib. an mores tle -" 
equantur, &c. * Caesar. 6, com. 

Mem. 2, subs. 9.] Anatomy of the Soul. 

1 Lucian's cock was first Euphorbus a captain : 

" Die ego (nam memini) Trojani tempore belli. 
Panthoides Euphorbus eram." 

A horse, a man, a sponge. 2 Julian the Apostate thought 
Alexander's soul was descended into his body : Plato in 
Timaeo, and in his Phaedon (for aught I can perceive), differs 
not much from this opinion, that it was from God at first, and 
knew all, but being inclosed in the body, it forgets, and learns 
anew, which he calls reminiscentia, or recalling, and that it 
was put into the body for a punishment ; and thence it goes 
into a beast's, or man's, as appears by his pleasant fiction de 
tortitione animarum, lib. 10, de rep. and after * ten thousand 
years is to return into the former body again. 

* " post varies annos, per mQle figuras, 
Rursus ad humause fertur primordia vitas." 

Others deny the immortality of it, which Pomponatus of 
Padua decided out of Aristotle not long since, Plinius Avun~ 
culus, cap. 1, lib. 2, et lib. 7, cap. 55 ; Seneca, lib. 7, epist. ad 
Luciliwm epist. 55 / Dicearchus in Tull. Tusc. JEpicurus, 
Aratus, Hippocrates, Galen, Lucretius, lib. 1. 

" (Praeterea gigni pariter cum corpore, et una 
Crescere sentimus, pariterque senescere mentem.)" f 

Averroes, and I know not how many Neoterics. J " This 
question of the immortality of the soul, is diversely and won 
derfully impugned and disputed, especially among the Italians 
of late," saith Jab. Oolerus, lib. de immort. animce, cap. 1. 
The popes themselves have doubted of it ; Leo Decimus, that 
Epicurean pope, as some record of him, caused this ques 
tion to be discussed pro and con before him, and concluded 
at last, as a profane and atheistical moderator, with that 

1 In Gallo. Idem. * Nicephorus, hist, with the body, grows with it, and decay* 

Hb. 10, cap. 85. Phaedo. * Clau- with it." J Haec qujesdo multoa per 

dian, lib. 1, de rap. Proserp. t " Be- annos varie, ac mirabiliter impugnau;, 

eides, we obserre that the mind is born &c. Golems, ibid 

218 Anatomy of the Soul. [Part. I. sec. 1. 

verse of Cornelius Gallus, Et redit in nihilum, quodfuit ante 
nihiL It began of nothing, and in nothing it ends. Zeno 
and his Stoics, as * Austin quotes him, supposed the soul so 
long to continue, till the body was fully putrefied, and re 
solved into materia prima ; but after that, in fumos evanes- 
cere, to be extinguished and vanished ; and in the mean time, 
whilst the body was consuming, it wandered all abroad, et e 
longinquo muha annunciare, and (as that Clazomenian Her- 
motimus averred) saw pretty visions, and suffered I know not 
what, f Errant exangues sine corpore et ossibus umbrae. 
Others grant the immortality thereof, but they make many 
fabulous fictions in the mean time of it, after the departure 
from the body ; like Plato's Elysian fields, and that Turkey 
paradise. The souls of good men they deified ; the bad 
(saith * Austin) became devils, as they supposed ; with many 
such absurd tenets, which he hath confuted. Hierome, Aus 
tin, and other Fathers of the Church, hold that the soul is 
immortal, created of nothing, and so infused into the child or 
embryo in his mother's womb, six months after the a concep 
tion ; not as those of brutes, which are ex traduce, and dying 
with them vanish into nothing. To whose divine treatises, 
and to the Scriptures themselves, I rejourn all such atheis 
tical spirits, as Tully did Atticus, doubting of this point, to 
Plato's Phaedon. Or if they desire philosophical proofs and 
demonstrations, I refer them to Niphus, Nic. Faventinus's 
tracts of this subject. To Fran, and John Picus in digress ; 
sup. 3, de Anima, Tholosanus, Eugubinus, to Soto, Canas, 
Thomas, Peresius, Dandinus, Colerus, to that elaborate tract 
in Zanchius, to Tolet's Sixty Reasons, and Lessius's Twenty- 
two Arguments, to prove the immortality of the soul. Cam- 
panetta lib. de Sensu rerum, is large in the same discourse, 
Albertinus the Schoolman, Jacob. Nactantus, torn. 2, op. 
handleth it in four questions, Antony Brunus, Aonius Pale- 
arius, Marinus Marcennus, with many others. This reason- 

* De eccleg. dog. cap. 16. t Oriel. 4, rum lares, maloram reri terras et lem- 
Met. " The bloodless shades without ures. * Some say at three days, som 
ith: body or bones wander." 1 Bono- six weeks, others otherwise. 

Mem. 2, subs. 10.] Anatomy of the Soul 219 

able soul, which Austin calls a spiritual substance moving 
itself, is defined by philosophers to be "the first substantial 
act of a natural, humane, organical body, by which a man 
lives, perceives, and understands, freely doing all things, and 
with election." Out of which definition we may gather, that 
this rational soul includes the powers, and performs the duties 
of the other two, which are contained in it, and all three fac 
ulties make one soul, which is inorganical of itself, although 
it be in all parts, and incorporeal, using their organs, and 
working by them. It is divided into two chief parts, differ 
ing in office only, not in essence. The understanding, which 
is the rational power apprehending ; the will, which is the 
rational power moving ; to which two, all the other rational 
powers are subject and reduced. 

SUBSECT. X. Of the Understanding 

"UNDERSTANDING is a power of the soul, 'by which we 
perceive, know, remember, and judge as well singulars, as 
universals, having certain innate notices or beginnings of arts, 
a reflecting action, by which it judgeth of his own doings, and 
examines them." Out of this definition (besides his chief 
office, which is to apprehend, judge all that he performs, 
without the help of any instruments or organs) three differ 
ences appear betwixt a man and a beast. As first, the sense 
only comprehends singularities, the understanding universal 
ities. Secondly, the sense hath no innate notions. Thirdly, 
brutes cannot reflect upon themselves. Bees indeed make 
neat and curious works, and many other creatures besides ; 
but when they have done, they cannot judge of them. His 
object is God, Ens, all nature, and whatsoever is to be under 
stood ; which successively it apprehends. The object first 
moving the understanding, is some sensible thing ; after by 
discoursing, the mind finds out the corporeal substance, and 
from thence the spiritual. His actions (some say) are appre 
hension, composition, division, discoursing, reasoning, memory, 

1 Melancthra. 

220 Anatomy of the SouL [Part. 1. see L 

which some include in invention, and judgment. The com 
mon divisions are of the understanding, agent, and patient ; 
speculative, and practical ; in habit, or in act ; simple, or 
compound. The agent is that which is called the wit of man, 
acumen or subtilty, sharpness of invention, when he doth 
invent of himself without a teacher, or learns anew, which 
abstracts those intelligible species from the fantasy, and 
transfers them to the passive understanding, * " because there 
is nothing in the understanding, which was not first in the 
sense." That which the imagination hath taken from the 
sense, this agent judgeth of, whether it be true or false ; and 
being so judged he commits it to the passible to be kept. 
The agent is a doctor or teacher, the passive a scholar ; and 
his office is to keep and further judge of such things as are 
committed to his charge ; as a bare and rased table at first, 
capable of all forms and notions. Now these notions are two 
fold, actions or habits ; actions, by which we take notions of, 
and perceive things ; habits, which are durable lights and 
notions, which we may use when we will. Some reckon up 
eight kinds of them, sense, experience, intelligence, faith, 
suspicion, error, opinion, science; to which are added art, 
prudency, wisdom ; as also a synteresis, dictamen rationis, 
conscience; so that in all there be fourteen species of the 
understanding, of which some are innate, as the three last 
mentioned ; the other are gotten by doctrine, learning, and 
use. Plato will have all to be innate ; Aristotle reckons up 
but five intellectual habits ; two practical, as prudency, whose 
end is to practise ; to fabricate ; wisdom to comprehend the 
use and experiments of all notions and habits whatsoever. 
Which division of Aristotle (if it be considered aright) is all 
one with the precedent; for three being innate, and five 
acquisite, the rest are improper, imperfect, and in a more 
strict examination excluded. Of all these I should more 
amply dilate, but my subject will not permit. Three of them 

1 NIhtl In Intellect!!, quod non prius fuerat in senau. Velcnrlo. * The pun part 
of the conscience. 


Mem. 2, subs. 11.] Anatomy of the Soul. 221 

I will only point at, as more necessary to iny following dis 

Synteresis, or the purer part of the conscience, is an innate 
habit, and doth signify " a conversation of the knowledge of 
the law of God and Nature, to know good or evil." And (as 
our divines hold) it is rather in the understanding than in the 
will. This makes the major proposition in a practical syllo 
gism. The dictamen rationis is that which doth admonish us 
to do good or evil, and is the minor in the syllogism. The 
conscience is that which approves good or evil, justifying or 
condemning our actions, and is the conclusion of the syllo 
gism ; as in that familiar example of Regulus the Roman, 
taken prisoner by the Carthaginians, and suffered to go to 
Rome, on that condition he should return again, or pay so 
much for his ransom. The synteresis proposeth the ques 
tion; his word, oath, promise, is to be religiously kept, 
although to his enemy, and that by the law of nature. * " Do 
not that to another which thou wouldest not have done to 
thyself." Dictamen applies it to him, and dictates this or the 
like : Regulus, thou wouldst not another man should falsify 
his oath, or break promise with thee ; conscience concludes, 
therefore, Regulus, thou dost well to perform thy promise, 
and oughtest to keep thine oath. More of this in Religious 

SUBSECT. XL Of the Witt. 

WILL is the other power of the rational soul, a " which 
covets or avoids such things as have been before judged and 
apprehended by the understanding." If good, it approves ; 
if evil, it abhors it ; so that his object is either good or evil. 
Aristotle calls this our rational appetite ; for as, in the sensi 
tive, we are moved to good or bad by our appetite, ruled and 
directed by sense ; so in this we are carried by reason. Be 
sides, the sensitive appetite hath a particular object, good or 

1 Quod tibi fieri non yia, alter! ne fec- ciptt, Tel rejidt ; approbat, Tel improbt 
ris. Res ab intellect u monstratas re- Philip. Ignoti nulla cupido. 

222 Anatomy of the Soul. [Part. I. we. L 

bad ; this an universal, immaterial ; that respects only things 
delectable and pleasant ; this honest. Again, they differ in 
liberty. The sensual appetite seeing an object, if it be a 
convenient good, cannot but desire it ; if evil, avoid it ; but 
this is free in his essence, * " much now depraved, obscured, 
and fallen from his first perfection ; yet in some of his opera 
tions still free," as to go, walk, move at his pleasure, and to 
choose whether it will do or not do, steal or not steal. Other 
wise, in vain were laws, deliberations, exhortations, counsels, 
precepts, rewards, promises, threats and punishments ; and 
God should be the author of sin. But in a spiritual things 
we will no good, prone to evil (except we be regenerate, and 
led by the Spirit), we are egged on by our natural concupis 
cence, and there is ara^ia, a confusion in our powers, * " our 
whole will is averse from God and his law," not in natural 
things only, as to eat and drink, lust, to which we are led 
headlong by our temperature and inordinate appetite, 

4 " Nee nos obniti contra, nee tendere tantfcm 

we cannot resist, our concupiscence is originally bad, our 
heart evil, the seat of our affections captivates and enforceth 
our will. So that in voluntary things we are averse from 
God and goodness, bad by nature, by 6 ignorance worse, by 
art, discipline, custom, we get many bad habits ; suffering 
them to domineer and tyrannize over us ; and the devil is 
still ready at hand with his evil suggestions, to tempt our 
depraved will to some ill-disposed action, to precipitate us to 
destruction, except our will be swayed and counterpoised 
again with some divine precepts, and good motions of the 
spirit, which many times restrain, hinder and check us, when 
we are in the full career of our dissolute courses. So David 
corrected himself, when he had Saul at a vantage. Revenge 

1 Melancthon. Operations plerumque " We are neither able to contend against 

ferae, etsi llbera sit ilia in essentia sua. them, nor only to make way." * Vel 

* In rivilibus libera. sed non in spiritual!- propter ignorantiam, quod bonls etudiit 

bns Osiander. * Tota voluntaa a versa non sit instruct* mens ut debuit, aut di 

i Deo. Omnla homo mendax. * Vlrg. rinis pneceptis exculta. 

Mem. 2, subs. 11.] Anatomy of the Soul. 223 

and malice were as two violent oppugners on the one side ; 
but honesty, religion, fear of God, withheld him on the other. 
The actions of the will are velle and nolle, to will and nill ; 
which two words comprehend all, and they are good or bad, 
accordingly as they are directed, and some of them freely per 
formed by himself ; although the Stoics absolutely deny it, 
and will have all things inevitably done by destiny, imposing 
a fatal necessity upon us, which we may not resist ; yet we 
say that our will is free in respect of us, and things contin 
gent, howsoever in respect of God's determinate counsel, they 
are inevitable and necessary. Some other actions of the will 
are performed by the inferior powers, which obey him, as the 
sensitive and moving appetite ; as to open our eyes, to g( 
hither and thither, not to touch a book, to speak fair or foul ; 
but this appetite is many times rebellious in us, and will not 
be contained within the lists of sobriety and temperance. It 
was (as I said) once well agreeing with reason, and there was 
an excellent consent and harmony between them, but that is 
now dissolved, they often jar, reason is overborne by passion : 
Fertur equis auriga, nee audit currus habenas, as so many 
wild horses run away with a chariot, and will not be curbed. 
"^Te know many times what is good, but will not do it, as she 


* " Trahit invitum nova vis, aliudque cupido, , 

Mens aliud suadet," 

Lust counsels one thing, reason another, there is a new re- 
luctancy in men. * Odi, nee possum, cupiens, non esse quod 
odi. We cannot resist, but as Phaedra confessed to her nurse, 
2 quce loqueris, vera sunt, sed furor suggerit sequi pejora ; she 
said well and true, she did acknowledge it, but headstrong 
passion and fury made her to do that which was opposite. 
So David knew the filthiness of his fact, what a loathsome, 
foul, crying sin adultery was, yet notwithstanding, he would 
commit murder, and take away another man's wife, enforced 
against reason, religion, to follow his appetite. 

1 Med. Ovid. * Ovid. * Seneca. Hipp. 

224 Definition of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. L 

Those natural and vegetal powers are not commanded by 
will at all ; for " who can add one cubit to his stature ? " 
These other may, but are not ; and thence come all those 
headstrong passions, violent perturbations of the mind ; and 
many times vicious habits, customs, feral diseases ; because 
we give so much way to our appetite, and follow our inclina 
tion, like so many beasts. The principal habits are two in 
number, virtue and vice, whose peculiar definitions, descrip 
tions, differences, and kinds, are handled at large in the ethics, 
and are, indeed, the subject of moral philosophy. 


SUBSECT. I. Definition of Melancholy, Name, Difference. 

HAVING thus briefly anatomized the body and soul of man, 
as a preparative to the rest ; I may now freely proceed to 
treat of my intended object, to most men's capacity; and 
after many ambages, perspicuously define what this melan 
choly is, show his name and differences. The name is im 
posed from the matter, and disease denominated from the 
material cause ; as Bruel observes, Me^ov^oAta quasi Mckuiti 
X.otii, from black choler. And whether it be a cause or an 
effect, a disease or symptom, let Donatus Altomarus and 
Salvianus decide ; I will not contend about it. It hath 
several descriptions, notations, and definitions. l Fracasto- 
rius, in his second book of intellect, calls those melancholy, 
" whom abundance of that same depraved humour of black 
choler hath so misaffected, that they become mad thence, and 
dote in most things, or in all, belonging to election, will, or 
other manifest operations of the understanding." a Melaneliua 
out of Galen, Ruffus, JEtius, describe it to be "a bad and 

1 MeUncholloog vocamus, quoa exube- rectam rationem, yolantatem pertinent, 

rantia yel pravitas Melancholias Ita male relelectionem, Tel Intellect As operations*, 

habet, ut Inde inRaniant Tel in omnibus, * Pessimum et pertinaclsslmum morbum 

Tel in pluribus usque manifestls give ad qui homines in bruta degenerate cogit. 

Mem. 3, subs. 1.] Definition of Melancholy. 225 

peevish disease, which makes men degenerate into beasts : " 
Galen, " a privation or infection of the middle cell of the 
head," &c., defining it from the part affected, which ! Her 
cules de Saxonia approves, lib. 1, cap. 16, calling it "a 
depravation of the principal function ;" Fuschius, lib. 1, cap. 
23, Arnoldus Breviar. lib. 1, cap. 18, Guianerius, and others ; 
" By reason of black choler," Paulus adds. Halyabbas sim 
ply calls it a " commotion of the mind." Aretaeus, 2 " a per 
petual anguish of the soul, fastened on one thing, without an 
ague ; " which definition of his, Mercurialis de affect, cap. lib. 
1, cap. 10, taxeth ; but -5lianus Montaltus defends, lib. de 
morb. cap. 1, de Melon, for sufficient and good. The common 
sort define it to be " a kind of dotage without a fever, having 
for his ordinary companions, fear and sadness, without any 
apparent occasion. So doth Laurentius, cap. 4, Piso, lib. 1, 
cap. 43, Donatus Altomarus, cap. 7, art. medic., Jacchinus, 
in com. in lib. 9, Rhasis ad Almansor, cap. 15. Valesius 
exerc. 17, Fuschius, institut. 3, sec. 1, c. 11, fyc., which 
common definition, howsoever approved by most, 8 Hercules 
de SaxoniH, will not allow of, nor David Crucius, Theat. morb. 
Herm. lib. 2, cap. 6, he holds it insufficient; "as 4 rather 
showing what it is not, than what it is ; " as omitting the 
specific difference, the fantasy and brain ; but I descend 
to particulars. The summum genus is u dotage, or anguish 
of the mind," saith Aretaeus ; " of the principal parts," Her 
cules de Saxonia adds, to distinguish it from cramp and palsy, 
and such diseases as belong to the outward sense and motions 
[depraved] * to distinguish it from folly and madness (which 
Montaltus makes angor animi, to separate) in which those 
functions are not depraved, but rather abolished ; [without 
an ague] is added by all, to separate it from frenzy, and 
that melancholy which is in a pestilent fever. (Fear and 
sorrow) make it differ from madness ; [without a cause] ia 

1 Panth. med. * Angor anhnl in explicat. * Animae functiones immin- 

una contentione deflxus, abgque febre. unntur, in fatuitate, tolluntur in ma- 

* Cap. 16, 1. 1. * Eorum definitio mor- nia, deprarantnr solura in melancholii 

bus quid non sit potius quam quid sit, Here, de Sax. cap. 1, tract, de Melanch 

VOL. i. 15 

226 Of the Parts affected, $c. [Part. i. sec. i 

lastly inserted, to specify it from all other ordinary passions 
of [fear and sorrow]. We properly call that dotage, as 
1 Laurentius interprets it, " when some one principal faculty 
of the mind, as imagination, or reason, is corrupted, as all 
melancholy persons have." It is without a fever, because 
the humour is most part cold and dry, contrary to putrefac 
tion. Fear and sorrow are the true characters and insep 
arable companions of most melancholy, not all, as Her. 
de Saxonia, Tract, de posthumo de Melancholia, cap. 2, well 
excepts ; for to some it is most pleasant, as to such as laugh 
most part ; some are bold again, and free from all manner of 
fear and grief, as hereafter shall be declared. 

SUBSECT. II. Of the Part affected. Affection. Parties 

SOME difference I find amongst writers, about the principal 
part affected in this disease, whether it be the brain, or heart, 
or some other member. Most are of opinion that it is the 
brain ; for being a kind of dotage, it cannot otherwise be but 
that the brain must be affected, as a similar part, be it by 
* consent or essence, not in his ventricles, or any obstructions 
in them for then it would be an apoplexy, or epilepsy, as 
8 Laurentius well observes, but in a cold, dry distemperature 
of it in his substance, which is corrupt and become too cold, 
or too dry, or else too hot, as in madmen, and such as are in 
clined to it ; and this * Hippocrates confirms, Galen, the Ara 
bians, and most of our new writers. Marcus de Oddis (in a 
consultation of his, quoted by * Hildesheim) and five others 
there cited are of the contrary part ; because fear and sorrow, 
which are passions, be seated in the heart. But this objection 
is sufficiently answered by 6 Montaltus, who doth not deny that 
the heart is affected (as * Melanelius proves out of Galen) by 
reason of his vicinity, and so is the midriff and many other 

1 Cap. 4, de mel. * Per consensual sive per cerebrum contingat, et procerum 

tire per essentiam. * Cap. 4, de mel. auctoritate et ratione stabilitur. Lib 

1 Sec. 7, de mor. vulgar, lib. 6. * Spi- de Mel. Cor vero vicinitatis ratione nn4 

eel. de melancholia. 5 Cap. 8, de mel. afflcitur, acceptum transversum ac stem- 

pars affecta cerebrum sire per consensual, achus cum dorsali spina &c. 

Mem. 3, subs. 2.] Of the Parts affected, fyc. 227 

parts. They do compati, and have a fellow-feeling by the 
law of nature; but forasmuch as this malady is caused by 
precedent imagination, with the appetite, to whom spirits 
obey, and are subject to those principal parts, the brain must 
needs primarily be misaffected, as the seat of reason ; and 
then the heart, as the seat of affection. * Cappivaccius and 
Mercurialis have copiously discussed this question, and both 
conclude the subject is the inner brain, and from thence it is 
communicated to the heart and other inferior parts, which 
sympathize and are much troubled, especially when it comes 
by consent, and is caused by reason of the stomach, or 
myrach, as the Arabians term it, whole body, liver, or 
8 spleen, which are seldom free, pylorus, meseraic veins, &c. 
For our body is like a clock, if one wheel be amiss, all the 
rest are disordered ; the whole fabric suffers ; with such 
admirable art and harmony is a man composed, such excel 
lent proportion, as Ludovicus Vives in his Fable of Man 
hath elegantly declared. 

As many doubts almost arise about the 8 affection, whether 
it be imagination or reason alone, or both, Hercules de 
Saxonia proves it out of Galen, JEtius, and Altomarus, that 
the sole fault is in 4 imagination. Bruel is of the same 
mind ; Montaltus in his 2 cap. of Melancholy confutes this 
tenet of theirs, and illustrates the contrary by many ex 
amples : as of him that thought himself a shell-fish, of a nun, 
and of a desperate monk that would not be persuaded but 
that he was damned ; reason was in fault as well as imagina 
tion, which did not correct this error ; they make away them 
selves oftentimes, and suppose many absurd and ridiculous 
things. Why doth not reason detect the fallacy, settle and 
persuade, if she be free ? 6 Avicenna therefore holds both 
corrupt, to whom most Arabians subscribe. The same is 
maintained by * Areteus, 7 Gorgonius, Guianerius, &c. To 

1 Lib. 1, cap. 10. Suhjectum eat cere- nandi, non cogitandi, nee metnorandi 

brnm interius. 2 Raro quisquam tu- laesa hie. 5 Lib. 3, Fen. 1, Tract. 4, 

morem effugit lienis, qui hoc morbo cap. 8. Lib. 3, cap. 5. 7 Lib MeA 

nfficitur, Plan. Quis affectus. a See cap. 19, part. 2, Trac. 16, cap 2. 

Donat. ab A] tomar. * Facultas imagi- 

228 Of the Parts affected, $c. [Part. 1. sec. 1 

end the controversy, no man doubts of imagination, but that 
it is hurt and misaffected here ; for the other, I determine 
with * Albertinus Bottonus, a doctor of Padua, that it is first 
in " imagination, and afterwards in reason ; if the disease be 
inveterate, or as it is more or less of continuance ; but by 
accident," as * Her. de Saxonia adds ; " faith, opinion, dis 
course, ratiocination, are all accidentally depraved by the 
default of imagination." 

Parties affected.^ To the part affected, I may here add 
the parties, which shall be more opportunely spoken of else 
where, now only signified. Such as have the moon, Saturn, 
Mercury misaffected in their genitures, such as live in over 
cold, or over hot climes ; such as are born of melancholy 
parents ; as offend in those six non-natural things, are black, 
or of a high sanguine complexion, 8 that have little heads, 
that have a hot heart, moist brain, hot liver and cold stomach, 
have been long sick ; such as are solitary by nature, great 
students, given to much contemplation, lead a life out of 
action, are most subject to melancholy. Of sexes both, but 
men more often ; yet * women misaffected are far more 
violent, and grievously troubled. Of seasons of the year, the 
autumn is most melancholy. Of peculiar tunes : old age, from 
which natural melancholy is almost an inseparable accident ; 
but this artificial malady is more frequent in such as are of 
a 4 middle age. Some assign forty years, Gariopontus thirty. 
Jubertus excepts neither young nor old from this adven 
titious. Daniel Sennertus involves all of all sorts, out of 
common experience, 6 in omnibus omnino corporibus cujus- 
cunque constitutioms dominatur. JEtius and Aretius f ascribe 
into the number " not only " discontented, passionate, and 
miserable persons, swarthy, black ; but such as are most 

1 HiMesheim gpicel. 2, de Melano. fol. * Aretetu, lib. 3, cap. 6. 4 Qui prop* 

307, et fol. 127. Quandoque etiam ra- gtatum sunt. Aret. Mediis conrenit 

tlonalis si affectus inyeteratus sit. * Lib. aetatibus, Piso. ' De quartano. 

pOBthumo de Melanc. edit. 1020, cleprira- f Lib. 1, part. 2, cap. 11. Primui 

tor fides, discursus, opinio, &c., per ad Melancholiam non tarn moestug Bed 

fttium Iraaginationig, ez Accident!. et hilaree, jocosi, cachinnantes, irriaorvs 

1 Qui parvuin c&put habent, inaensatl et, qui plerumque praerubri aunt, 
sunt. Arist. in physiognomic. 

Mem. 3, subs. 8.J Matter of Melancholy. 229 

merry and pleasant, scoffers, and high coloured." " Gener 
ally," saith Rhasis, * " the finest wits and most generous 
spirits, are before other obnoxious to it ; " I cannot except 
any complexion, any condition, sex, or age, but 2 fools and 
Stoics, which, according to 8 Synesius, are never troubled 
with any manner of passion, but as Anacreon's cicada, sine 
sanguine et dolore ; similes fere diis sunt. Erasmus vindi 
cates fools from this melancholy catalogue, because they have 
most part moist brains and light hearts ; * they are free from 
ambition, envy, shame and fear ; they are neither troubled in 
conscience, nor macerated with cares, to which our whole life 
is most subject. 

SUBSECT. III. Of the Matter of Melancholy. 

OF the matter of melancholy, there is much question be 
twixt Avicen and Galen, as you may read in 6 Cardan's 
Contradictions, 8 Valesius's Controversies, Montanus, Prosper 
Calenus, Cappivaccius, * Bright, 8 Ficinus, that have written 
either whole tracts, or copiously of it, in their several trea 
tises of this subject. * " What this humour is, or whence it 
proceeds, how it is engendered in the body, neither Galen, 
nor any old writer, hath sufficiently discussed, as Jacchinus 
thinks ; the Neoterics cannot agree. Montanus, in his Con 
sultations, holds melancholy to be material or immaterial ; and 
so doth Arculanus ; the material is one of the four humours 
before mentioned, and natural. The immaterial or adventi 
tious, acquisite, redundant, unnatural, artificial ; which * Her 
cules de Saxonia will have reside in the spirits alone, and to 
proceed from a " hot, cold, dry, moist distemperature, which, 

1 Qui aunt subtilis ingenii, et multse sanit tuenda. Quisve aut qualis sit 

perspicacitatis de facili incidunt in Mel- humor, aut quae istius differentiae et quo- 

ancholiain, lib. 1, cont. Tract. 9. modo gignantur in corpore, scrutandum, 

* Nunqufira sanitate mentis excidit aut hie enira re multi veterum laboraverunt, 

dolore capitur. Erasm 8 In laud, nee facile accipere ex Galeno sententiam 

oaivit. * Vacant conscientue carnifi- ob loquendl varietatem. Leon. Jacch. 

eina, nee pudeflunt, nee verentur, nee com. in 9, Rhasis cap. 15, cap. 16, in 9, 

dilaeerantur millibua curarum, quibus Rhasis. * Lib. posthum. de Melan. 

totavitaobnoxiaest. Lib. 1, tract. 3, edit. Venetiis 1620, cap. 7 et 8. Ab iu 

contradic. 18. Lib. 1, cont. 21. temperie calida, humida, &c. 

Bright, cs. 16 8 Lib. 1, cap. 6, de 

230 Matter of Melancholy [Part. I. sec. 1 

without matter, alter the brain and functions of it. Para 
celsus wholly rejects and derides this division of four hu 
mours and complexions, but our Galenists generally approve 
of it, subscribing to this opinion of Montanus. 

This material melancholy is either simple or mixed; of 
fending in quantity or quality, varying according to his place, 
where it settleth, as brain, spleen, meseraic veins, heart, 
womb, and stomach ; or differing according to the mixture 
of those natural humours amongst themselves, or four unnat 
ural adust humours, as they are diversely tempered and 
mingled. If natural melancholy abound in the body, which 
is cold and dry, " so that it be more l than the body is well 
able to bear, it must needs be distempered," saith Faventius, 
" and diseased ; " and so the other, if it be depraved, whether 
it arise from that other melancholy of choler adust, or from 
blood, produceth the like effects, and is, as Montaltus con 
tends, if it come by adustion of humours, most part hot and 
dry. Some difference I find, whether this melancholy mat 
ter may be engendered of all four humours, about the colour 
and temper of it. Galen holds it may be engendered of 
three alone, excluding phlegm, or pituita, whose true asser 
tion a Valesius and Menardus stiffly maintain, and so doth 
8 Fuschius, Montaltus, * Montanus. How (say they) can 
white become black ? But Hercules de Saxonia, lib. post, de 
mcla. c. 8, and 6 Cardan are of the opposite part (it may be 
engendered of phlegm, etsi raro contingat, though it seldom 
come to pass), so is 6 Guianerius and Laurentius, c. 1, with 
Melanct in his Book de Anima, and Chap, of Humours ; he 
calls it Asininam, dull, swinish melancholy, and saith that he 
was an eye-witness of it ; so is 7 Wecker. From melancholy 
adust ariseth one kind ; from choler another, which is most 
brutish ; another from phlegm, which is dull ; and the last 
from blood, which is best. Of these some are cold and dry, 

1 Secundum magis aut minus si in cor- Concil. 26. 6 Lib. 2, comradic. cap. 11 

pore fuerit, ad intemperieni plusquam De feb. tract, diff. 2. cap. 1, MOM est ne> 

corpus galubriter ferre poterit : inde cor- gandum ex hac fieri Melancholico* 

pus morbosum effltur. > Lib. 1, con- 1 In Syntax, 

troyers. cap. 21. Lib. 1, sect. 4, cap. 4. 

Mem. 3. subs. 4.] Species of Melancholy. 231 

others hot and dry, 1 varying according to their mixtures, as 
they are intended, and remitted. And indeed as Rodericug 
a Fons. cons. 12, 1, determines, ichors, and those serous mat 
ters being thickened become phlegm, and phlegm degenerates 
into choler, choler adust becomes aruginosa melancholia, as 
vinegar out of purest wine putrefied or by exhalation of purer 
Bpirits is so made, and becomes sour and sharp ; and from the 
sharpness of this humour proceeds much waking, troublesome 
thoughts and dreams, &c., so that I conclude as before. If 
the humour be cold, it is, saith 2 Faventinus, " a cause of 
dotage, and produceth milder symptoms ; if hot, they are 
rash, raving mad, or inclining to it." If the brain be hot, 
the animal spirits are hot ; much madness follows, with vio 
lent actions ; if cold, fatuity and sottishness, 8 Cappivaccius. 
4 " The colour of this mixture varies likewise according to 
the mixture, be it hot or cold ; 'tis sometimes black, some 
times not, Altomarus. The same 5 Melanelius proves out of 
Galen ; and Hippocrates in his Book of Melancholy (if at 
least it be his), giving instance in a burning coal, " which, 
when it is hot, shines ; when it is cold, looks black ; and so 
doth the humour." This diversity of melancholy matter pro 
duceth diversity of effects. If it be within the 6 body, and 
not putrefied, it causeth black jaundice ; if putrefied, a quar 
tan ague ; if it break out to the skin, leprosy ; if to parts, 
several maladies, as scurvy, &c. If it trouble the mind, as 
it is diversely mixed, it produceth several kinds of madness 
and dotage ; of which in their place. 

SUBSECT. IV. Of the species or kinds of Melancholy. 

WHEN the matter is divers and confused, how should it 
otherwise be, but that the species should be divers and con 
fused ? Many new and old writers have spoken confusedly 

1 Varie aduritur, et miscefrur, unde prseter modum calefactus, et alias refrige- 

Tarise amentium species, Melanct. 2 Hu- ratus evadit : naiu reoentibus carbor.ibua 

mor frigidus delirii causa, furoris calidus, ei quid simile accidit, qui durante ilain- 

&c. 3 Lib. 1, cap. 10. de affect, cap. ma pellucidissime candent, ei extinct* 

* Nittrescit hie humor, aliquando super- prorsus nigrescunt. Hippocrates, 

calefactus, aliquando superfrigefactus, 6 Guianerius, cliff. 2, cap. 7 
ca. 7* " Humor hie niger aliquando 

232 Species of Melancholy. [Part. 1. see. 1 

of it, confounding melancholy and madness, as 1 Heurnius, 
Guianerius, Gordonius, Salustius, Salvianus, Jason Praten- 
sis, Savanarola, that will have madness no other than melan 
choly in extent, differing (as I have said) in degrees. Some 
make two distinct species, as Ruffus Ephesius, an old writer, 
Constantinus Africanus, Aretaeus, 2 Aurelianus, 8 Paulus JEgi- 
neta ; others acknowledge a multitude of kinds, and leave 
them indefinite, as JEtius in his Tetrabiblos, 4 Avicenna, lib. 
3, Fen. 1, Tract. 4, cap. 18. Arculanus, cap. 16, in 9. Rasis, 
Montanus, med. part. 1. 8 " If natural melancholy be adust, 
it maketh one kind ; if blood, another ; if choler, a third, dif 
fering from the first ; and so many several opinions there are 
about the kinds, as there be men themselves." * Hercules 
de Saxonia sets down two kinds, " material and immaterial ; 
one from spirits alone, the other from humours and spirits." 
Savanarola, Rub. 11, Tract. 6, cap. 1, de cegritud. capitis, 
will have the kinds to be infinite ; one from the myrach, 
called myrachialis of the Arabians ; another stomachalis, 
from the stomach ; another from the liver, heart, womb, 
hemrods ; fl " one beginning, another consummate." Melanc- 
thon seconds him, T " as the humour is diversely adust and 
mixed, so are the species divers ; " but what these men speak 
of species I think ought to be understood of symptoms, and so 
doth 8 Arculanus interpret himself; infinite species, id est, 
symptoms ; and in that sense, as Jo. Gorrheus acknowledged 
in his medicinal definitions, the species are infinite, but they 
may be reduced to three kinds by reason of their seat ; head, 
body, and hypochondries. This threefold division is approved 
by Hippocrates in his Book of Melancholy, (if it be hiis, which 
some suspect,) by Galen, lib. 3, de loc. ajfectis, cap. 6, by 
Alexander, lib. 1, cap. 16, Rasis, lib. 1, Continent. Tract. 9, 
Kb. 1, cap. 16, Avicenna, and most of our new writers. Th. 

1 Non est mania, nisi extensa melan- et tot Doctorum sententise, quot ipsi nu- 

oholia. * Cap. 6. lib. 1. 32Ser. 2. mero sunt. * Tract, de mel. cap. 7. 

cap. 9. Morbus hie est omnifariua. Quscdam incipiens quaedam consum 

* Species indefinite sunt. 6 Si adura- mata. ' Cap. de humor, lib. de anima. 

tur naturalis melancholia, alia fit specie*, varie adnrltur et tniscetur ipsa uielan- 

i sanguia alia, ei flavabilis alia, diversa & cholia, unde variaa amentium specie*, 

primls : nmTima. est inter has differentia, * Cap. 16, In 9 Basis. 

Mem. 3 subs. 4.] Species of Melancholy. 238 

Erastus makes two kinds ; one perpetual, which is head mel 
ancholy ; the other interrupt, which comes and goes by fits, 
which he subdivides into the other two kinds, so that all 
comes to the same pass. Some again make four or five kinds, 
with Rodericus a Castro, de morbis mulier. lib. 2, cap. 3, and 
Lod. Mercatus, who, in his second book de mulier. affect, 
cap. 4, will have that melancholy of nuns, widows, and more 
ancient maids, to be a peculiar species of melancholy differing 
from the rest ; some will reduce enthusiasts, ecstatical and 
demoniacal persons to this rank, adding * love melancholy to 
the first, and lycanthropia. The most received division is 
into three kinds. The first proceeds from the sole fault of 
the brain, and is called head melancholy ; the second sympa 
thetically proceeds from the whole body, when the whole tem 
perature is melancholy ; the third ariseth from the bowels, 
liver, spleen, or membrane, called mesenterium, named hypo- 
chondriacal or windy melancholy, which 2 Laurentius sub 
divides into three parts, from those three members, hepatic, 
splenetic, meseraic. Love melancholy, which Avicenna calls 
Ilisha ; and Lycanthropia, which he calls cucubuthe, are com 
monly included in head melancholy ; but of this last, which 
Gerardus de Solo calls amoreus, and most knight melancholy, 
with that of religious melancholy, virginum et viduarum, main 
tained by Rod. k Castro and Mercatus, and the other kinds 
of love melancholy, I will speak of apart by themselves in 
my third partition. The three precedent species are the 
subject of my present discourse, which I will anatomize and 
treat of through all their causes, symptoms, cures, together 
and apart ; that every man that is in any measure affected 
with this malady, may know how to examine it in himself, 
and apply remedies unto it. 

It is a hard matter, I confess, to distinguish these three 
species one from the other, to express their several causes, 
symptoms, cures, being that they are so often confounded 
amongst themselves, having such affinity, that they can 

1 Laurentius, cap. 4, de mel. * Cap. 18 

234 Species of Melancholy. fPart. I. sec. 1 

scarce be discerned by the most accurate physicians; and 
so often intermixed with other diseases that the best ex 
perienced have been plunged. Montanus consil. 26, names a 
patient that had this disease of melancholy and caninus appe- 
titus both together ; and consil. 23, with vertigo, l Julius Cae 
sar Claudinus, with stone, gout, jaundice. Trincavellius with 
an ague, jaundice, caninus appetitus, &c. a Paulus Regoline, 
a great doctor in his time, consulted in this case, was so con 
founded with a confusion of symptoms, that he knew not to 
what kind of melancholy to refer it * Trincavellius, Fallo- 
pius, and Francanzanus, famous doctors in Italy, all three 
conferred with about one party, at the same time, gave three 
different opinions. And in another place, Trincavellius being 
demanded what he thought of a melancholy young man to 
whom he was sent for, ingenuously confessed that he was 
indeed melancholy, but he knew not to what kind to reduce 
it In his seventeenth consultation there is the like disagree 
ment about a melancholy monk. Those symptoms, which 
others ascribe to misaffected parts and humours, * Here, de 
Saxonia attributes wholly to distempered spirits, and those 
immaterial, as I have said. Sometimes they cannot well dis 
cern this disease from others. In Reinerus Solinander's 
counsels, (Sect, consil. 5,) he and Dr. Brande both agreed, 
that the patient's disease was hypochondriacal melancholy. 
Dr. Matholdus said it was asthma, and nothing else. 4 Soli- 
nander and Guarionius, lately sent for to the melancholy 
Duke of Cleve, with others, could not define what species it 
was, or agree amongst themselves. The species are so con 
founded, as in Caesar Claudinus, his forty-fourth consultation 
for a Polonian Count, in his judgment 6 " he laboured of head 
melancholy, and that which proceeds from the whole temper 
ature both at once." I could give instance of some that have 
had all three kinds semel et simul, and some successively. So 
that I conclude of our melancholy species, as f many politicians 

l 480 et 116, consult, consil. 12. 18, tract, posth. de melan. * Guarion 
* Hlldesheim, npieel. 2, fol. 166. 3 Trin- cons. med. 2. 5 Laboravit per essen 

cayellius torn. 2, consil. 15 et 16. * Cap. tiam et a toto corpora. t Machiarel 

Jfem. n, subs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy. 235 

do o( their pure forms of commonwealths, monarchies, aris 
tocracies, democracies, are most famous in contemplation, but 
i a practice they are temperate and usually mixed, (so * Po- 
lybius informeth us,) as the Lacedemonian, the Roman of old, 
German now, and many others. What physicians say of dis 
tinct species in their books it much matters not, since that in 
their patients' bodies they are commonly mixed. In such ob 
scurity, therefore, variety and confused mixture of symptoms, 
causes, how difficult a thing is it to treat of several kinds 
apart ; to make any certainty or distinction among so many 
casualties, distractions, when seldom two men shall be like 
affected per omnia ? 'Tis hard, I confess, yet nevertheless I 
will adventure through the midst of these perplexities, and, 
led by the clue or thread of the best writers, extricate my 
self out of a labyrinth of doubts and errors, and so proceed 
to the causes. 


SUBSECT. I. Causes of Melancholy. God a cause. 

11 IT is in vain to speak of cures, or think of remedies, 
until such time as we have considered of the causes," so 
1 Galen prescribes Glauco ; and the common experience of 
others confirms that those cures must be imperfect, lame, 
and to no purpose, wherein the causes have not first been 
searched, as 2 Prosper Calenius well observes in his tract de 
atra bile to Cardinal Caesius. Insomuch that 8 " Fernelius puts 
a kind of necessity in the knowledge of the causes, and without 
which it is impossible to cure or prevent any manner of dis 
ease." Empirics may ease, and sometimes help, but not thor- 

&c., Smithus de rep. Angl. cap. 8, lib. 1. hortari yidetur, nam alioqui earum cura- 

Buscoldus discur. polit. discurs. 5. cap. 7. tio manca et inutilis esset. 3 Path. lib. 

Arist. 1. 3, polit. cap. ult. Keckerm. 1, cap. 11. Rerum cognoseere causas 

alii, &c. * Lib. 6. J Primo artia medicis imprimis necessarium, sine qua 

curativw. 2 Nostri primum sit propos- nee morbum curare, nee praecavere liot 
it) affectionum causas indagare ; res ipsa 

236 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1.1 * eBB " 

oughly root out ; suttatd causa tollitur ejfectus, as the saJ, 
is, if the cause be removed, the effect is likewise vanquish 
It is a most difficult thing (I confess) to be able to discern * 
these causes whence they are, and in such * variety to say 
what the beginning was. a He is happy that can perform it 
aright. I will adventure to guess as near as I can, and rip 
them all up, from the first to the last, general and particular, 
to every species, that so they may the better be descried. 

General causes are either supernatural or natural. " Su 
pernatural are from God and his angels, or by God's per 
mission from the devil " and his ministers. That God him 
self is a cause for the punishment of sin, and satisfaction of 
his justice, many examples and testimonies of holy Scriptures 
make evident unto us, Ps. cvii. 17. "Foolish men are 
plagued for their offence, and by reason of their wickedness." 
Gehazi was strucken with leprosy, 2 Reg. v. 27. Jehoram 
with dysentery and flux, and great diseases of the bowels, 2 
Chron. xxi. 15 David plagued for numbering his people, 
1 Par. 21. Sodom and Gomorrah swallowed up. And this 
disease is peculiarly specified, Psalm cxxvii. 12. " He 
brought down their heart through heaviness." Deut. xxviii. 
28. " He struck them with madness, blindness, and aston 
ishment of heart." 8 " An evil spirit was sent by the Lord 
upon Saul, to vex him." 4 Nebuchadnezzar did eat grass 
like an ox, and his " heart was made like the beasts of the 
field." Heathen stories are full of such punishments. Ly- 
curgus, because he cut down the vines in the country, was 
by Bacchus driven into madness ; so was Pentheus and his 
mother Agave for neglecting their sacrifice. 6 Censor Fulvius 
ran mad for untiling Juno's temple, to cover a new one of his 
own, which he had dedicated to Fortune, 8 " and was con 
founded to death, with grief and sorrow of heart" When 
Xerxes would have spoiled * Apollo's temple at Delphos of 

1 Tanta eniin morbi varietas ac dlffe- cap. 8. Mente captus, et summo ani- 

rentia, ut non facile dignoscatur unde mi moerore consumptus. * Minister 

initiuin morbus sumpserit. Melaneliuf? e cosmog. lib. 4. cap. 43, de ccelo substerne- 

Galeno. Felix qui potuit rerum cog- bantur, tanquam insani de saxis pnecipi 

oscere causa*. 3 1 Sum. xvi. 14. tail, &c. 

Dan. y. 21 * Lactant. instit. lib. 2. 

.tfem. l, subs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy. 237 

those infinite riches it possessed, a terrible thunder came from 
heaven and struck four thousand men dead, the rest ran mad. 
1 A little after, the like happened to Brennus, lightning, thun 
der, earthquakes, upon such a sacrilegious occasion. If we 
may believe our pontifical writers, they will relate unto us 
many strange and prodigious punishments in this kind, in 
flicted by their saints. How *Clodoveus, sometime King of 
France, the son of Dagobert, lost his wits for uncovering the 
body of St. Denis j and how a ' sacrilegious Frenchman, that 
would have stolen a silver image of St. John, at Birgburge, 
became frantic on a sudden, raging, and tyrannizing over his 
own flesh ; of a 8 Lord of Rhadnor, that coming from hunt 
ing late at night, put his dogs into St. Avan's church, (Llan 
Avan they called it), and rising betimes next morning, as 
hunters use to do, found all his dogs mad, himself being sud 
denly stricken blind. Of Tyridates, an 4 Armenian king, for 
violating some holy nuns, that was punished in like sort, with 
loss of his wits. But poets and papists may go together for 
fabulous tales ; let them free their own credits ; howsoever 
they feign of their Nemesis, and of their saints, or by the 
devil's means may be deluded ; we find it true, that utior a 
tergo Deus, 6 " He is God the avenger," as David styles him ; 
and that it is our crying sins that pull this and many other 
maladies on our own heads; That he can by his angels, 
which are his ministers, strike and heal (saith * Dionysius) 
whom he will ; that he can plague us by his creatures, sun, 
moon, and stars, which he useth as his instruments, as a hus 
bandman (saith Zanchius) doth a hatchet ; hail, snow, winds, 
&c. 7 " Et conjurati veniunt in classica venti ; " as in 
Joshua's time, as in Pharaoh's reign in Egypt ; they are but 
as so many executioners of his justice. He can make the 
proudest spirits stoop, and cry out with Julian the apostate, 

1 Llylus, lib. 38. * Gaguin. 1. 3, e. 4, mora sacrilegua mentis inops, atqne i 

quod Dionysii corpus discooperuerat, in semet insaniens in proprios artus dessevit 

insaniam incldit. * Idem, lib. 9, sub. * Giraldus Cambrensia lib. 1, c. 1, Itinerar 

Carol. 6, saerorum contemptor, tempi! Cambriae. 4 Delrio, torn. 3, lib. 6, sect 

foribos effractis, dam D. Johannis argen- 3, quaest. 3. 5 Psal. xliv. 1. Lib 

team simulacrum rapere contendit, simu- 8. cap. de Hierar. 7 Claudian. 
lacrum arersi facie dorsom ei rersat, nee 

238 Causes of Melancholy. [Pait. I. sec. 1 

Vicisli, Galilcee ; or with Apollo's priest in * Chrysostom, 
ccelun. ! 6 terra ! unde hostis hie ? What an enemy is this ? 
And pray with David, acknowledging his power, " I am 
weakened and sore broken, I roar for the grief 'of mine 
heart, mine heart panteth," &c., Psalm xxxviii. 8. " 
Lord rebuke me not in thine anger, neither chastise me 
in thy wrath," Psalm xxxviii. 1. "Make me to hear 
joy and gladness, that the bones which thou hast broken, 
may rejoice," Psalm li. 8 ; and verse 12, " Restore to 
me the joy of thy salvation, and stablish me with thy free 
spirit." For these causes belike a Hippocrates would have a 
physician take special notice whether the disease come not 
from a divine supernatural cause, or whether it follow the 
course of nature. But this is farther discussed by Fran. 
Valesius de sacr. philos. cap. 8. * Fernelius, and 4 J. Caesar 
Claudinus, to whom I refer you, how this place of Hippoc 
rates is to be understood. Paracelsus is of opinion, that 
such spiritual diseases (for so he calls them) are spiritually 
to be cured, and not otherwise. Ordinary means in such 
cases will not avail ; Non est reluctandum cum Deo (we must 
not struggle with God). "When that monster-taming Her 
cules overcame all in the Olympics, Jupiter at last in an 
unknown shape wrestled with him ; the victory was uncer 
tain, till at length Jupiter descried himself, and Hercules 
yielded. No striving with supreme powers. Nil juvat im- 
mensos Cratero promittere monies, physicians and physic can 
do no good,* " we must submit ourselves unto the mighty 
hand of God," acknowledge our offences, call to him for 
mercy. If he strike us, una eademque mantis vulnus opem- 
gueferet, as it is with them that are wounded with the spear 
of Achilles, he alone must help ; otherwise our diseases are 
incurable, and we not to be relieved. 

i De Babilft Martyre. Lib. cap. 5, ris. * Respons. med. 12, reap. 1 
prog ( Lib. 1, de Abditig rerun can- Pt. T. 6. 

Mem 1, subs. 2.] Nature of Devils. 239 

SUBSECT. II. A Digression of the nature of Spirits, bad 

Angels, or Devils, and how they cause Melancholy. 
How far the power of spirits and devils doth extend, and 
whether they can cause this, or any other disease, is a serious 
question, and worthy to be considered ; for the better under 
standing of which, I will make a brief digression of the nature 
of spirits. And although the question be very obscure, ac 
cording to * Postellus, " full of controversy and ambiguity," 
beyond the reach of human capacity, fateor excedere vires 
intentionis mece, saith * Austin, I confess I am not able to 
understand \i,finitum de infinito non potest statuere, we can 
sooner determine with Tully, de nat. deorum, quid non sint 
quam quid sint, our subtle schoolmen, Cardans, Scaligers, 
profound Thomists, Fracastoriana and Ferneliana acies, are 
weak, dry, obscure, defective in these mysteries, and all our 
quickest wits, as an owl's eyes at the sun's light, wax dull, 
and are not sufficient to apprehend them ; yet, as in the rest, 
I will adventure to say something to this point In former 
times, as we read Acts xxiii., the Sadducees denied that 
there were any such spirits, devils, or angels. So did Galen 
the physician, the Peripatetics, even Aristotle himself, as 
Pomponatius stoutly maintains, and Scaliger in some sort 
grants. Though Dandinus the Jesuit, com. in lib. 2, de 
animd, stiffly denies it ; substantice separatee and intelligences, 
are the same which Christians call angels, and Platonists 
devils, for they name all the spirits, dcemones, be they good 
or bad angels, as Julius Pollux Onomasticon, lib. 1, cap. 1, 
observes. Epicures and atheists are of the same mind in 
general, because they never saw them. Plato, Plotinus, 
Porphyrius, Jamblichus, Proclus, insisting in the steps of 
Trismegistus, Pythagoras and Socrates, make no doubt of it ; 
nor Stoics, but that there are such spirits, though much 
erring from the truth. Concerning the first beginning of 

1 Lib. 1, c. 7, de orbis concordia. In quira de daemombus et substantiis sp 
nulia re major fait altercatio, major ob- aratis. * Lib. 3. de Trinit. cap. 1 
nnritas, minor opinionnm concordia, 

240 Nature of Devils. [Part. I. sec. X 

them, the J Talmudists say that Adam had a wife called Lilis, 
before he married Eve, and of her he begat nothing but devils. 
The Turks' 2 Alcoran is altogether as absurd and ridiculous 
in this point ; but the Scripture informs us Christians, how 
Lucifer, the chief of them, with his associates, "fell from 
heaven for his pride and ambition ; created of God, placed 
in heaven, and sometimes an angel of light, now cast down 
into the lower aerial sublunary parts, or into hell, " and de 
livered into chains of darkness (2 Pet. ii. 4), to be kept unto 

Nature of Devils."] There is a foolish opinion which some 
hold, that they are the souls of men departed, good and more 
noble were deified, the baser grovelled on the ground, or in 
the lower parts, and were devils, the which with Tertullian, 
Porphyrius the philosopher, M. Tyrius ser. 27 maintains. 
" These spirits," he * saith, " which we call angels and devils, 
are nought but souls of men departed, which either through 
love and pity of their friends yet living, help and assist them, 
or else persecute their enemies, whom they hated," as Dido 
threatened to persecute ^Eneas : 

" Omnibus umbra locis adero : dabis, improbe, poenas." 

" My angry ghost arising from the deep, 
Shall haunt thee waking, and disturb thy sleep ; 
At least my shade thy punishment shall know, 
And Fame shall spread the pleasing news below." 

They are (as others suppose) appointed by those higher 
powers to keep men from their nativity, and to protect or 
punish them as they see cause ; and are called boni et mail 
Genii by the Romans. Heroes, lares, if good, lemures or 
larvae if bad, by the Stoics, governors of countries, men, 
cities, saith f Apuleius, Deos appellant qui ex hominum nu- 
mero juste ac prudenter vitee curriculo gubemato, pro numine, 

1 Pererius In Generin, lib. 4, In cap. 3, pore deposito prlorem mtserati vitam, 

r. 28. * See Strozzius Cicogna omnifarte. cognatis guccurrunt commoti misericor- 

Mag. lib. 2, c. 15. Jo. Aubanus, Breden- dia, &c. t De Deo Socratis. All those 

bachiug 3 Angelas per superblam mortals are called gods, who, the course 

tcpnratus it Deo, qui In veritate non of life being prudently guided and gor- 

-h-tit. Austin. * Nihil aliud sunt erned, are honored by men with temple* 

Deeniones quain nudse animae qua) cor- and sacrifices, as Osiris in -*gypt, fcc. 

Mem. 1, subs, a.j Nature of Devils. 24i 

postea ab hominibus prcediti fanis et ceremoniis vulgd admit- 
tuntur, ut in ^Egypto Osyris, Sfc, Praestites, Capella calls 
them, " which protected particular men as well as princes : " 
Socrates had his Dcemonium Saturninum et ignium, which 
of all spirits is best, ad sublimes cogitationes animum eri- 
gentem, as the Platonists supposed ; Plotinus his, and we 
Christians our assisting angel, as Andreas Victorellus, a 
copious writer of this subject, Lodovicus de La-Cerda, the 
Jesuit, in his voluminous tract de Angela Custode, Zanchius, 
and some divines think. But this absurd tenet of Tyreus, 
Proclus confutes at large in his book de Animd et dcemone. 
1 Psellus, a Christian, and sometimes tutor (saith Cuspic.- 
ian) to Michael Parapinatius, Emperor of Greece, a great 
observer of the nature of devils, holds they are 2 corporeal, 
and have " aerial bodies, that they are mortal, live and die," 
(which Martianus Capella likewise maintains, but our Chris 
tian philosophers explode,) " that 3 they are nourished and 
have excrements, they feel pain if they be hurt (which Car 
dan confirms, and Scaliger justly laughs him to scorn for; 
Si pascantur aere, cur non pugnant ob puriorem aera ? tyc.) 
or stroken ; " and if their bodies be cut, with admirable 
celerity they come together again. Austin, in Gen. lib. iii. 
lib. arbit., approves as much, mutata casu corpora in deteri 
orem qualitatem aeris spissioris, so doth Hierome. Com 
ment. in epist. ad Ephes. cap. 3, Origen, Tertullian, Lac- 
tantius, and many ancient fathers of the Church ; that in 
their fall their bodies were changed into a more aerial and 
gross substance. Bodine, lib. 4, Theatri Naturae, and David 
Crusius, Hermeticae Philosophiae, lib. i. cap. 4, by several 
arguments proves angels and spirits to be corporeal ; quic- 
quid continetur in loco Corporeum est : At spiritus continetur 
in loco, ergo.* Si spiritus sunt quanti, erunt Corporei : At 
\unt quanti, ergo. Sunt jiniti, ergo quanti, fyc. f Bodine 

1 He lived 500 years since. * Apu- solido percussa corpora. * Whatever 

leius : spiritus animalia sunf. ammo pas- occupies space is corpo.real : spirit occu- 
sibilia, mente rationalia, corpore aeria, pies space, therefore, &c. &c. t 4 Lib. 4 
tempore sempiterna. 3 Nufcriuntur, e t Theol. nat. fol. 535 
ezcrementa habent, quod pulgata doleanfc 
VOL. I. 16 

242 Nature of Devils. [Part. I. sec 2 

goes farther yet, and will have these, Animce separatee genii, 
spirits, angels, devils, and so likewise souls of men departed, 
if corporeal (which he most eagerly contends) to be of some 
shape, and that absolutely round, like Sun and Moon, be 
cause that is the most perfect form, quce nihil habet asperi- 
tatis, nihil angulis incisum, nihil anfractibus involutum, 
nihil eminens, sed inter corpora perfecta est perfectissimum ; l 
therefore all spirits are corporeal he concludes, and in their 
proper shapes round. That they can assume other aerial 
bodies, all manner of shapes at their pleasures, appear in 
what likeness they will themselves, that they are most swift 
in motion, can pass many miles in an instant, and so likewise 
3 transform bodies of others into what shape they please, and 
with admirable celerity remove them from place to place 
(as the Angel did Habakkuk to Daniel, and as Philip the 
deacon was carried away by the Spirit, when he had bap 
tized the eunuch ; so did Pythagoras and Apollonius remove 
themselves and others, with many such feats) ; that they 
can represent castles in the air, palaces, armies, spectrums, 
prodigies, and such strange objects to mortal men's eyes, 
* cause smells, savours, &c., deceive all the senses ; most writ 
ers of this subject credibly believe ; and that they can foretell 
future events, and do many strange miracles. Juno's image 
spake to Camillus, and Fortune's statue to the Roman 
matrons, with many such. Zanchius, Bodine, Spondanus, 
and others, are of opinion that they cause a true meta 
morphosis, as Nebuchadnezzar was really translated into a 
beast, Lot's wife into a pillar of salt ; Ulysses's companions 
into hogs and dogs, by Circe's charms ; turn themselves and 
others, as they do witches into cats, dogs, hares, crows, &c. 
Strozzius Cicogna hath many examples, lib. iii. omnif. mag. 
cap. 4 and 5, which he there confutes, as Austin likewise 

i Which has no roughness, angles, Strozzius Cicogna, lib. 3, cap. 4, omnif. 
fractures, prominences, but is the most mag. Per aera subducere et in sublime 
perfect amongst perfect bodies. 2 Oyp- corpora ferre possunt, Biannanus. Per 
riainis in Epist. monies etiam et ani- cussi dolent et uruntur in conspicuos ci- 
malia transferri possunt : as the deril did neres, Agrippa. lib. 3, cap. de occult. Phi- 
Christ to the top of the pinnacle; and los. * Agrippa de occult Philos. lib. 8 
witches are often translated. See more Lu cap. 18. 

Iem. 1, subs. 2.] Nature of Devils. 243 

doth, de civ. Dei, lib. xviii. That they can be seen when 
and in what shape, and to whom they will, saith Psellus, 
Tametsi nil tale viderim, nee optem videre, though he him 
self never saw them nor desired it ; and use sometimes car 
nal copulation (as elsewhere I shall * prove more at large) 
with women and men. Many will not believe they can be 
seen, and if any man shall say, swear, and stiffly maintain, 
though he be discreet and wise, judicious and learned, that 
he hath seen them, they account him a timorous fool, a 
melancholy dizzard, a weak fellow, a dreamer, a sick or a 
mad man, they contemn him, laugh him to scorn, and yet 
Marcus of his credit told Psellus that he had often seen them. 
And Leo Suavius, a Frenchman, c. 8, in Commentar. L 1, 
Paracelsi de vita longd, out of some Platonists, will have the 
air to be as full of them as snow falling in the skies, and that 
they may be seen, and withal sets down the means how men 
may see them ; Si irreverberatis oculis sole splendente versus 
ccelurn continuaverint obtutw, #&,* and saith moreover he 
tried it, prcemissorum fed experimentum, and it was true, 
that the Platonists said. Paracelsus confesseth that he saw 
them divers times, and conferred with them, and so doth 
Alexander ab 3 Alexandra, " that he so found it by experi 
ence, when as before he doubted of it" Many deny it, saith 
Lavater de spectris, part i. c. 2, and part ii. c. 11, " because 
they never saw them themselves ; " but as he reports at 
large all over his book, especially c. 19, part 1, they are 
often seen and heard, and familiarly converse with men, as 
Lod. Vives assureth us, innumerable records, histories, and 
testimonies evince in all ages, times, places, and 8 all travel 
lers besides ; in the West Indies and our northern climes, 
Nihil familiarius quam in agris et urbibus spiritus videre, 
audire qui vetent , jubeant, fyc. Hieronimus vita Pauli, Basil 
ser. 40, Nicephorus, Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomenus, f Jaco- 

1 Part. 8, Sect. 2, Mem. 1, Subs. 1, Ita sibi visum et compertnm quum prim 

Love Melancholy. * " By gazing stead- an essent ambigerct : Fidem suum liberet 

fastly on the sun illuminated with his * Li. 1, de verit. Fidei. Benzo, &c. fLrt 

brightest rays." 2 Genial, dierum. de Divinatione et magil. 

244 Nature of Devils. [Part. I. sec. x 

bus Boissardus in his tract de spirituum apparitionibuti 
Petrus Loyerus L de spectris, Wierus 1. 1, have infinite 
variety of such examples of apparitions of spirits, for him to 
read that farther doubts, to his ample satisfaction. One 
alone I will briefly insert. A nobleman in Germany was 
sent ambassador to the King of Sweden (for his name, the 
time, and such circumstances, I refer you to Boissardus, 
mine * Author). After he had done his business, he sailed to 
Livonia, on set purpose to see those familiar spirits, which are 
there said to be conversant with men, and do their drudgery 
works. Amongst other matters one of them told him where 
his wife was, in what room, in what clothes, what doing, and 
brought him a ring from her, which at his return, non sine 
omnium admiratione, he found to be true ; and so believed 
that ever after, which before he doubted of. Cardan 1. 19, 
de subtil, relates of his father, Facius Cardan, that after the 
accustomed solemnities, An. 1491, 13 August, he conjured 
up seven devils, in Greek apparel, about forty years of age, 
some ruddy of complexion, and some pale, as he thought ; 
he asked them many questions, and they made ready answer, 
that they were aerial devils, that they lived and died as men 
did, save that they were far longer lived (700 or 800 2 years); 
they did as much excel men in dignity as we do juments, 
and were as far excelled again of those that were above 
them; our * governors and keepers they are moreover, 
which f Plato in Critias delivered of old, and subordinate to 
one another, Ut enim homo homini, sic dcemon dcemoni 
dominatur, they rule themselves as well as us, and the 
spirits of the meaner sort had commonly such offices, as we 
make horse-keepers, neat-herds, and the basest of us, over 
seers of our cattle ; and that we can no more apprehend their 
natures and functions, than a horse a man's. They knew all 
things, but might not reveal them to men; and ruled and 

1 Cap. 8. TransportaYit in Livoniam llores hominibus, quanto hi bruti* ant 

rupiditate ridendi, &c. * Sic Hesiodus mantibus. t Praesides. Pastures, 

'le Nymphls vivere dicit 10 estates phne- Quberuatorea homlnum, et illi anima 

nicum Tel 9, 7, 20. * Custodes hoini- Hum. 
num et prcviuciarum, &c., taiito me- 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Nature of Spirits. 245 

domineered over us, as we do over our horses ; the best 
kings amongst us, and the most generous spirits, were not 
comparable to the basest of them. Sometimes they did 
instruct men, ard communicate their skill, reward and cher 
ish, and sometimes, again, terrify and punish, to keep them 
in awe, as they thought fit, Nihil magis ctrpientes (saith 
Lysius, Phis. Stoicorum) quam adorationem homifium.* 
The same Author, Cardan, in his Hyperchen, out of the 
doctrine of Stoics, will have some of these Genii (for so he 
calls them) to be * desirous of men's company, very affable 
and familiar with them, as dogs are ; others, again, to abhor as 
serpents, and care not for them. The same belike Tritemius 
calls Ignios et sublunares, qui nunquam demergunt ad inferi 
or a, aut vix uttum hdbent in terris commercium ; 2 " Gener 
ally they far excel men in worth, as a man the meanest 
worm ; though some of them are inferior to those of their 
own rank in worth, as the blackguard in a prince's court, 
and to men again, as some degenerate, base, rational creatures, 
are excelled of brute beasts." 

That they are mortal, besides these testimonies of Cardan, 
Martianus, &c., many other divines and philosophers hold, 
post prolixum tempus moriuntur omnes ; The 'Platonists, 
and some Rabbins, Porphyrius and Plutarch, as appears by 
that relation of Thamus : 4 " The great god Pan is dead ; " 
Apollo Pythius ceased; and so the rest. St. Hierome, in 
the life of Paul the Hermit, tells a story how one of them 
appeared to St. Anthony in the wilderness, and told him as 
much. 6 Paracelsus of our late writers stiffly maintains that 
they are mortal, live and die as other creatures do. Zozimus, 
1. 2, further adds, that religion and policy dies and alters with 
them. The 'Gentiles' gods, he saith, were expelled by Con- 
stantine, and together with them, Imperil Romani majestas, 

* " Coveting nothing more than the fcc. s Cibo et potu utl et venere cum 

admiration of mankind." 1 Natura homlnibus ac tandem mori, Gicogna. 1, 

&miliares ut canes hominibua mnlti part. lib. 2, c. 3. * Plutarch, de defect 

aversantur et abhorrent. * Ab homine oraculorum. 5 Lib. de Zilphis et Pig.- 

plug distant quam homo ab ignobilissimo meis. Dii gentium a Constautio prof 

verne, et tain en quidam ex his ab ho- ligati sunt, &c 
minibus guperantur ut homines a feris, 

246 Nature of Spirits. [Part. I. sec. 2 

etfortuna interiit, et projligata est ; The fortune and majesty 
of the Roman Empire decayed and vanished, as that heathen 
in * Minutius formerly bragged, when the Jews were over 
come by the Romans, the Jews' God was likewise captivated 
by that of Rome ; and Rabsakeh to the Israelites, no God 
should deliver them out of the hands of the Assyrians. But 
these paradoxes of their power, corporeity, mortality, taking 
of shapes, transposing bodies, and carnal copulations, are suf 
ficiently confuted by Zanch. c. 10, 1. 4. Pererius in his com 
ment, and Tostatus questions on the 6th of Gen. Th. Aquin., 
St. Austin, Wierus, Th. Erastus, Delrio, torn. 2, 1. 2, quaest. 
29 ; Sebastian Michaelis, c. 2, de spiritibus, D. Reinolds Lect. 
47. They may deceive the eyes of men, yet not take true 
bodies, or make a real metamorphosis ; but as Cicogna proves 
at large, they are * lHusoriee et prcestigiatrices transforma- 
tiones, omnif. mag. lib. 4, cap. 4, mere illusions and cozen- 
ings, like that tale of Pasetis obulus in Suidas, or that of 
Autolicus, Mercury's son, that dwelt in Parnassus, who got 
so much treasure by cozenage and stealth. His father Mer 
cury, because he could leave him no wealth, taught him many 
fine tricks to get means, f f r he could drive away men's 
cattle, and if any pursued him, turn them into what shapes 
he would, and so did mightily enrich himself, hoc astu maxi- 
mam prcedam est adsecutus. This, no doubt, is as true as 
the rest ; yet thus much in general. Thomas, Durand, and 
others, grant that they have understanding far beyond men, 
can probably conjecture and a foretell many things ; they can 
cause and cure most diseases, deceive our senses ; they have 
excellent skill in all Arts and Sciences ; and that the most 
illiterate devil is Quovis homine scientior (more knowing 
than any man), as 8 Cicogna maintains out of others. They 

* Octoyian dial. Judaeortun detun fa- qne formas yertebat Pauaaniai, Hyglnna. 

law Romanorum numinibus una cum - Austin in 1. 2, de Gen. ad literam, cap. 

gente captiyum. 1 Omnla spiritibus 17. Partim quia gubtilioris sensus acu- 

plena, et ex eorum concordia et discordia mine, partim scientia calidioie yigent et 

omnes bonl et mall effectus promanant, ezperientia propter magnam longitudi- 

omnia bumana reguntur ; paradoxa yete- nem yitie, partim ab Angelis discunt, fce 

rum de quo Cicogna. omnif. mag. 1. 2, c. 8. * Lib. 8, omnif. mag. cap. 8. 
t Oyec quas abacturus eiat in quascuo- 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Nature of Spirits. 247 

know the virtues of herbs, plants, stones, minerals, &c. ; of 
all creatures, birds, beasts, the four elements, stars, planets, 
can aptly apply and make use of them as they see good ; 
perceiving the causes of all meteors, and the like ; Dant se 
coloribub (as * Austin hath it) accommodant se Jiguris, ad- 
fuerent sonis, subjiciunt se odoribus, infundunt se saporibuf, 
cmnes sensus etiam ipsam inteUigentiam dcemones fallunt, 
they deceive all our senses, even our understanding itself 
at once. * They can produce miraculous alterations in the 
air, and most wonderful effects, conquer armies, give vic 
tories, help, further, hurt, cross and alter human attempts 
and projects (Dei permissu) as they see good themselves, 
t When Charles the Great intended to make a channel be 
twixt the Rhine and the Danube, look what his workmen did 
in the day, these spirits flung down in the night, Ui conatu 
Rex desisteret, pervicere. Such feats can they do. But that 
which Bodine, 1. 4j Theat nat, thinks (following Tyrius 
belike, and the Platonists,) they can tell the secrets of a 
man's heart, aut cogitationes hominum, is most false ; his 
reasons are weak, and sufficiently confuted by Zanch. lib. 4, 
cap. 9, Hierom. lib. 2, com. in Mat. ad cap. 15, Athanasius 
quaest 27, and Antiochum Principem, and others. 

Orders.^ As for those orders of good and bad Devils, 
which the Platonists hold, is altogether erroneous, and those 
Ethnics boni et mali Genii, are to be exploded ; these hea 
then writers agree not in this point among themselves, as 
Dandinus notes, An sint \mali non conveniunt, some will 
have all spirits good or bad to us by a mistake, as if an Ox 
or Horse could discourse, he would say the Butcher was his 
enemy because he killed him, the Grazier his friend because 
he fed him ; a Hunter preserves and yet kills his game, and 
is hated nevertheless of his game ; nee piscatorem piscis 

* L. 18, quest. ' Quum tanti sit et mo, Cicogna. t Aventimis, qnicquid 

tarn profunda gpiritnm scientia, mirum interdiu exhauriebatur, noctu expleba- 

non est tot tantagque res visu admirab- tur. Inde pavefacti curatores, &c. 

lies ab ipsis patrari, et quidem rernm $ In lib. 2 de Anima text. 29. Homenw 

naturalium ope quas multo melius Intel- discriminatim omnes spiritus daemon** 

Ugunt, multoque peritios suis locls et yocat. 
temporibus applicare norunt, quam ho- 

248 Nature of Spirits. [Part. I. sec. a. 

amare potesl, fyc. But Jamblichus, Psellus, Plutarch, and 
most Platonists acknowledge bad, et ab eorum maleficiit 
cavendum, and we should beware of their wickedness, for 
they are enemies of mankind, and this Plato learned in 
Egypt, that they quarrelled with Jupiter, and were driven 
by him down to hell.* That which 1 Apuleius, Xenophon, 
and Plato contend of Socrates' Daemonium, is most absurd ; 
That which Plotinus of his, that he had likewise Deum pro 
D&monio ; and that which Porphiry concludes of them all in 
general, if they be neglected in their sacrifice they are angry ; 
nay more, as Cardan in his Hyperchen will, they feed on 
men's souls, Elementa sunt plantis alimentum, animalibus 
plantcs, hominibus animalia, erunt et homines aliis, non 
autem diis, nimis enim remota est eorum natura a nostrd, 
quapropter dcemonibus ; and so belike that we have so many 
battles fought in all ages, countries, is to make them a feast, 
and their sole delight ; but to return to that I said before, if 
displeased they fret and chafe (for they feed belike on the 
souls of beasts, as we do on their bodies), and send many 
plagues amongst us ; but if pleased, then they do much good ; 
is as vain as the rest and confuted by Austin, 1. 9, c. 8, de 
Civ. Dei, Euseb. 1. 4, praepar. Evang. c. 6, and others. Yet 
thus much I find, that our Schoolmen and other 3 Divines 
make nine kinds of bad spirits, as Dionysius hath done of 
Angels. In the first rank are those false gods of the Gen 
tiles, which were adored heretofore in several Idols, and gave 
Oracles at Delphos, and elsewhere ; whose Prince is Beelze 
bub. The second rank is of Liars and ^Equivocators, as 
Apollo Pythius, and the like. The third are those vessels 
of anger, inventors of all mischief ; as that Theutus in Plato ; 
Esay calls them 8 vessels of fury ; their Prince is BeliaL 
The fourth are malicious revenging Devils ; and their Prince 
is Asmodaeus. The fifth kind are cozeners, such as belong 

* A Jore ad inferos pulsi, &c. 1 De nonnunquam instar ovis. Plato. 

Deo Socratis. adest mihi divina sorte * Agrippa, lib. 3, de occult, ph. c. 18 

Dwmonlum quoddam A prima pueritia Zanch. Pie torus, Pererius Cicogna. 1. 8 

me eecutum, ssepe dissnadet, impel lit cap. 1. ' Vasa Irae. c. 13. 

Mem, 1, subs. 2.] Nature of Spirits. 249 

to Magicians and Witches ; their Prince is Satan. The 
sixth are those aerial devils that l corrupt the air and cause 
plagues, thunders, fires, &c. ; spoken of in the Apocalypse, 
and Paul to the Ephesians names them the Princes of the 
air ; Meresin is their Prince. The seventh is a destroyer, 
Captain of the Furies, causing wars, tumults, combustions, 
uproars, mentioned in the Apocalypse ; and called Abaddon. 
The eighth is that accusing or calumniating Devil, whom the 
Greeks call Aio/3oAof, that drives men to despair. The ninth 
are those tempters in several kinds, and their Prince is Mam 
mon. Psellus makes six kinds, yet none above the Moon ; 
"Wierus in his Pseudomonarchia Daemonis, out of an old 
book, makes many more divisions and subordinations, with 
their several names, numbers, offices, &c., but Gazaeus cited 
by 2 Lipsius will have all places full of Angels, Spirits, and 
Devils, above and beneath the Moon, 8 ethereal and aerial, 
which Austin cites out of Varro 1. vii. de Civ. Dei, c. 6. 
" The celestial Devils above, and aerial beneath," or, as some 
will, gods above, Semidei or half gods beneath, Lares, He 
roes, Genii, which climb higher, if they lived well, as the 
Stoics held ; but grovel on the ground as they were baser 
in their lives, nearer to the earth ; and are Manes, Lemures, 
Lamiae, &c. * They will have no place but all full of Spirits, 
Devils, or some other inhabitants ; Plenum Cesium, aer, aqua, 
terra, et omnia sub terra, saith 6 Gazaeus ; though Anthony 
Rusca in his book de Inferno, lib. v. cap. 7, would confine 
them to the middle Region, yet they will have them every 
where. " Not so much as a hair-breadth empty in heaven, 
earth, or waters, above or under the earth." The air is not 
so full of flies in summer, as it is at all times of invisible 
devils ; this ' Paracelsus stiffly maintains, and that they have 
every one their several Chaos, others will have infinite worlds, 
and each world his peculiar Spirits, Gods, Angels, and Devils 
to govern and punish it. 

1 Quibus datum est nocere terras et heroas, lares, gcnios. * Mart. Capella. 

marl, &c. * Physiol. Stoicorum e * vacuum abhisubi Tel eapillum la 

Senee. lib. 1, cap. 28. 3 Usque ad aere vel aqua jaceas. Lib de Zilp. 
tunam aninias ease sethereai yocarique 

250 Digression of Spirits. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

" Singula * nonnulli credunt quoque sidera posse 
Dici orbes, terramque appellant sidus opacttm, 
Cui minimus divum prsesit." 

" Some persons believe each star to be a world, and this earth an opaqu 
star, over which the least of the gods presides." 

1 Gregorius Tholsanus makes seven kinds of ethereal 
Spirits or Angels, according to the number of the seven 
Planets, Saturnine, Jovial, Martial, of which Cardan dis- 
courseth lib. xx. de subtil, he calls them substantial primas, 
Olympicos dcemones Tritemius, qui prcesunt Zodiaco, fyc., 
and will have them to be good Angels above, Devi]s 
beneath the Moon, their several names and offices he there 
sets down, and which Dionysius of Angels, will have several 
spirits for several countries, men, offices, &c., which live about 
them, and as so many assisting powers cause their operations, 
will have in a word, innumerable, as many of them as there 
be Stars in the Skies, f Marcilius Ficinus seems to second 
this opinion, out of Plato, or from himself. I know not, (still 
ruling their inferiors, as they do those under them again, all 
subordinate, and the nearest to the earth rule us, whom we 
subdivide into good and bad angels, call gods or devils, as 
they help or hurt us, and so adore, love or hate) but it is 
most likely from Plato, for he relying wholly on Socrates, 
quern mori potius quam mentiri voluisse scribit, whom he 
says would rather die than tell a falsehood out of Socrates'a 
authority alone, made nine kinds of them ; which opinion 
belike Socrates took from Pythagoras, and he from Trismegis- 
tus, he from Zoroasties, first God, second idea, 3. Intelli 
gences ; 4. Archangels ; 5. Angels ; 6. Devils ; 7. Heroes ; 
8. Principalities ; 9. Princes ; of which some were abso 
lutely good, as gods, some bad, some indifferent inter deos 
et homines, as heroes and daemons, which ruled men, and 
were called genii, or as J Proclus and Jamblichus will, the 

Palingenins. 1 Lib. 7, cap. 34 et 5. tes, ut habet nostra. Lib. de Arnica. 

Syntax, art. mirab. t Comment In et dsemone med. inter deos et homines, 

dial. Plat, de amore, cap. 6. Ut spuaera dicta ad nos et nostra srqualiter ad deo 

qtuellbet super n*, ita prsestantiorw ferunt. 
habent habitatores tuw sphaera conaor- 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits. 251 

middle betwixt God and men. Principalities and Princes, 
which commanded and swayed Kings and countries ; and 
had several places in the Spheres perhaps, for as every 
sphere is higher, so hath it more excellent inhabitants ; 
which belike is that Galilaeus h Galileo and Kepler aims at 
in his Nuncio Syderio, when he will have l Saturnine and 
Jovial inhabitants ; and which Tycho Brahe* doth in some 
sort touch or insinuate in one of his Epistles ; but these 
things * Zanchius justly explodes, cap. 3, lib. 4, P. Martyr, 
in 4 Sam. 28. 

So that according to these men the number of ethereal 
spirits must needs be infinite ; for if that be true that some 
of our mathematicians say : if a stone could fall from the 
starry heaven, or eighth sphere, and should pass every hour 
an hundred miles, it would be sixty-five years or more, before 
it would come to ground, by reason of the great distance of 
heaven from earth, which contains, as some say, one hundred 
and seventy millions eight hundred and three miles, besides 
those other heavens, whether they be crystalline or watery 
which Maginus adds, which peradventure holds as much 
more, how many such spirits may it contain ? And yet for 
all this 2 Thomas Albertus, and most hold that there be far 
more angels than devils. 

Sublunary devils, and their kinds.~\ But be they more or 
less, Quod supra nos nihil ad nos (what is beyond our com 
prehension does not concern us). Howsoever as Martianus 
foolishly supposeth, jSStherii Dcemones non curant res hu- 
manas, they care not for us, do not attend our actions, or look 
for us, those ethereal spirits have other worlds to reign in 
belike or business to follow. We are only now to speak in 
brief of these sublunary spirits or devils ; for the rest, our 
divines determine that the Devil had no power over stars, or 
heavens ; 8 Carminibus ccelo possunt deducere lunam, SfC. (by 
their charms [verses] they can seduce the moon from the 

1 Saturnirms et Joviales accolas. * In general! reservantur. * q. 88, art. 9 
loca detrusi sunt infra cselestes orbes 3 Virg. 8 Eg. 
in aerem scilicet et infra ubi Judicio 

252 Digression of Spirits- [Part. I. sec. 2. 

heavens). Those are poetical fictions, and that they can 
l sistere aquam fluviis, et vertere sidera retro, fyc. (stop rivers 
and turn the stars backwards in their courses) as Canadia in 
Horace, 'tis all false. 2 They are confined until the day of 
judgment to this sublunary world, and can work no farther 
than the four elements, and as God permits them. Where 
fore of these sublunary devils, though others divide them 
otherwise according to their several places and offices, Psel- 
lus makes six kinds, fiery, aerial, terrestrial, watery, and 
subterranean devils, besides those fairies, satyrs, nymphs, dec. 
Fiery spirits or devils are such as commonly work by 
blazing stars, fire-drakes, or ignes fatui ; which lead men 
often in flumina ant prcecipitia, saith Bodine, lib. 2, Theat. 
naturae, fol. 221. Quos inquit arcere si volunt viatores, clard 
voce Deum appettare, aut pronam facie terram contingente 
adorare oportet, et hoc amuletum majoribus nostris acceptum 
ferre debemus, SfC. (whom if travellers wish to keep off they 
must pronounce the name of God with a clear voice, or adore 
him with their faces in contact with the ground, &c.) ; like 
wise they counterfeit suns and moons, stars oftentimes, and 
sit on ship masts: In navigiorum summitatibus visuntur ; 
and are called dioscuri, as Eusebius 1, contra Philosophos, 
c. xlviii. informeth us, out of the authority of Zenophanes ; 
or little clouds, ad motum nescio quern volantes ; which never 
appear, saith Cardan, but they signify some mischief or other 
to come unto men, though some again will have them to pre 
tend good, and victory to that side they come towards in sea- 
fights, St Elmo's fires they commonly call them, and they do 
likely appear after a sea-storm ; Radzivillius, the Polonian 
duke, calls this apparition, Sancti Germani sidus ; and saith 
moreover that he saw the same after in a storm as he was 
sailing, 1582, from Alexandria to Rhodes.* Our stories are 
full of such apparitions in all kinds. Some think they keep 

1 JKa. 4. * Austin : hoc dixl, n quis habltare cum Angells Buis undo lapsnm 

extatimet habitare ibl mala daemonla ubi credirnus. Idem Zanch. 1. 4, c. 8, d 

Solem et Lunam et Stellas Deus ordlnayit, Angel, malls. Pererius in Gen. cap. 6, 

t alibi nemo arbitraretur Dsemonem coelU lib. 8, in rer. 2. * Perigram Hieroeol. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits. 253 

their residence in that,Hecla, a mountain in Iceland, JEtua 
in Sicily, Lipari, Vesuvius, &c. These devils were wor 
shipped heretofore by that superstitious nvpofiavreia, l and the 

Aerial spirits or devils, are such as keep quarter most part 
in the 2 air, cause many tempests, thunder, and lightnings, 
tear oaks, fire steeples, houses, strike men and beasts, make 
it rain stones, as in Livy's time, wool, frogs, &c. Counterfeit 
armies in the air, strange noises, swords, &c., as at Vienna 
before the coming of the Turks, and many tunes in Rome, 
as Scheretzius 1, de spect. c. 1, part. 1. Lavater de spect. 
part. 1, c. 17. Julius Obsequens, an old Roman, in his book 
of prodigies, ab urb. cond. 505. 8 Machiavel hath illustrated 
by many examples, and Josephus, in his book de bello Ju- 
daico, before the destruction of Jerusalem. All which Guil. 
Postellus, in his first book, c. 7, de orbis concordia, useth as 
an effectual argument (as indeed it is) to persuade them that 
will not believe there be spirits or devils. They cause whirl 
winds on a sudden, and tempestuous storms ; which though 
our meteorologists generally refer to natural causes, yet I am 
of Bodine's mind, Theat. Nat. 1. 2, they are more often caused 
by those aerial devils, in their several quarters ; for Tempes- 
tatibus se ingerunt, saith * Rich. Argentine ; as when a des 
perate man makes away with himself, which by hanging or 
drowning they frequently do, as Kornmannus observes, de 
mirac. mort. part. 7, c. 76, tripudium agentes, dancing and 
rejoicing at the death of a sinner. These can corrupt the 
air, and cause plagues, sickness, storms, shipwrecks, fires, in 
undations. At Mons Draconis in Italy, there is a most mem 
orable example in 4 Jovianus Pontanus ; and nothing so 
familiar (if we may believe those relations of Saxo Gram- 
maticus, Olaus Magnus, Damianus A. Goes) as for witches 
and sorcerers, in Lapland, Lithuania, and all over Scandia, 

i Fire- worship, or divination by fire. 1. 6, c. 6. * Quest, in UT. * D 

Domus dirmmt, muros dejiciunt, im- praestigiis daemonum, c. 16. Convellj 

mlscent se turbinibus et procellis et pul- culmina ridemus, prosterni sata, &o 

reran instar columnar evehunt. Cicogna, < De bello Neapolitano lib. 6. 

254 Digression of Spirits. [Part. I. sec. 1 

to sell winds to mariners, and cause tempests, which Marcus 
Paulus the Venetian relates likewise of the Tartars. These 
kind of devils are much * delighted in sacrifices (saith Por- 
phiry), held all the world in awe, and had several names, 
idols, sacrifices, in Rome, Greece, Egypt, and at this day 
tyrannize over, and deceive those Ethnics and Indians, being 
adored and worshipped for 2 gods. For the Gentiles' gods 
were devils (as * Trismegistus confesseth in his Asclepius), 
and he himself could make them come to their images by 
magic spells ; and are now as much " respected by our 
papists (saith 8 Pictorius) under the name of saints." These 
are they which Cardan thinks desire so much carnal cop 
ulation with witches (Incubi and Succubi), transform bodies, 
and are so very cold if they be touched ; and that serve 
magicians. His father had one of them (as he is not 
ashamed to relate 4 ), an aerial devil, bound to him for 
twenty and eight years. As Agrippa's dog had a devil tied 
to his collar; some think that Paracelsus (or else Erastus 
belies him) had one confined to his sword-pummel ; others 
wear them in rings, &c. Jannes and Jambres did many 
things of old by their help ; Simon Magus, Cinops, Apollo- 
nius Tianeus, Jamblichus, and Tritemius of late, that showed 
Maximilian the emperor his wife, after she was dead ; Et 
verrucam in cotto ejus (saith 6 Godolman) so much as the wart 
in her neck. Delrio, lib. ii. hath divers examples of their 
feats ; Cicogna, lib. iii. cap. 3, and Wierus in his book de 
prastig. d&monum. Boissardus de magis et veneficis. 

Water-devils are those Naiads or water-nymphs which 
have been heretofore conversant about waters and rivers. 
The water (as Paracelsus thinks) is their chaos, wherein they 
live ; some call them fairies, and say that Habundia is their 
queen ; these cause inundations, many times shipwrecks, and 
deceive men divers ways, as Succuba, or otherwise, appear- 

1 Suffltibua gaudent. Idem Justin, Btatuas pellexl. 8 Et nunc sub divorum 

Martyr Apolog. pro Christianls. * In nomine coluntur i Pontiflciis. * Lib. 

Dei imitationem, saith Eusebius. *Dii 11, de rerum ver. 6 Lib. 3, cap. 3, d 

gentium Daemonia, &c., ego in eorum magis et Teneficis, &c. Nereides. 

kem. 1, subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits. 255 

ing most part (saith Tritemius) in women's shapes. * Para 
celsus hath several stories of them that have lived and been 
married to mortal men, and so continued for certain years 
with them, and after, upon some dislike, have forsaken them. 
Such a one as JEgeria, with whom Numa was so familiar, 
Diana, Ceres, &c. 2 Olaus Magnus hath a long narration of 
one Hotherus, a king of Sweden, that having lost his com 
pany, as he was hunting one day, met with these water- 
nymphs or fairies, and was feasted by them ; and Hector 
Boethius, of Macbeth, and Banquo, two Scottish lords, that 
as they were wandering in the woods, had their fortunes told 
them by three strange women. To these, heretofore, they 
did use to sacrifice, by that vSpo/Mvreia, or divination by 

Terrestrial devils are those * Lares, Genii, Fauns, Satyrs, 
* Wood-nymphs, Foliots, Fairies, Robin Goodfellows, Trulli, 
&c., which as they are most conversant with men, so they do 
them most harm. Some think it was they alone that kept 
the heathen people in awe of old, and had so many idols and 
temples erected to them. Of this range was Dagon amongst 
the Philistines, Bel amongst the Babylonians, Astartes 
amongst the Sidonians, Baal amongst the Samaritans, Isis 
and Osiris amongst the Egyptians, &c. ; some put our f fairies 
into this rank, which have been in former times adored with 
much superstition, with sweeping their houses, and setting of 
a pail of clean water, good victuals, and the like, and then 
they should not be pinched, but find money in their shoes, 
and be fortunate in their enterprises. These are they that 
dance on heaths and greens, as 4 Lavater thinks with Trite 
mius, and as 6 Olaus Magnus adds, leave that green circle, 
which we commonly find in plain fields, which others hold to 
proceed from a meteor falling, or some accidental rankness 
of the ground, so nature sports herself; they are sometimes 

1 Lib. de Zilphis. Lib. 3. * Pro * Part. 1, cap. 19. * Lib. 8, cap. 11. 

salute hominum excubare se simulant, Elvarum choreas Olaus, lib 3, vocat sal 

ed in eoium perniciem omniamoliuntur. turn adeo profumle in terras imprimunt, 

Aust. * Dryades. Oriades, Hamadry- ut locus insigni deinceps virore orbicu 

,vde- t Klvas Olaus vocat, lib. 3. laris sit, et gnunen non 

256 Digression of Spirits. [Part. I. sec. a 

seen by old women and children. Hierom. Pauli, in hia 
description of the city of Bercino in Spain, relates how they 
have been familiarly seen near that town, about fountains and 
hills ; Nonnunquam (saith Tritemius) in sua latibula monti- 
um simpliciores homines ducant, stupenda mirantibus osten- 
dentes miracula, nolarum sonitus, spectacula, fyc. 1 Giraldus 
Cambrensis gives instance in a monk of Wales that was so 
deluded. a Paracelsus reckons up many places in Germany, 
where they do usually walk in little coats, some two feet long. 
A bigger kind there is of them called with us hobgoblins, 
and Robin Goodfellows, that would in those superstitious 
times grind corn for a mes? of milk, cut wood, or do any 
manner of drudgery work. They would mend old irons in 
those .ZEolian isles of Lipari, hi former ages, and have been 
often seen and heard. 8 Tholosanus calls them Trullos and 
Getulos, and saith, that in his days they were common in 
many places of France. Dithmarus Bleskenius, in his de 
scription of Iceland, reports for a certainty, that almost in 
every family they have yet some such familiar spirits ; and 
Fcelix Malleolus, in his book de crudel. dtemon. affirms as 
much, that these Trolli or Telchines are very common hi 
Norway, " and 4 seen to do drudgery work ; " to draw water, 
saith Wierus, lib. i. cap. 22, dress meat, or any such thing. 
Another sort of these there are, which frequent forlorn 
6 houses, which the Italians call foliots, most part innoxious, 
* Cardan holds : " They will make strange noises in the night, 
howl sometimes pitifully, and then laugh again, cause great 
flame and sudden lights, fling stones, rattle chains, shave men, 
open doors and shut them, fling down platters, stools, chests, 
sometimes appear in the likeness of hares, crows, black dogs, 
&c." of which read 6 Pet Thyraeus the Jesuit, in his Tract. 

i Sometimes they seduce too simple gant, patinas mundant, llgna portant, 

men into their mountain retreats, where equos curant, &c. * Ad miriisteria 

they exhibit wonderful sights to their utuntur. Where treasure is hid (as 

marvelling eyes, and astonish their ears some think) or some murder, or such like 

by the sound of bells, &c. * Lib. de villany committed. * Lib. 16, de re- 

Zilph. et Pigmaeis Olaus, lib. 8. 3 Lib. rum varietat. Vel spiritus sunt hu- 

7, cap. 14, qui et in famulitio viris et jusmodi damnatorum, Ye) e purgatoito, 

fieminis inserriunt, conclaria scopis pur- vel ipsi daemones, o. 4. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits. 257 

de locis infestis, part. 1, et cap. 4, who will have them to be 
devils or the souls of damned men that seek revenge, or else 
souls out of purgatory that seek ease; for such examples 
peruse * Sigismundus Scheretzius, lib. de spectris, part 1, c. 1, 
which he saith he took out of Luther most part ; there be 
many instances. a Plinius Secundus remembers such a house 
at Athens, which Athenodorus the philosopher hired, which 
no man durst inhabit for fear of devils. Austin, de Civ. 
Dei, lib. 22, cap. 1, relates as much of Hesperius the Trib 
une's house, at Zubeda, near their city of Hippos, vexed with 
evil spirits, to his great hindrance, Cum afflictione animalium 
et servorum suorum. Many such instances are to be read in 
Niderius Formicar, lib. 5, cap. xii. 3, &c. Whether I may 
call these Zim and Ochim, which Isaiah, cap. xiii. 21, speaks 
of, I make a doubt. See more of these in the said Scheretz 
lib. 1, de sped. cap. 4, he is full of examples. These kinds 
of devils many times appear to men, and affright them out 
of their wits, sometimes walking at * noonday, sometimes at 
nights, counterfeiting dead men's ghosts, as that of Caligula, 
which (saith Suetonius) was seen to walk in Lavinia's gar 
den, where his body was buried, spirits haunted, and the 
house where he died, *Nutta nox sine terror e transacta, donee 
ineendio consumpta ; every night this happened, there was 
no quietness, till the house was burned. About Hecla, in 
Iceland, ghosts commonly walk, animas mortuorum simulan* 
tes, saith Joh. Anan. lib. 3, de not. deem. Olaus, lib. 2, cap. 2, 
Natal. TaUopid. lib. de apparit. spir. Kommannus de mirac. 
mort. part. 1, cap. 44, such sights are frequently seen circa 
sepulchra et monasteria, saith La vat. lib. 1, cap. 19, in monas 
teries and about churchyards, loca paludinosa, ampla cedificia, 
solitaria, et ceede hominum notata, fyc. (marshes, great build 
ings, solitary places, or remarkable as the scene of some 
murder.) Thyreus adds, ubi gravius peccatum est commissum, 

1 Quidam lemures domesticis instru- &c. * Epist. lib. 7. 3 Meridionales 

mentis noctu ludunt : patinas, ollas, can- Dsemones Cicogna calls them or Alastore* 

tharas, et alia vasa dejiciunt, et quidam 1. 3, cap. 9. * Suetou. c. 69, iv C- 

roces emittunt, ejulant, risum emittunt, ligula 
Sec., at canes nigri, feles, Tariis formis, 

VOL. i. 17 

258 Digression of Spirits. [Part, i sec. a 

impii pauperum oppressores et nequiter insignes habitant 
(where some very heinous crime was committed, there the 
impious and infamous generally dwell). These spirits often 
foretell men's deaths by several signs, as knocking, groanings, 
&c., * though Rich. Argentine, c. 18, de prcestigiis damonum, 
will ascribe these predictions to good angels, out of the au 
thority of Ficinus and others ; prodigia in obitu principum 
stepius contingunt, Sfc. (prodigies frequently occur at the 
deaths of illustrious men), as in the Lateran church in 
f Rome, the popes' deaths are foretold by Sylvester's tomb. 
Near Rupes Nova in Finland, in the kingdom of Sweden, 
there is a lake, in which, before the governor of the castle 
dies, a spectrum, in the habit of Arion with his harp, appears, 
and makes excellent music, like those blocks in Cheshire, 
which (they say) presage death to the master of the family ; 
or that 1 oak in Lanthadran park in Cornwall, which fore 
shows as much. Many families in Europe are so put in 
mind of their last by such predictions, and many men are 
forewarned (if we may believe Paracelsus) by familiar spirits 
in divers shapes, as cocks, crows, owls, which often hover 
about sick men's chambers, vel quia morientium fceditatem 
tentiunt, as 2 Baracellus conjectures, et ideo super tectum in- 
Jirmorum crocitant, because they smell a corse ; or for that 
(as 8 Bernardinus de Bustis thinketh) God permits the devil 
to appear in the form of crows, and such like creatures, to 
scare such as live wickedly here on earth. A little before 
Tully's death (saith Plutarch) the crows made a mighty noise 
about him, turmdtuose perstrepentes, they pulled the pillow 
from under his head. Rob. Gaguinus hist. Franc, lib. 8, 
telleth such another wonderful story at the death of Johannes 
de Monteforti, a French lord, anno 1345, tanta corvorum 
muUitudo tedious morientis insedit, quantam esse in GaUia 
n*mo judicdsset (a multitude of crows alighted on the house 
of the dying man, such as no one imagined existed in France). 

Strozrius Cicogna. Hb. 8. mag. cap. 6. Genlali, folio 187. Part. 1, o. ID 
t Idem o. 18. i M. Carew, Surrey of Abducunt eos i recta yia, et riant Itet 
Cornwall, Ub. 2, folio 140. * Horto facientibus iatercluduut. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits. 259 

Such prodigies are very frequent in authors. See more of 
these in the said Lavater, Thyreus de locis infestis, part 3, 
cap. 58. Pictorius, Delrio, Cicogna, lib. 3, cap. 9. Necro 
mancers take upon them to raise and lay them at their pleas 
ures ; and so likewise those which Mizaldus calls Ambulones, 
that walk about midnight on great heaths and desert places, 
which (saith * Lavater) " draw men out of the way, and lead 
them all night a by-way, or quite bar them of their way ; " 
these have several names in several places ; we commonly 
call them Pucks. In the deserts of Lop, in Asia, such illu 
sions of walking spirits are often perceived, as you may read 
in M. Paulus, the Venetian his travels ; if one lose his 
company by chance, these devils will call him by his name, 
and counterfeit voices of his companions to seduce him. 
Hieronym. Pauli, in his book of the hills of Spain, relates 
of a great 2 mount in Cantabria, where such spectrums are 
to be seen ; Lavater and Cicogna have variety of examples 
of spirits and walking devils in this kind. Sometimes they 
sit by the highway side, to give men falls, and make their 
horses stumble and start as they ride (if you will believe the 
relation of that holy man Ketellus in * Nubrigensis, that had 
an especial grace to see devils, Gratiam divinitus cottatam, 
and talk with them, Et impavidus cum spiritibus sermonem 
miscere, without offence,) and if a man curse or spur his horse 
for stumbling, they do heartily rejoice at it ; with many such 
pretty feats. 

Subterranean devils are as common as the rest, and do aa 
much harm. Olaus Magnus, lib. 6, cap. 19, makes six kinds 
of them ; some bigger, some less. These (saith * Munster) 
are commonly seen about mines of metals, and are some of 
them noxious ; some again do no harm. The metal-men in 
many places account it good luck, a sign of treasure and rich 

1 Lib. 1, cap. 44. Dsemonum eernun- * Lib. 2, cap. 21. Offendicula faciunt 

turetaudiunturibifrequentesillusiones, tranaeuntibus in via, et petulanter ridet 

unde viatoribus cavendum ne se disso- cum Tel hominem Tel jumentum ejuj 

zient, aut a tergo maneant, voces enim pedes atterere faciant. et maxime si horn* 

flngunt sociorum, ut i recto itinere ab- rualedictis et calcaribus weviat. * In 

clucant, &c. - MODS sterilis et nivosus, Cosmogr. 
ubi intempesta nocte umbrae apparent. 

260 Digression of Spirits. [Part. I. sec. 2 

ore when they see them. Georgius Agricola, in his book d 
tubterraneis animantibus, cap. 37, reckons two irore notable 
kinds of them, which he calls 1 Getuli and Cobali, both " are 
clothed after the manner of metal-men, and will many times 
imitate their works." Their office, as Pictorius and Paracel 
sus think, is to keep treasure in the earth, that it be not all 
at once revealed ; and besides, 2 Cicogna avers that they are 
the frequent causes of those horrible earthquakes " which 
often swallow up, not only houses, but whole islands and 
cities ; " in his third book, cap. 11, he gives many instances. 

The last are conversant about the centre of the earth to 
torture the souls of damned men to the day of judgment; 
their egress and regress some suppose to be about ^Etna, 
Lipari, Mons Hecla in Iceland, Vesuvius, Terra del Fuego, 
&c., because many shrieks and fearful cries are continually 
heard thereabouts, and familiar apparitions of dead men, 
ghosts and goblins. 

Their Offices, Operations, Study. ~\ Thus the devil reigns, 
and in a thousand several shapes, "as a roaring lion still 
seeks whom he may devour," 1 Pet v., by earth, sea, land, 
air, as yet unconfined, though * some will have his proper 
place the air ; all that space between us and the moon for 
them that transgressed least, and hell for the wickedest of 
them, Hie velut in career e ad finem mundi, tune in locum 
funestiorem trudendi, as Austin holds de Oivit. Dei, c. 22, lib. 
14, cap. 3 et 23 ; but be where he will, he rageth while he 
may to comfort himself, as "Lactantius thinks, with other 
men's falls, he labours all he can to bring them into the same 
pit of perdition with him. " For 4 men's miseries, calamities* 
and ruins are the devil's banqueting dishes." By many 
temptations and several engines, he seeks to captivate our 

1 Vestiti more metallicorum, gestus et bus. Idem Thyreus de locia infest in. 

opera eorura imitautur. * Immisso In > Lactantius 2, de origine erroris, cap. 15, 

terra carccres yento horribiles terra mo- hi malign! spiritus per omnem terrain 

tug efficiunt, quibug gsepe non domus ragantur, et solatium perditionis sun 

modo et turres, fled civitates Integra et perdendi. hominibu.i operantur. < Mor- 

tnaulae haugtae sunt. * Illerom. in 3 talium calamltates epulee suut malorum 

Kphes. Idei> Michaelia, e. 4, de spirit!- dsemonum, Synesitu. 

Mem. i, subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits. 261 

souls. The Lord of Lies, saith * Austin, "As he was de 
ceived himself, he seeks to deceive others, the ringleader to 
all naughtiness, as he did by Eve and Cain, Sodom and Go 
morrah, so would he do by all the world. Sometimes he 
tempts by covetousness, drunkenness, pleasure, pride, &c., 
errs, dejects, saves, kills, protects, and rides some men, as 
they do their horses. He studies our overthrow, and gen 
erally seeks our destruction ; " and although he pretend many 
times human good, and vindicate himself for a god by curing 
of several diseases, cegris sanitatem, et ccecis luminis usum 
rcstituendo, as Austin declares, lib. 10, de Civil. Dei, cap. 6, 
as Apollo, -(Esculapius, Isis, of old have done ; divert plagues, 
assist them in wars, pretend their happiness, yet nihil his 
impurius, scelestius, nihil humano generi infestius, nothing so 
impure, nothing so pernicious, as may well appear by their 
tyrannical and bloody sacrifices of men to Saturn and Moloch, 
which are still in use among those barbarous Indians, their 
several deceits and cozenings to keep men in obedience, their 
false oracles, sacrifices, their superstitious impositions of fasts, 
penury, &c. Heresies, superstitious observations of meats, 
times, &c., by which they 3 crucify the souls of mortal men, 
as shall be showed in our Treatise of Religious Melancholy. 
Modico adhuc tempore sinitur malignari, as 8 Bernard ex- 
presseth it, by God's permission he rageth awhile, hereafter 
to be confined to hell and darkness, " which is prepared for 
him and his angels," Mat xxv. 

How far their power doth extend it is hard to determine ; 
what the ancients held of their effects, force and operations, 
I will briefly show you : Plato in Critias, and after him his 

1 Dominus mendacii seipso deceptus, ocloret. in 11. Cor. ep. 22. Chrys. horn, 

ftlios decipere cupit, aclversarius human! 68, in 12 Gn. Greg, in 1, c. John. Bar- 

generis. Inventor mortis, superbiae insti- thol. de prop. 1. 2, c. 20. Zanch. 1. 4, de 

tutor, radix malitlse, scelerum caput, mails angelis. Perer. in Gen. 1. 8, in c. 

princeps omnium vitiorum, fuit inde in 6. 2. Origen. ssepe prseliis intersunt, 

Dei contumeliam, houiiiium perniciem: itinera et negotia nostra quaecunqu 

de horum conatibus et operationibus lege dirigunt, claidestinis subsHiis optatoa 

Epiphanium. 2 Tom. lib. 2. Dionysiuin. ssepe praebent successus. Pet. Mar. in 

e. 4. Ambros. Epi.-tol. lib. 10, ep. et 84. Sam. &c., Ruscam de inferno. - El 

August, de civ. Dei, lib. 6, c. 9, lib. 8, cap. velut mancipia circumfert PwUus. 

22, lib. 9, 18, lib. 10, 21. Theophil. in 12. Lib. de trans, mut. Malac. ep. 
Mat. Pasil. ep. 141. Leonem Ser. The- 

262 Digression of Spirits. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

followers, gave out that these spirits or devils, " were men's 
governors and keepers, our lords and masters, as we are of 
our cattle." 1 " They govern provinces and kingdoms by 
oracles, auguries, dreams, rewards," and punishments, prophe 
cies, inspirations, sacrifices, and religious superstitions, varied 
in as many forms as there be diversity of spirits ; they send 
wars, plagues, peace, sickness, health, dearth, plenty, *Ad- 
stantes hie jam noUs, spectantes, et arUtrantes, fyc., as appears 
by those histories of Thucydides, Livius, Dionysius Halicar- 
nassus, with many others that are full of their wonderful 
stratagems, and were therefore by those Roman and Greek 
commonwealths adored and worshipped for gods with prayers 
and sacrifices, &c. * In a word, Nihil magis gucerunt quam 
metum et admirationem hominum ; 4 and as another hath it, 
Did non potest, quam impotenti ardore in homines dominium, 
et Divinos cultos maligni spiritus affectent. 6 Tritemius in his 
book de septem secundis, assigns names to such angels as are 
governors of particular provinces, by what authority I know 
not, and gives them several jurisdictions. Asclepiades a 
Grecian, Rabbi Achiba the Jew, Abraham Avenezra, and 
Rabbi Azariel, Arabians (as I find them cited by 8 Cicogna) 
farther add, that they are not our governors only, Sed ex 
eorum concordid et discordid, boni et mali ajfectus promanant, 
but as they agree, so do we and our princes, or disagree ; 
stand or fall. Juno was a bitter enemy to Troy, Apollo a 
good friend, Jupiter indifferent, jfflqua Venus Teucris, Pallas 
iniqua fait ; some are for us still, some against us, Premente 
Deo,fert Deus alter opem. Religion, policy, public and pri 
vate quarrels, wars are procured by them, and they nra 
7 delighted perhaps to see men fight, as men are with cocks, 
bulls, and dogs, bears, &c., plagues, dearths depend on them, 
our bene and male esse, and almost all our other peculiar 

1 Custodes sunt hominum, et eorum, and admiration of men." s " It la 

ut DOS animallum : turn et provinces scarcely possible to describe the impotent 

praepositi regunt auguriis, somniis, orac- ardour with which these malignant spir- 

ulU, praemiu, &c. * Lypsius Physiol. its aspire to the honour of being divinely 

Stoic, lib. 1, cap. 19. Leo Suavis. worshipped." Omnlf. mag. lib. 2 

idem et Tritemius. " They seek cap. 28. ' Ludus deorum suuuis 
nothing more earnestly than the fear 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Digression of Spirits. 263 

actions, for (as Anthony Rusca contends, lib. 5, cap. 18, 
every man hath a good and a bad angel attending on him 
in particular, all his life long, which Jamblichus calls d&mo- 
nem,) preferments, losses, weddings, deaths, rewards, and 
punishments, and as l Proclus will, all offices whatsoever 
alii genetricem, alii opificem potestatem kabent, tyc., and sev 
eral names they give them according to their offices, as Lares 
Indijetes, Praestites, &c. When the Arcades in that battle 
at Cheronae, which was fought against King Philip for the 
liberty of Greece, had deceitfully carried themselves, long 
after, in the very same place, Diis Gfrcecice ultoribus (saith 
mine author) they were miserably slain by Metellus the 
Roman ; so likewise, in smaller matters, they will have 
things fall out, as these boni and mali genii favour or dis 
like us ; Saturni non conveniunt Jovialibus, fyc. He that is 
Saturninus shall never likely be preferred. 3 That base fel 
lows are often advanced, undeserving Gnathoes, and vicious 
parasites, whereas discreet, wise, virtuous and worthy men are 
neglected and unrewarded ; they refer to those domineering 
spirits, or subordinate Genii ; as they are inclined, or favour 
men, so they thrive, are ruled and overcome ; for as 8 Liba- 
nius supposeth in our ordinary conflicts and contentions, 
Genius Genio cedit et obtemperat, one genius yields and is 
overcome by another. All particular events almost they 
refer to these private spirits ; and (as Paracelsus adds) they 
direct, teach, inspire, and instruct men. Never was any man 
extraordinary fam'ous in any art, action, or great commander, 
that had not familiarem dcemonem to inform him, as Numa, 
Socrates, and many such, as Cardan illustrates, cap. 128, 
Arcanis prudentice civilis, * Speciali siquidem gratia, si a 
Deo donari asserunt magi, d Geniis coslestibus instrui, ah 
Us doceri. But these are most erroneous paradoxes, ineptet 

1 Lib. de anima et dsemone. * Quo- losophi non remunerentur, cum scurra et 

ties fit, ut Principes novitium aulicum ineptus ob insulsum jocum saepe prse- 

divitiis et dignitatibus pene obruant, et mium reportet, inde fit, &c. 3 Lib. de 

multorum annorum ministrum. qui non Crnent. Cadaver. * Boissardus c. 6 

emel pro hero periculum subiit. ne te- magia. 
runtlo donent, &c. Idem. Quod Phi- 

264 Nature of Spirits. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

et fabulosce nugee, rejected by our divines and Christian 
churches. 'Tis true they have, by God's permission, power 
over us, and we find by experience, that they can * hurt not 
our fields only, cattle, goods, but our bodies and minds. At 
Hammel in Saxony, An. 1484, 20 Junii, the devil, in like 
ness of a pied piper, carried away one hundred and thirty 
children that were never aller seen. Many times men are 
* affrighted out of their wits, carried away quite, as Sche- 
retzius illustrates, lib. 1 c. iv., and severally molested by his 
means, Plotinus the Platonist, lib. 14, advers. Gnos. laughs 
them to scorn, that hold the devil or spirits can cause any 
such diseases. Many think he can work upon the body, but 
not upon the mind. But experience pronounceth otherwise, 
that he can work both upon body and mind. Tertullian is 
of this opinion, c. 22. * " That he can cause both sickness and 
health," and that secretly. 4 Taurellus adds "by clancular 
poisons he can infect the bodies, and hinder the operations 
of the bowels, though we perceive it not, closely creeping into 
them," saith 8 Lipsius, and so crucify our souls : Et nociva 
melancholia furiosos efficit. For being a spiritual body, he 
struggles with our spirits, saith Rogers, and suggests (accord 
ing to 6 Cardan, verba sine voce, species sine visu, envy, lust, 
anger, &c.) as he sees men inclined. 

The manner how he performs it, Biarmannus, in his Ora 
tion against Bodine, sufficiently declares. 7 " He begins first 
with the fantasy, and moves that so strongly, that no reason 
is able to resist Now the fantasy he moves by mediation 
of humours ; although many physicians are of opinion, that 
the devil can alter the mind, and produce this disease of him- 

1 Oodelmanns cap. 8, lib. 1. de Magig. et- Tcnenis nobU ignotis corpus InflcMW. 

Idem Zanchius lib. 4. cap. 10 et 11, de 6 Irrepentes corporibus occulto morboi 

malls aujrclis. 2 Nociva Mel-meholia fingunt, mentes terrent, membra distor- 

furioMOg efflcit, et quandoque penitus in- quent. Lips. Phil. Stoic. 1 1, c. 19. *De 

terficit. O. Picolomineus IdemqueZanch. rerum var. 1. 16, c. 93. J Quum men* 

cap. 10, lib. 4, si Deug permittat, corpora immediate decipi nequit, priinum moret 

nogtra movere possunt, alterare, quo vis phan tasiam, et ita obflrmat Taulg coneep- 

morborum et malorum genere afflcere, tihua aut ut ne quern facultati a-stiina- 

iino et in ipsa penetrare et gsevire. * In- tivae ration! locum relinquat. Spirit uf 

ducere potest morbog et sanitates. Vis- malug invadit animam, turbat oensus. in 

cerum actioneg potest inhlbere latenter, furorem conjicit. Austin, de Tit. Beat 

Mem 1, subs. 2.] Nature of Spirits. 265 

self. Quibusdam medicorum visum, saith 1 Avicenna, quod 
Melancholia contingat a dcemonio. Of the same mind is 
Psellus and Rhasis the Arab. lib. 1, Tract. 9, Gont. * " That 
this disease proceeds especially from the devil, and from him 
alone." Arculahus, cap. 6 in 9, Rhasis, ^lianus Montaltus 
in his 9 cap., Daniel Sennertus, lib. 1, part 2, cap. 11, con 
firm as much, that the devil can cause this disease ; by reason 
many times that the parties affected prophesy, speak strange 
language, but non sine interventu humoris, not without the 
humour, as he interprets himself; no more doth Avicenna, 
ti contingat a dtemonio, sufficit nobis ut convertat complex- 
ionem ad choleram nigram, et sit causa ejus propinqua cholera 
nigra ; the immediate cause is choler adust, which * Pompo- 
natius likewise labours to make good ; Galgerandus of Man 
tua, a famous physician, so cured a daemoniacal woman in his 
time, that spake all languages, by purging black choler, and 
thereupon belike this humour of Melancholy is called Bal 
neum Diaboli, the Devil's Bath ; .the devil spying his oppor 
tunity of such humours drives them many times to despair, 
fury, rage, &c., mingling himself amongst these humours. 
This is that which Tertullian avers, Corporibus infligunt 
acerbos casus, animceque repentinos, membra distorquent, oc- 
culte repentes, fyc., and which Lemnius goes about to prove, 
Immiscent se mali Genii prams humoribus, atque atrce bili, 
Sfc. And 8 Jason Pratensis, " that the devil, being a slender, 
incomprehensible spirit, can easily insinuate and wind him 
self into human bodies, and cunningly couched in our bowels 
vitiate our healths, terrify our souls with fearful dreams, and 
shake our mind with furies." And in another place, " These 
unclean spirits settled in our bodies, and now mixed with our 
melancholy humours, do triumph as it were, and sport them 
selves as in another heaven." Thus he argues, and that they 

1 Lib. 8, Fen. 1, Tract. 4, c. 18. * A vitiare, somniis animas terrere et mentei 

Das in one maxime proficisci, et ssepe solo, furoribusquatere. Insinuantsemelachol- 

* Lib. de incant. 3 Csep. de mania lib. icorum penetralibus, intus ibiqne const 

cln morbis cerebri ; Daemones, quum sint dunt et deliciantur tanquam m region* 

teuues et incomprehensibiles spiritus, se clarlssimoruni sideruru, coguiitque anl 

insinuare corporibus humanis possnnt. et mum furere. 
occulte in visceribus operti, valetudinem 

266 Nature of Spirits. [Part. I. sec. 2, 

go in and out of our bodies, as bees do in a hive, and so pro 
voke and tempt us as they perceive our temperature inclined 
of itself, and most apt to be deluded. l Agrippa and 2 Lava- 
ter are persuaded, that this humour invites the devil to it, 
wheresoever it is in extremity, and of all other, melancholy 
persons are most subject to diabolical temptations and illu 
sions, and most apt to entertain them, and the devil best able 
to work upon them. But whether by obsession, or posses 
sion, or otherwise, I will not determine ; 'tis a difficult ques 
tion. Delrio the Jesuit, Tom. 3, lib. 6, Springer and his 
colleague, matt, malef. Pet. Thyreus the Jesuit, lib. de dam- 
oniacis, de locis infestis, de Terrificationibus nocturnis, 
Hieronimus Mengus Flagel. deem, and others of that rank 
of pontifical writers, it seems, by their exorcisms and conjura 
tions approve of it, having forged many stories to that pur 
pose. A nun did eat a lettuce 8 without grace, or signing 
it with the sign of the cross, and was instantly possessed. 
Durand. lib. 6, Rationall. c. 86, numb. 8, relates that he saw 
a wench possessed in Bononia with two devils, by eating an 
unhallowed pomegranate, as she did afterwards confess, when 
she was cured by exorcisms. And therefore our Papists do 
sign themselves so often with the sign of the cross, Ne daemon 
ingredi ausit, and exorcise all manner of meats, as being un 
clean or accursed otherwise, as Bellarmine defends. Many 
such stories I find amongst pontifical writers, to prove their 
issertions, let them free their own credits ; some few I will 
recite in this kind out of most approved physicians. Corne 
lius Gemma, lib. 2, de not. mirac. c. 4, relates of a young 
maid, called Katherine Gualter, a cooper's daughter, An. 
1571, that had such strange passions and convulsions, three 
men could not sometimes hold her ; she purged a live eel, 
which he saw a foot and a half long, and touched it himself; 
but the eel afterwards vanished ; she vomited some twenty- 
four pounds of fulsome stuff of all colours, twice a day for 

1 Lib. 1, cap. 6, occult. Philoe. part 1, ganctificatione sic 4 daemone obscess* 
cap. 1, de ipectrU. * Sine cruce et dial. * Greg. pag. c. 9. 

Mem. 1, subs. 2.] Nature of Spirits. 267 

fourteen days ; and aftei that she voided great balls of hair, 
pieces of wood, pigeons' dung, parchment, goose dung, coals ; 
and after them two pounds of pure blood, and then again 
coals and stones, of which some had inscriptions bigger than 
a walnut, some of them pieces of glass, brass, &c., besides 
paroxysms of laughing, weeping, and ecstasies, &c. Et hoc 
(inquit) cum horrore vidi, this I saw with horror. They 
could do no good on her by physic, but left her to the clergy. 
Marcellus Donatus, lib. 2, c. 1, de med. mirab. hath such an 
other story of a country fellow, that had four knives in his 
belly, Instar serrce dentatos, indented like a saw, every one a 
span long, and a wreath of hair like a globe, with much bag 
gage of like sort, wonderful to behold ; how it should come 
into his guts, he concludes, Gerte non olio quam doemonis as- 
tutid et dolo, (could assuredly only have been through the 
artifice of the devil). Langius, Epist. med. lib. 1, Epist. 38, 
hath many relations to this effect, and so hath Christopherus 
a Vega ; Wierus, Skenkius, Scribonius, all agree that they 
are done by the subtlety and illusion of the devil. If you 
shall ask a reason of this, 'tis to exercise our patience ; for as 
* Tertullian holds, Virtus non est virtus, nisi comparem habet 
aliquem, in quo superando vim suam ostendat, 'tis to try us 
and our faith, 'tis for our offences, and for the punishment of 
our sins, by God's permission they do it, Carnifices vindicta 
justce Dei, as 1 Tolosanus styles them, Executioners of his 
will ; or rather as David, Ps. 78, ver. 49. " He cast upon 
them the fierceness of his anger, indignation, wrath, and vexa 
tion, by sending out of evil angels ;" so did he afflict Job, Saul, 
the Lunatics and demoniacal persons whom Christ cured, 
Mat. iv. 8, Luke iv. 11, Luke xiii., Mark ix., Tobit viii. 3, 
&c. This, I say, happeneth for a punishment of sin, for theil 
want of faith, incredulity, weakness, distrust, &c. 

* Penult, de opiflo. Dei. 1 Lib. 28, cap. 26, torn. 2. 

268 Cause* of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec 2 

SUBSECT. III. Of Witches and Magicians, how they cause 


You have heard what the devil can do of himself, now you 
shall hear what he can perform by his instruments, who are 
many times worse (if it be possible) than he himself, and to 
satisfy their revenge and lust cause more mischief, Multa enitn 
mala non egisset daemon, nisi provocatus a sagis, as l Erastus 
thinks ; much harm had never been done, had he not been 
provoked by witches to it. He had not appeared in Samuel's 
shape, if the Witch of Endor had let him alone ; or repre 
sented those serpents in Pharo's presence, had not the magi 
cians urged him unto it ; Nee morbus vel hominibus, vel brutis 
infligeret (Erastus maintains) si saga quiescerent ; men and 
cattle might go free, if the witches would let him alone. 
Many deny witches at all, or if there be any they can do no 
harm ; of this opinion is Wierus, lib. 3, cap. 53, de prcestig. 
deem. Austin Lerchemer, a Dutch writer, Biarmannus, Ewich- 
ius, Euwaldus, our countryman Scot ; with him in Horace, 

" Sorania, terrores Magicos, miracula, sagas, 
Nocturnes Lemures, portentaque Thessala risu 

Say, can you laugh indignant at the schemes 
Of magic terrors, visionary dreams, 
Portentous wonders, witching imps of Hell, 
The nightly goblin, and enchanting spell ? 

They laugh at all such stories ; but on the contrary are most 
lawyers, divines, physicians, philosophers, Austin, Hemingius, 
Danaeus, Chytraeus, Zanchius, Aretius, &c., Delrio, Springer, 
* Niderius lib. 5, Fornicar. Cuiatius, Bartolus, consil. 6, torn. 
1, J3odine dcemoniant. lib. 2, cap. 8, Godelman, Damhode- 
rius, &c., Paracelsus, Erastus, Scribanius, Camerarius, &c. 
The parties by whom the devil deals, may be reduced to 
these two, such as command him in show at least, as con 
jurors, and magicians, whose detestable and horrid mysteries 

1 De Lamitv * Et quomodo veneflci flant enarrat. 

ilem. 1, subs. 8.] Cauaes of Melancholy. 269 

are contained in their book called * Arbatell ; damones enim 
advocati prcesto sunt, segue exorcismis el conjurationibus 
qitasi coffi patiuntur, ut miserum magorum genus, in impie- 
tote detineant. Or such as are commanded, as witches, that 
deal ex parie implicit e, or explfcite, as the * king hath well de 
fined ; many subdivisions there are, and many several species 
of sorcerers, witches, enchanters, charmers, &c. They have 
been tolerated heretofore some of them ; and magic hath been 
publicly professed in former times, in 2 Salamanca, f Cracow, 
and other places, though after censured by several 8 Uni 
versities, and now generally contradicted, though practised 
by some still, maintained and excused, Tanquam V "S secreta 
quee non nisi viris magnis et peculiari beneficio ae Coelo 
instructis communicatur (I use \ Boesartus his words) and 
so far approved by some princes, Ut nihil ausi aggredi in 
politicis^ in sacris, in consiliis, sine eorum arbitrio ; they 
consult still with them, and dare indeed do nothing without 
their advice. Nero and Heliogabalus, Maxentius, and Juli- 
anus Apostata, were never so much addicted to magic of 
old, as some of our modern princes and popes themselves 
are nowadays. Erricus King of Sweden had an en 
chanted cap, by virtue of which, and some magical murmur 
or whispering terms, he could command spirits, trouble the 
air, and make the wind stand which way he would, insomuch 
that when there was any great wind or storm, the common 
people were wont to say, the king now had on his conjuring 
cap. But such examples are infinite. That which they can 
do, is as much almost as the devil himself, who is still ready 
to satisfy their desires, to oblige them the more unto him. 
They can cause tempests, storms, which is familiarly prac 
tised by witches in Norway, Iceland, as I have proved. 
They can make friends enemies, and enemies friends by 
philters ; 4 Turpes amores conciliare, enforce love, tell any 

De quo plnra legas In Boissarao lib. 1, P. Lombard!. t Prafat. de magis et 

de praestig. > Rex Jacobus Daemonol. veneficis. i Rotatum Pileum habebat, 

I. 1, c. 8. * An university in Spain in qno rentes violentos tieret, aerem tnr- 

old Castile. t The chief town in Po- baret, et in quam parte p, &c. * Era* 

land. * Oxford and Paris, see finem tug. 

270 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

man where his friends are, about what employed though in 
the most remote places ; and if they will, * " bring their 
sweethearts to them by night, upon a goat's back flying in 
the air" Sigismund Scheretzius, part. 1, cap. 9, de spect., 
reports confidently, that he conferred with sundry such, that 
had been so carried many miles, and that he heard witches 
themselves confess as much ; hurt and infect men and beasts, 
vines, corn, cattle, plants, make women abortive, not to 
conceive, f barren, men and women unapt and unable, mar 
ried and unmarried, fifty several ways, saith Bodine, lib. 2, 
c. 2, fly in the air, meet when and where they will, as 
Cicogna proves, and La vat de spec. part. 2, c. 17, "steal 
young children out of their cradles, ministerio dcemonum, 
and put deformed in their rooms, which we call changelings, 
saith J Scheretzius, part. 1, c. 6, make men victorious, fortu 
nate, eloquent; and therefore in those ancient monomachies 
and combats they were searched of old, * they had no magical 
charms ; they can make a stick frees, such as shall endure a 
rapier's point, musket shot, and never be wounded ; of which 
read more in Boissardus, cap. 6. de Magid, the manner of 
the adjuration, and by whom 'tis made, where and how 
to be used in expeditionibus bellicis, prceliis, duettis, fyc., 
with many peculiar instances and examples ; they can walk 
in fiery furnaces, make men feel no pain on the rack, aut 
alias torturas sentire ; they can stanch blood, * represent dead 
men's shapes, alter and turn themselves and others into 
several forms, at their pleasures. Agaberta, a famous 
witch in Lapland, would do as much publicly to all specta 
tors, Modb Pusilla, modo anus, modo procera tit quercus, 
modo vacca, avis, coluber, fyc. Now young, now old, high, 
low, like a cow, like a bird, a snake, and what not ? she 
could represent to others what forms they most desired to 
see, show them friends absent, reveal secrets, maximd 

* Ministerio hire! noeturnl. t Ster- Terornm conjectis. * Mllles. * D. 

lies nuptos et inhabiles, Tide Petrum de Luther, in primum praeceptum, et Leon 

Palnde, lib. 4, distinct. 84. Paulum Varius, lib. 1. de Fascino. Lava 

Gutolandum. J Infantes mat rib us Cicog. f BoUsardus de Magi*. 

nuffurantur, allia supposith w in locum 

Mem 1, subs. 8.] Causes of Melancholy. 271 

omnium admiratione, fyc. And yet for all this subtlety of 
theirs, as Lypsius well observes, Physiolog. Stoicor. lib. 1, 
cap. 17, neither these magicians nor devils themselves can 
take away gold or letters out of mine or Crassus's chest, ei 
Clientelis suis largiri, for they are base, poor, contemptible 
fellows most part : as * Bodine notes, they can do nothing in 
Judicum decreta aut poenas, in regum concilia vel arcana, 
nihil in rem nummariam aut thesauros, they cannot give 
money to their clients, alter judges' decrees, or councils of 
kings, these minuti Genii cannot do it, altiores Genii hoc sibi 
adservdrunt, the higher powers reserve these things to them 
selves. Now and then peradventure there may be some 
more famous magicians like Simon Magus, t Apollonius 
Tyaneus, Pasetes, Jamblicus, JOdo de Stellis, that for a 
time can build castles in the air, represent armies, &c., as 
they are 1 said to have done, command wealth and treasure, 
feed thousands with all variety of meats upon a sudden, 
protect themselves and their followers from all princes' per 
secutions, by removing from place to place in an instant, 
reveal secrets, future events, tell what is done in far coun 
tries, make them appear that died long since, and do many 
such miracles, to the world's terror, admiration, and opinion 
of deity to themselves, yet the devil forsakes them at last, 
they come to wicked ends, and rard aut nunquam such im 
postors are to be found. The vulgar sort of them can work 
no such feats. But to my purpose, they can, last of all, cure 
and cause most diseases to such as they love or hate, and 
this of 2 melancholy amongst the rest. Paracelsus, Tom. 4, 
de morbis, amentium. Tract. 1, in express words affirms; 
Multi fascinantur in melancholiam, many are bewitched 
into melancholy, out of his experience. The same sai1 v 
Danaeus, lib. 3, de sortiariis. Vidi, inquit, qui Melon- 
cholicos morbos gravissimos induxerunt: I have seen those 

* Daemon lib. 3, cap. 8. t Vide * Virg. JEneid. 4. Incantatricem descri- 

Philc.stratum vita ejus, Boissardum de bens: Hsec se carminibus promittit sol- 

Hagis. t Nubrigenses lege, lib. 1, c. 19. vere mentes. Quas relit, ast aliia dunu 

Vide Suidam de Paset. De Cruent. Cada- immittere curas. 
fei. i Erastus. Adolphus Soribanius. 

272 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

that have caused melancholy in the most grievous manner, 
1 dried up women's paps, cured gout, palsy; this and apo 
plexy, falling sickness, which no physic could help, solo tactu, 
by touch alone. Ruland, in his 3 Cent. Cura 91, gives an 
instance of one David Helde, a young man, who by eat 
ing cakes which a witch gave him, mox delirare ccepit, 
began to dote on a sudden, and was instantly mad ; F. H. D. 
in a Hildesheim, consulted about a melancholy man, thought 
his disease was partly magical, and partly natural, because 
he vomited pieces of iron and lead, and spake such lan 
guages as he had never been taught ; but such examples are 
common in Scribanius, Hercules de Saxonia and others. 
The means by which they work are usually charms, images, 
as that in Hector Boethius of King Duffe ; characters 
stamped of sundry metals, and at such and such constella 
tions, knots, amulets, words, philters, &c., which generally 
make the parties affected, melancholy ; as 8 Monavius dis- 
courseth at large in an epistle of his to Acolsius, giving 
instance in a Bohemian baron that was so troubled by a 
philter taken. Not that there is any power at all in those 
spells, charms, characters, and barbarous words ; but that the 
devil doth use such means to delude them. Ut fideks inde 
magos (saith * Libanius) in officio retineat, turn in consortium 
malefactorum vocet. 

SUBSECT. IV. Stars a Cause. Signs from Physiognomy, 
Metoposcopy, Chiromancy. 

NATURAL causes are either primary and universal, or sec 
ondary and more particular. Primary causes are the heav 
ens, planets, stars, &c., by their influence (as our astrologers 
hold) producing this and such like effects. I will not here 
stand to discuss obiter, whether stars be causes, or signs ; or 
to apologize for judicial astrology. If either Sextus Empiri- 

1 Qodelmannus, cap. 7, lib. 1, nutrl- fol. 147. * Oninia philtra etai inter Be 

cum mammaa praeslccant, solo taotu different, boo babent commune, quod 

podagram, apoplexlam, paralyain, et alios hominam efficiant melancholicum ; eplsf . 

morbos, quoa mediclna curare non pot- 281. Scholtiii. * De Cruent. Cada- 

erat- a Fact us inde Maniacus, spec 2, rer. 

Mem. 1, subs. 4.] Causes of Melancholy. 273 

cus, Picus Mirandula, Sextus ab Heminga, Pererius, Erastus, 
Chambers, &c., have so far prevailed with any man, that he 
will attribute no virtue at all to the heavens, or to sun, or 
moon, more than he doth to their signs at an innkeeper's post, 
or tradesman's shop, or generally condemn all such astrologi 
cal aphorisms approved by experience ; I refer him to Bel- 
lantius, Pirovanus, Marascallerus, Goclenius, Sir Christopher 
Heidon, &c. If thou shalt ask me what I think, I must an 
swer, nam et doctis hisce erroribus versatus sum (for I am 
conversant with these learned errors), they do incline, but not 
compel ; no necessity at all ; 1 agunt non cogunt ; and so 
gently incline, that a wise man may resist them ; sapiens dom- 
inabitur astris ; they rule us, but God rules them. All this 
(methinks) 2 Joh. de Indagine hath comprised in brief, Quce- 
ris a me quantum in nobis operantur astro, ? c. " Wilt thou 
know how far the stars work upon us ? I say they do but 
incline, and that so gently, that if we will be ruled by reason, 
they have no power over us ; but if we follow our own na 
ture, and be led by sense, they do as much in us as in brute 
beasts, and we are no better." So that, I hope, I may justly 
conclude with 8 Cajetan, Godwin est vehiculum divince virtutis, 
Sfc., that the heaven is God's instrument, by mediation of 
which he governs and disposeth these elementary bodies ; or 
a great book, whose letters are the stars (as one calls it), 
wherein are written many strange things for such as can 
read, 4 " or an excellent harp, made by an eminent workman, 
on which, he that can but play, will make most admirable 
music." But to the purpose. 

6 Paracelsus is of opinion, " that a physician without the 
knowledge of stars can neither understand the cause or cure 
of any disease, either of this or gout, not so much as tooth- 

1 Astra regunt homines, et rejrit astra Inmine et influentia, Deus elementaria 

Deus. * Chirom. lib. quseris Ji me corpora ordinat et disponit. Th. de 

quantum operantur astra? dico, In nos Vio. Cnjetanus in Psa. 104. 4 Mun 

nihil astra urgere, sed animos proclives dus iste quasi lyra ab excellentissimo 

trahere : qui sic taiuen liberi sunt. ut si quodam artifice concinnata, quern qui 

durem sequantur raMonem, nihil effl- norit mirabiles eliciet harmonias. J. 

clant, sin vero naturam, id agere quod Dee. Aphorismo 11. 5 Medicus sin* 

in brutis fere. 8 Coelum vehiculum coell peritia nihil est, &c., nisi genesimsci 

dirinae virtutis, cujus mediante motu, yerit, ne tantillum potent, lib. de podag 
VOL. i. 18 

274 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 

ache ; except he see the peculiar geniture and scheme of the 
party affected." And for this proper malady, he will have 
the principal and primary cause of it proceed from the 
heaven, ascribing more to stars than humours, * " and that the 
constellation alone many times produceth melancholy, all 
other causes set apart." He gives instance in lunatic persons, 
that are deprived of their wits by the moon's motion ; and in 
another place refers all to the ascendant, and will have the 
true and chief cause of it to be sought from the stars. Nei 
ther is it his opinion only, but of many Galenists and philoso 
phers, though they do not so peremptorily maintain as much. 
"This variety of melancholy symptoms proceeds from the 
atars," saith 2 Melancthon ; the most generous melancholy, as 
that of Augustus, comes from the conjunction of Saturn and 
Jupiter in Libra; the bad, as that of Catiline's, from the 
meeting of Saturn and the moon in Scorpio. Jovianus Pon- 
tanus, in his tenth book, and thirteenth chapter de rebus cceles- 
tibus, discourseth to this purpose at large, Ex atrd Uk varii 
^generantur morbi, fyc., 8 " many diseases proceed from black 
choler, as it shall be hot or cold ; and though it be cold in its 
own nature, yet it is apt to be heated, as water may be made 
to boil, and burn as bad as fire ; or made cold as ice ; and 
thence proceed such variety of symptoms, some mad, some 
solitary, some laugh, some rage," &c. The cause of all which 
intemperance he will have chiefly and primarily proceed from 
the heavens, * " from the position of Mars, Saturn, and Mer 
cury." His aphorisms be these, 6 " Mercury in any geniture, 
if he shall be found in Virgo, or Pisces, his opposite sign, and 
that in the horoscope, irradiated by those quartile aspects of 

1 Constcllatio in causa est ; et influen- tametsi suftpte naturl frigida sit. Annon 

tia cceli morbum hunc movet interdum, aqua sic afficitur a calore lit ardeat; et a 

omnibus aliis amotis. Et alibi. Origo frigore, ut in glaciem concrescat ? et haeo 

ejus Coelo petenda est. Tr. de morbis varietas distinctionum, alii flent, rident, 

amentium. * Lib. de anima, cap. de &c. * Ilanc ad intemperantiam gig- 

humorib. Ea varietas in Melancholia, nendam plurimum confert $ et Jj posi- 

habet caelestes causas <5 Vj et I/ in Q d tus, &c. * $ Quoties alicujus genitura 

if et d in [n . s Ex atra bile varii gen- in ft[ et K adverse signo positus, horo- 

erantur morbi, perinde ut ipse multum scopum partiliter tenuerit atque etinm a 

calirli aut frigid! in se habuerit. quum <f vel fj O radio percusses fuerli, natug 

utrique suscipiendo quam aptissiiiia sit, ab insania vexabitur. 

Mem. i, subs. 4.] Caiises of Melancholy. 275 

Saturn or Mars, the child shall be mad or melancholy." 
Again, * " He that shall have Saturn and Mars, the one cul 
minating, the other in the fourth house, when he shall be 
born, shall be melancholy, of which he shall be cured in time, 
if Mercury behold them." * " If the moon be in conjunction 
or opposition at the birth time with the sun, Saturn or Mars, 
or hi a quartile aspect with them (e malo coeli loco, Leovitius 
adds), many diseases are signified, especially the head and 
brain is like to be misaffected with pernicious humours, to be 
melancholy, lunatic, or mad," Cardan adds, quarto, lund natos, 
eclipses, earthquakes. Garcaeus and Leovitius will have the 
chief judgment to be taken from the lord of the geniture, or 
where there is an aspect between the moon and Mercury, and 
neither behold the horoscope, or Saturn and Mars shall be 
lord of the present conjunction or opposition in Sagittarius or 
Pisces, of the sun or moon, such persons are commonly epi 
leptic, dote, daemoniacal, melancholy ; but see more of these 
aphorisms in the above-named Pontanus. Garcaeus, cap. 23, 
le Jud. genitur. Schoner. lib. 1, cap. 8, which he hath gath 
ered out of 8 Ptolemy, Albubater, and some other Arabians, 
Junctine, Ranzovius, Lindhout, Origen, &c. But these men 
you will reject peradventure, as astrologers, and therefore 
partial judges; then hear the testimony of physicians, 
Galenists themselves. * Carto confesseth the influence of 
stars to have a great hand to this peculiar disease, so doth 
Jason Pratensis, Lonicerius pra/at. de Apopkxid, Ficinus, 
Fernelius, &c. 6 P. Cnemander acknowledgeth the stars an 
universal cause, the particular from parents, and the use of 
the six non-natural things. Baptista Port. mag. 1. 1, c. 10, 
12, 15, will have them causes to every particular individium. 
Instances and examples, to evince the truth of these aphor 
isms, are common amongst those astrologian treatises. Car- 

1 Qui ^ et cf babet, alterum in col- melancholicorum aymptomata siderum 

mine, alterum imo ccelo, cum in lucem influentiis. > Arte Medica. Accedunt 

venerit, melaneholicus erit, a qua sanab- ad has causas affectiones siderum. Plu- 

itur, si J illos trradi&rit. - Hac con- rimuni incitant et provocant influen- 

flguratione natus, aut lunaticus, aut tise cfelostes. Velcurio, lib. 4, cap. 15. 

mente captus. 3 Ptolomaeus centilo- 6 HUdeabeim, spicel. 2, de mel. 
quio, et quadripartite tribuit omnium 

276 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. l. sec. 2. 

dan, in his thirty-seventh geniture, gives instance in Math 
Bolognius. Camerar. hor. natalit. centur. 7, genit. 6 et 7, of 
Daniel Gare, and others; but see Garcseus, cap. 33, Luc, 
Gauricus, Tract. 6, de Azemenis, fyc. The time of this mel 
ancholy is, when the significators of any geniture are directed 
according to art, as the hon moon, hylech, &c., to the hostile 
beams or terms of $ and $ especially, or any fixed star of 
their nature, or if by his revolution, or transitus, shall 
offend any of those radical promissors in the geniture. 

Other signs there are taken from physiognomy, metopos- 
copy, chiromancy, which because Joh. de Indagine, and Rot- 
man, the landgrave of Hesse his mathematician, not long 
since in his Chiromancy ; Baptista Porta, in his celestial 
Physiognomy, have proved to hold great affinity with astrol 
ogy, to satisfy the curious, I am the more willing to insert. 

The general notions * physiognomers give, be these ; " black 
colour argues natural melancholy ; so doth leanness, hirsute- 
ness, broad veins, much hair on the brows," saith * Gratana- 
rolus, cap. 7, and a little head, out of Aristotle, high sanguine, 
red colour, shows head melancholy ; they that stutter and are 
bald, will be soonest melancholy (as Avicenna supposeth), by 
reason of the dryness of their brains ; but he that will know 
more of the several signs of humour and wits out of physiog 
nomy, let him consult with old Adamantus and Polemus, that 
comment, or rather paraphrase upon Aristotle's Physiognomy, 
Baptista Porta's four pleasant books, Michael Scot de secretis 
naturce, John de Indagine, Montaltus, Antony Zara. anat. in- 
geniorwn, sect. 1, memb. 13, et lib. 4. 

Chiromancy hath these aphorisms to foretell melancholy 
Tasneir. lib. 5, cap. 2, who hath comprehended the sum of 
John de Indagine; Tricassus, Corvinus, and others in his 
book, thus hath it; 2 "The Saturnine line going from the 
rascetta through the hand, to Saturn's mount, and there inter- 

1 Job. de Indag. cap. 9. Montaltus, Galeno. * Saturnina a Rascetta per 

cap. 22. * Caput parrum qui habent mediam manum dccurrens, usque ad 

cerebrum et apiritus plerumque angus- radicem mentis Saturnl, a parvis lineif 

to, facile incident in Melancholiam rtibi- Interaecta, arguit inelancholicos. Aplio* 

cundi. JUUua Idem Montaltua, o. 21, e rlnu. 78. 

Mem. 1, subs. 4.] Causes of Melancholy. 277 

sected by certain little lines, argues melancholy ; so if the 
vital and natural make an acute angle, Aphorism 100. The 
saturnine, epatic, and natural lines, making a gross triangle 
in the hand, argue as much ; " which Goclenius, cap. 5 Chiros. 
repeats verbatim out of him. In general they conclude all, 
that if Saturn's mount be full of many small lines and inter 
sections, l " such men are most part melancholy, miserable, 
and full of disquietness, care and trouble, continually vexed 
with anxious and bitter thoughts, always sorrowful, fear 
ful, suspicious ; they delight in husbandry, buildings, pools, 
marshes, springs, woods, walks, &c." Thaddaeus Haggesius. 
in his Metoposcopia, hath certain aphorisms derived from 
Saturn's lines in the forehead, by which he collects a melan 
choly disposition ; and 2 Baptista Porta makes observations 
from those other parts of the body, as if a spot be over the 
spleen ; 8 " or in the nails ; if it appear black, it signifieth 
much care, grief, contention, and melancholy;" the reason 
he refers to the humours, and gives instance in himself, that 
for seven years' space he had such black spots in his nails, 
and all that while was in perpetual lawsuits, controversies 
for his inheritance, fear, loss of honour, banishment, grief, 
care, &c., and when his miseries ended, the black spots van 
ished. Cardan, in his book de libris propriis, tells such a 
story of his own person, that a little before his son's death, he 
had a black spot, which appeared in one of his nails ; and 
dilated itself as he came nearer to his end. But I am over 
tedious in these toys, which howsoever, in some men's too 
severe censures, they may be held absurd and ridiculous, I 
am the bolder to insert, as not borrowed from circumforanean 
rogues and gypsies, but out of the writings of worthy philoso 
phers and physicians, yet living some of them, and religious 
professors in famous universities, who are able to patronize 

1 Agitantur miseriis, continuis inqute- ludea, &c. Jo. de Indagine, lib. 1. 

tudinibus, neque unquam i solid tudine * Cselestis Physiognom. lib. 10. 3 cap. 

liberi sunt, anxie affliguntur aniarissimis 14, lib. 6. Idem : maculae in ungulis 

intra cogitationibus, semper tristes, sus- nigrse, litea, rixas, melancholiam signifl 

pitiosi, meticulosi : cogitationes sunt, cant, ab humore in corde tali, 
velle agrum colere, etagna amant et pa- 

278 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

that which they have said, and vindicate themselver, from all 
cavillers and ignorant persons. 

SUBSECT. V. Old Age a Cause. 

SECONDARY peculiar causes efficient, so called in respect 
of the other precedent, are either congenitce internee, innata, 
as they term them, inward, innate, inbred ; or else outward 
and adventitious, which happen to us after we are born ; con- 
genito or born with us, are either natural, as old age, or 
preeter naturam (as * Fernelius calls it) that distemperature, 
which we have from our parents' seed, it being an hereditary 
disease. The first of these, which is natural to all, and which 
no man living can avoid, is 2 old age, which being cold and 
dry, and of the same quality as melancholy is, must needs 
cause it, by diminution of spirits and substance, and increas 
ing of adust humours ; therefore 8 Melancthon avers out of 
Aristotle, as an undoubted truth, Senes plerungue delirdsse in 
senectd, that old men familiarly dote, ob atram bilem, for 
black choler, which is then superabundant in them ; and 
Rhasis, that Arabian physician, in his Conk lib. 1, cap. 9, 
calls it 4 " a necessary and inseparable accident," to all old 
and decrepit persons. After seventy years (as the Psalmist 
saith) * " all is trouble and sorrow ; " and common experi 
ence confirms the truth of it in weak and old persons, especi 
ally such as have lived in action all their lives, had great 
employment, much business, much command, and many ser 
vants to oversee, and leave off ex abrupto ; as 6 Charles the 
Fifth did to King Philip, resign up all on a sudden ; they 
are overcome with melancholy in an instant ; or if they do 
continue in such courses, they dote at last (senex Us puer), 
and are not able to manage their estates through common in 
firmities incident in their age ; full of ache, sorrow and grief, 
children again, dizzards, they carle many times as they sit, 

1 Lib. 1. Path. cap. 11. * Venlt * Cap. de humoribus, lib. de Anlma 

enim properata malls Inoplna senectus : * Necessarium accident* decrepitifl, et in 

et dolor setatem juwit incsse meam. separabile. Psa. xc. 10. 6 Meteran. 

Boethius, met. 1, de consol. PhiloB. Belg. hist. lib. 1. 

Mem. i, subs. 6.] Causes of Melancholy. 279 

and talk to themselves, they are angry, waspish, displeiised 
with everything, " suspicious of all, wayward, covetous, hard 
(saith Tully), self-willed, superstitious, self-conceited, brag- 
gers and admirers of themselves," as 1 Balthasar Castalio 
hath truly noted of them. 2 This natural infirmity is most 
eminent in old women, and such as are poor, solitary, live in 
most base esteem and beggary, or such as are witches ; inso 
much that Wierus, Baptista Porta, Ulricus Molitor, Edwicus, 
do refer all that witches are said to do, to imagination alone, 
and this humour of melancholy. And whereas it is con 
troverted, whether they can bewitch cattle to death, ride in 
the air upon a coulstaff out of a chimney-top, transform them 
selves into cats, dogs, &c., translate bodies from place to 
place, meet in companies, and dance, as they do, or have 
carnal copulation with the devil, they ascribe all to this re 
dundant melancholy, which domineers in them, to * somnifer 
ous potions, and natural causes, the devil's policy. Non 
laedunt omnino (saith Wierus) aut quid minim faciunt (de 
Lamiis, lib. 3, cap. 36), ut putatur, solam vitiatam kabent 
phantasiam; they do no such wonders at all, only their 
* brains are crazed. * " They think they are witches, and can 
do hurt, but do not." But this opinion Bodine, Erastus, 
Danaeus, Scribanius, Sebastian Michaelis, Campanella de 
gensu rerum, lib. 4, cap. 9, * Dandinus the Jesuit, lib. 2, de 
Animd, explode ; 6 Cicogna confutes at large. That witches 
are melancholy, they deny not, but not out of corrupt fan 
tasy alone, so to delude themselves and others, or to produce 
such effects. 

SUBSECT. VI. Parents a Cause by Propagation. 

THAT other inward inbred cause of Melancholy is our 
temperature, in whole or part, which we receive from our 

1 Svmt morosi, anxii, et iracundi et guis infantum, &c. Corrupta eat Us 

dlfflciles senes, si quaerimus, etium avari, ab humore Melancholico phantasia. Ny- 

Tull. de senectute. a Lib. 2. de Aulico. manus. * Putant eo laedere quando 

Senes arari. morosi, jactabundi, philauti. non laedunt. * Qui hsec in imagina- 

deliri, superstitiosi, suspiciosi, &c. Lib. tioaig vim referre conati suut. atrse bilis, 

3, de Lamiis, cap. 17et 18. 8 Solanum, inanem prorsus laborem susceprrunt 

opium, lupi adeps, lacr. asini, &c., san- 8 Lib. 3, cap. 4, omnif. mag. 

280 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. ec. 2. 

parents, which * Fernelius calls Prater naturam, or un 
natural, it being an hereditary disease ; for as he justifies 
1 Quale parentum maxime patris semen obtigerit, tales evaduni 
similares spermaticceque paries, quocunque etiam morbo Pater 
quum general tenetur, cum semine transfert in Prolem ; such 
as the temperature of the father is, such is the son's, and look 
what disease the father had when he begot him, his son will 
have after him ; 3 " and is as well inheritor of his infirmities, 
as of his lands." "And where the complexion and constitution 
of the father is corrupt, there ( 8 saith Roger Bacon) the com 
plexion and constitution of the son must needs be corrupt, 
and so the corruption is derived from the father to the son." 
Now this doth not so much appear in the composition of the 
body, according to that of Hippocrates, 8 " in habit, propor 
tion, scars, and other lineaments ; but in manners and con 
ditions of the mind, Et patrum in natos abeunt cum semine 

Seleucus had an anchor on his thigh, so had his posterity, 
as Trogus records, 1. 15. Lepidus in Pliny, 1. 7, c. 17, was 
purblind, so was his son. That famous family of jEnobarbi 
were known of old, and so surnamed from their red beards ; 
the Austrian lip, and those Indian flat noses are propagated, 
the Bavarian chin, and goggle eyes amongst the Jews, as 
* Buxtorfius observes ; their voice, pace, gesture, looks, are 
likewise derived with all the rest of their conditions and in 
firmities ; such a mother, such a daughter ; the very 6 affec 
tions Lemnius contends " to follow their seed, and the malice 
and bad conditions of children are many times wholly to be 
imputed to their parents ; " I need not therefore make any 
doubt of Melancholy, but that it is an hereditary disease. 
T Paracelsus in express words affirms it, lib. de morb. amen- 

* Lib. 1, cap. 11, path. 1 Ut arthrit- eorruptio 4 patribus ad fllios. < Non 

id, epilep. &c. 2 ut fllii non tarn pos- tarn (inquit Hippocrates) gibbos et clca- 

srssinn inn quam morborum haeredes sint. trices oris et corporis habitant agnoscli 

8 Epist. de secretis artis et naturae, c. 7, ex iis, sed yenim incessum, gestus, mores, 

natn lu hoc quod patres corrupt! sunt, morbos, &c. 6 Synagog. Jud. * Af- 

generant fllios corruptae complexionis, et fectua parentum in foetus transeunt, et 
compocitionis, et fllii eorum e&dem de 
causft se corruint 

t fllii eorum e&dem de puerorummallciaparentibvwiniputan'la, 
ipu n t, et gic derivatur lib. 4, cap. 8, de occult, nat. mirac. 1 Ei 

Mem. 1, subs. 6.] Causes of Melancholy. 281 

tium, to. 4, tr. 1 ; so doth * Crato in an Epistle of his to 
Monavius. So doth Bruno Seidelius in his book de morbo 
encurab. Montaltus proves, cap. 11, out of Hippocrates and 
Plutarch, that such hereditary dispositions are frequent, et 
nanc (inquif) fieri reor ob participatam melancholicam in- 
temperantiam (speaking of a patient) I think he became so 
by participation of Melancholy. Daniel Sennertus, lib. 1, 
part 2, cap. 9, will have his melancholy constitution derived 
not only from the father to the son, but to the whole family 
sometimes; Quandoque totis familiis hereditativam ; 3 Fores- 
tus, in his medicinal observations, illustrates this point, with 
an example of a merchant, his patient, that had this infirmity 
by inheritance ; so doth Rodericus k Fonseca, torn. 1, consul. 
69, by an instance of a young man that was so affected 
ex matre melancholica, had a melancholy mother, et victu 
melancholico, and bad diet together. Lodovicus Mercatus, 
a Spanish physician, in that excellent Tract which he hath 
lately written of hereditary diseases, torn. 2, oper. lib. 5, 
reckons up leprosy, as those 8 Galbots in Gascony, hereditary 
lepers, pox, stone, gout, epilepsy, &c. Amongst the rest, this 
and madness after a set time comes to many, which he calls a 
miraculous thing in nature, and sticks forever to them as an 
incurable habit. And that which is more to be wondered at, 
it skips in some families the father, and goes to the son, 4 " or 
takes every other, and sometimes every third in a lineal de 
scent, and doth not always produce the same, but some like, 
and a symbolizing disease." These secondary causes hence 
derived, are commonly so powerful, that (as 6 Wolphius holds) 
scepe mutant decreta siderum, they do often alter the primary 
causes, and decrees of the heavens. For these reasons, be 
like, the Church and commonwealth, human and Divine laws, 
have conspired to avoid hereditary diseases, forbidding such 

pltuitosis pituitosi. ex bilioste biliosi, ex tutnn. Lib. 10, observat 16. * Ma- 
lienoBirf et melancholicis melancholic!, ginus Geog. * Ssepe non eundem, sed 
1 Epist. 174, in Scoltz. nascitur nobiscum similem producit effectum, et illaeso pa 
llia all turque et uni cum paren tibus rente transit in nepotem. 6 Dial prao 
babemus malum bunc assem. Jo. Pe- fix. genituris Leovitii. 
leeius, lib. 2, de cura humanorum affec- 

282 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2 

marriages a& are any whit allied ; and as Mercatus adviseth 
all families to take such, si fieri possit guae moxime distant 
natura, and to make choice of those that are most differing 
in complexion from them ; if they love their own, and respect 
the common good. And sure, I think, it hath been ordered 
by God's especial providence, that in all ages there should be 
(as usually there is) once in * 600 years, a transmigration of 
nations, to amend and purify their blood, as we alter seed 
upon our land, and that there should be as it were an inun 
dation of those northern Goths and Vandals, and many such 
like people which came out of that continent of Scandia and 
Sarmatia (as some suppose) and overran, as a deluge, most 
part of Europe and Afric, to alter for our good, our com 
plexions, which were much defaced with hereditary infirmi 
ties, which by our lust and intemperance we had contracted. 
A sound generation of strong and able men were sent 
amongst us, as those northern men usually are, innocuous, 
free from riot, and free from diseases ; to qualify and make 
us as those poor naked Indians are generally at this day ; 
and those about Brazil (as a late 2 writer observes), in the 
Isle of Maragnan, free from all hereditary diseases, or other 
contagion, whereas without help of physic they live commonly 
120 years or more, as in the Orcades and many other places. 
Such are the common effects of temperance and intemperance, 
but I will descend to particular, and show by what means, 
and by whom especially, this infirmity is derived unto us. 

Filii ex senibus nati, raro sunt firmi temperamenti, old 
men's children are seldom of a good temperament, as Scolt- 
zius supposeth, consult. 177, and therefore most apt to this 
disease ; and as 8 Levinus Lemnius farther adds, old men 
beget most part wayward, peevish, sad, melancholy sons, 
and seldom merry. He that begets a child on a full stom 
ach, will either have a sick child, or a crazed son (as 4 Cardan 

' Bodin. de rep. cap. de perlodis reip. cina. Idem Hector Boethtus de insulU 

* Claudius Abayille Capuchion in his Orchad. ct Damianus a Goes le Scandia. 

voyage to Maragnan, 1614, cap. 46. Nemo * Lib. 4, c. 8, de occult, nat. mir. Tetri- 

fere aegrotus, sano o nines et robusto cor- cos plerumque fllios genes progenerantet 

pore, Tirunt annos 120, 140, sine modi- tristes, rarius exhilarate < Coitut 

Mem. 1, subs. 6.] Causes of Melancholy. 283 

thinks), contradict, med. lib. 1, contradict. 18, or if the parents 
be sick, or have any great pain of the head, or megrim, head 
ache, (Hieronimus Wolfius * doth instance in a child of Sebas 
tian Castalio's) ; if a drunken man get a child, it will never 
likely have a good brain, as Gellius argues, lib. 12, cap. 1. 
Ebrii gignunt Ebrios, one drunkard begets another, saith 
2 Plutarch, symp. Kb. 1, quest. 5, whose sentence 8 Lemnius 
approves, 1. 1, c. 4. Alsarius Crutius Gen. de qui sit med. 
cent. 3,Jol. 182. Macrobius, lib. 1. Avicenna, lib. 3. Fen. 
21. Tract 1, cap. 8, and Aristotle himself, sect. 2, prov. 4, 
foolish, drunken, or hair-brain women, most part bring forth 
children like unto themselves, morosos et languidos, and so 
likewise he that lies with a menstruous woman. Intempe- 
rantia veneris, quam in nautis prcesertim insectatur 4 Lemnius, 
qui uxores ineunt, nuttd menstrui decursus ratione habitd, nee 
observato interlunio, prcecipua causa est, noxia, pemitiosa, 
concubitum hunc exitialem ided, et pestiferum vocat. * Rod 
oricus a Castro Lusitanus, detestantur ad unum omnes medici, 
turn et quartd lund concepti, infcelices plerumque et amentes, 
deliri, sfolidi, morbosi, impuri, invalidi, tetra lue sordidi, min- 
ime vitales, omnibus bonis corporis atque animi destituti : ad 
laborem nati, si seniores, inquit Eustathius, ut Hercules, et 
alii. 6 Judcei maxime insectantur fcedum hunc, et immundum 
apud Christianos Concubitum, ut itticitum abhorrent, et apud 
suos prohibent ; et quod Christiani toties leprosi, amentes, tot 
morbili, impetigines, alphi, psorce, cutis etfaciei decolorationes 
tarn multi morbi epidemici, acerbi, et venenosi sint, in hunt, 
immundum concubitum rejiciunt, et crudeles in pignora vocant, 
qui quartd lund profluente hdc mensium iUuvie concubitum 
hunc non perhorrescunt. Damnavit olim divina Lex et morte 
mulctavit hujusmodi homines, Lev. 18, 20, et inde nati, siqui 
deformes aut mutili, pater dilapidatus, quod non contincret ab 
* immundd muliere. Gregorius Magnus, petenti Augustine 

taper repletionem pessimus, et fllii qui * Lib. 2, e. 8, de occult, nat. niir. Good 

turn gignuntur, ant morbosi sunt, aut Master Schoolmaster do not English this 

tolidi. i Dial, prefix. Leovito. * L. * De nat. mill. lib. 3, cap. 4. > Buxdor 

de ed. llberis. 3 De occult, nat. mir. phius, c. 81, Sy nag. Jud. Ezek. 18 

temnlentae et stolidae mulieres liberos 8 Drnsius obs. lib. 8, otp. 20. 
plerumque producunt sibi similes. 

284 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. 8ec. 2 

nunquid opud l Britannos hujusmodi concubitum tolerarel, 
severe prohibuit viris suis turn misceri foeminas in consuetis 
suis menstruis, fyc. I spare to English this which I have 
said. Another cause some give, inordinate diet, as if a man 
eat garlic, onions, fast overmuch, study too hard, be over- 
sorrowful, dull, heavy, dejected in mind, perplexed in his 
thoughts, fearful, &c., " their children (saith 2 Cardan subtil. 
Kb. 18) will be much subject to madness and melancholy, 
for if the spirits of the brain be fusled, or misaffected by such 
means, at such a time, their children will be fusled in the 
brain ; they will be dull, heavy, timorous, discontented all 
their lives." Some are of opinion, and maintain that paradox 
or problem, that wise men beget commonly fools ; Suidas 
gives instance in ArSstarchus the Grammarian, duos reliquit 
jilios Aristarchum et Aristachontm, ambos studios ; and which 
* Erasmus urgeth in his Moria, fools beget wise men. Card. 
subt. 1. 12, gives this cause, Quoniam spiritus sapientum ob 
studium resolvuntur, et in cerebrum feruntur a corde : because 
their natural spirits are resolved by study, and turned into 
animal ; drawn from the heart, and those other parts to the 
brain. Lemnius subscribes to that of Cardan, and assigns 
this reason, Quod persolvant debitum languide, et obscitanter, 
unde foetus a parentum generositate desciscit : they pay their 
debt (as Paul calls it) to their wives remissly, by which 
means their children are weaklings, and many times idiots 
and fools. 

Some other causes are given, which properly pertain, and 
do proceed from the mother: if she be over-dull, heavy, 
angry* peevish, discontented, and melancholy, not only at the 
time of conception, but even all the while she carries the child 
in her womb (saith Fernelius, path. 1. 1, 11) her son will be 
so likewise affected, and worse, as * Lemnius adds, 1. 4, c. 7, 
if she grieve overmuch, be disquieted, or by any casualty be 

1 Beds.. Eccl. hist. lib. 1, e. 27, respons. bus Mates, ex jucundis jucnndi nascun- 

10. * Nam spiritus cerebri si turn male tur, &c. > Fol. 129, mer. Socrates 't 

kfflclsntur, tales proereant, et quales children were fools. Babel. * De oe- 

luerint affect us, tales flliorum : ex tristi- col. iiat. mir. Pica morbua mullerum 

Mem. i, subs. 6.] Causes of Melancholy. 285 

affrighted and terrified by some fearful object heard or si-en, 
she endangers her child, and spoils the temperature of it ; for 
the strange imagination of a woman works effectually upon 
her infant, that as Baptista Porta proves, Physiog. ccelestis 1. 
5, c. 2, she leaves a mark upon it, which is most especially 
seen in such as prodigiously long for such and such meats, 
the child will love those meats, saith Fernelius, and be ad 
dicted to like humours ; * " if a great-bellied woman see a 
hare, her child will often have a hare-lip," as we call it. 
Garc&us de Judiciis geniturarum, cap. 33, hath a memora 
ble example of one Thomas Nickell, born in the city of Bran- 
deburg, 1551, 2 " that went reeling and staggering all the days 
of his life, as if he would fall to the ground, because his 
mother being great with child saw a drunken man reeling in 
the street." Such another I find in Martin Wenrichius com. 
de ortu monstrorum, c. 17, 1 saw (saith he) at Wittenberg, in 
Germany, a citizen that looked like a carcass ; I asked him 
the cause, he replied, * " His mother, when she bore him in 
her womb, saw a carcass by chance, and was so sore affrighted 
with it, that ex eo foetus ei assimilattis, from a ghastly impres 
sion the child was like it." 

So many several ways are we plagued and punished for 
our father's defaults ; insomuch that as Fernelius truly saith, 
* " It is the greatest part of our felicity to be well born, and 
it were happy for human kind, if only such parents as are 
sound of body and mind should be suffered to marry." An 
husbandman will sow none but the best and choicest seed 
upon his land, he will not rear a bull or a horse, except he 
be right shapen in all parts, or permit him to cover a mare, 
except he be well assured of his breed ; we make choice of 
the best rams for our sheep, rear the neatest kine, and keep 
the best dogs, Quanto id diligentius in procreandis liberis 

1 Baptista Porta loco praed. Ex lepo- vem facie cadaverosa, qui dixit, &c. 

rum iiituitu plerique infantes edunt bifl- * Optimum bene nasci, maxima pars te> 

do superiors labello. * Quasi mox in licitatis nostrae bene nasci; quamobreia 

torram collapsurus per omnem ritam prseclare humane generi consultum vids- 

tacedebat, cum mater gravida ebrium retur. si soli parentes bene liabiti et saoi 

hominem sic incedenttm viderat. * Ci- liberis openun darent. 

Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2 

observandum ? And how careful then should we be in beget 
ting of our children ? In former times some * countries have 
been so chary in this behalf, so stern, that if a child were 
crooked or deformed in body or mind, they made him away ; 
so did the Indians of old by the relation of Curtius, and many 
other well-governed commonwealths, according to the disci 
pline of those times. Heretofore in Scotland, saith 2 Hect. 
Boethius, " if any were visited with the falling sickness, mad 
ness, gout, leprosy, or any such dangerous disease, which was 
likely to be propagated from the father to the son, he was 
instantly gelded ; a woman kept from all company of men ; 
and if by chance having some such disease, she were found 
to be with child, she with her brood were buried alive ; " and 
this was done for the common good, lest the whole nation 
should be injured or corrupted. A severe doom, you will 
say, and not to be used amongst Christians, yet more to be 
looked into than it is. For now by our too much facility in 
this kind, in giving way for all to marry that will, too much 
liberty and indulgence in tolerating all sorts, there is a vast 
confusion of hereditary diseases, no family secure, no man 
almost free from some grievous infirmity or other, when no 
choice is had, but still the eldest must marry, as so many 
stallions of the race ; or if rich, be they fools or dizzards, 
lame or maimed, unable, intemperate, dissolute, exhaust 
through riot, as he said, 9 jure hcereditario sapere jubentur ; 
:hey must be wise and able by inheritance ; it comes to pass 
that our generation is corrupt, we have many weak persons, 
both in body and mind, many feral diseases raging amongst 
us, crazed families, parentes peremptores ; our fathers bad, 
and we are like to be worse. 

1 Infantes infirm! praecipitio necati. oranteg inter eoa, ingenti fact! indaglne 

Bohemup, lib 8, c. 8. Apud Lacones Inventos, ne gens foedl contagione laedere- 

olim. Lypsius, epist. 85, cent, ad Belgaa, tur ex lis nata, castraverunt, mulieres 

Dionysio Villerio, id quos aliqua mem- hujugmodi procul a vlrorum consortio 

brorum parte inutiles notaverfnt, necari abli-tfarunt, quod si harntn aliqua con- 

jubent. - Lib. 1. De veterum Scoto- cepisse inveniebatur, simul cum foetu 

rum moribus. Morbo comitiall, demen- nondum edito, defodiebatur y'.va. * En 

tii, mania, leprl, &c., aut siinili labe, phormio Satyr 
puie facile in prolein transmittitur. lab- 

taem 2, subs, i.] Causes of Melancholy. 287 


/ SUBSECT. I. Bad Diet a Cause. Substance. Quality of 


ACCORDING to my proposed method, having opened hith- 
trto these secondary causes, which are inbred with us, I must 
now proceed to the outward and adventitious, which happen 
unto us after we are born. And those are either evident, 
remote, or inward, antecedent, and the nearest ; continent 
causes some call them. These outward, remote, precedent 
causes are subdivided again into necessary and not neces 
sary. Necessary (because we cannot avoid them, but they 
will alter us, as they are used, or abused) are those six non- 
natural things, so much spoken of amongst physicians, which 
are principal causes of this disease. For almost in every 
consultation, whereas they shall come to speak of the causes, 
the fault is found, and this most part objected to the patient ; 
Peccavit circa res sex non naturales ; he hath still offended 
in one of those six. Montanus, consil. 22, consulted about a 
melancholy Jew, gives that sentence, so did Frisemelica in 
the same place ; and hi his 244 counsel, censuring a mel 
ancholy soldier, assigns that reason of his malady, lu he 
offended in all those six non-natural things, which were the 
outward causes, from which came those inward obstructions : 
and so in the rest. 

These six non-natural things are diet, retention, and evac 
uation, which are more material than the other because they 
make new matter, or else are conversant in keeping or expel 
ling of it. The other four are air, exercise, sleeping, waking, 
and perturbations of the mind, which only alter the matter. 
The first of these is diet, which consists in meat and drink, 
and causeth melancholy, as it offends in substance, or acci- 

1 Fecit omnia delicta quae fieri pissunt causae extrinaecse, exquibus poatea orta 
circa res sex non naturales, et eas fuerunt aunt obstructions. 

388 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

dents, that is quantity, quality, or the like. And well it may 
be called a material cause, since that, as J Fernelius holds, 
u it hath such a power hi begetting of diseases, and yields the 
matter and sustenance of them ; for neither air, nor perturba 
tions, nor any of those other evident causes take place, or 
work this effect, except the constitution of body, and prepara 
tion of humour?!, do concur. That a man may say, this diet 
b the mother of diseases, let the father be what he will, and 
from this alone, melancholy and frequent other maladies 
arise." Many physicians, I confess, have written copious vol 
umes of this one subject, of the nature and qualities of all 
manner of meats ; as namely, Galen, Isaac the Jew, Haly- 
abbas, Avicenna, Mesue, also four Arabians, Gordonius, Vil- 
lanovanus, Wecker, Johannes Bruerinus, sitologia de Esculen- 
tis et Poculentis, Michael Savanarola, Tract. 2, c. 8, Anthony 
Fumanellus, lib. de regimine senum, Curio in his Comment 
on Schola Salerna, Godefridus Stekius arte med., Marsiliua 
cognatus, Ficinus, Ranzovius, Fonseca, Lessius, Magninus, 
regim. sanitatis, Frietagius, Hugo Fridevallius, &c., besides 
many other in a English, and almost every peculiar physician, 
discourseth at large of all peculiar meats in his chapter of 
melancholy ; yet because these books are not at hand to 
every man, I will briefly touch what kind of meats engender 
this humour, through their several species, and which are to 
be avoided. How they alter and change the matter, spirits 
first, and after humours, by which we are preserved, and the 
constitution of our body, Fernelius and others will show you. 
I hasten to the thing itself: and first of such diet as offends 
in substance. 

Beef.~\ Beef, a strong and hearty meat (cold in the first 
degree, dry in the second, saith Gal. I. 3, c. 1, de alim.fac.) 
is condemned by him and all succeeding authors, to breed 

1 Path. 1. 1, c. 2. Mnximam in gig- constitutio. Ut soinel dicam, una gula 

nendta morbis Tim obtinet, pabulum, est omnium morborutn mater, etiams] 

materiamque morbi suggerens : nam nee alius est genitor. Ab hac morbi sponte 

ab attre, nee perturbationibus, vel aliis snepe emanant, nulil alii cogente causJ. 

evidantibus causta morbi stint, nisi con- * Cogan, Eliot, Vauhan, Vener. 
sentlat corporis praeparatio, et humorum 

Mem. 2, subs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy. 289 

gross melancholy blood ; good for such as are sound, and of 
a strong constitution, for labouring men if ordered aright, 
corned, young, of an ox (for all gelded meats in every spe 
cies are held best), or if old, * such as have been tired out 
with labour, are preferred. Aubanus and Sabellicus com 
mend Portugal beef to be the most savoury, best and easiest 
of digestion ; we commend ours ; but all is rejected, and 
unfit for such as lead a resty life, any ways inclined to Melan 
choly, or dry of complexion : Tales (Galen thinks) de facile 
melancholicis eegritudinibus capiuntur. 

Pork.~\ Pork, of all meats, is most nutritive in his own 
nature, * but altogether unfit for such as live at ease, are 
any ways unsound of body or mind ; too moist, full of hu 
mours, and therefore noxia delicatis, saith Savanarola, ex 
earum usu ut dubitetur anfebris quartana generetur ; nought 
for queasy stomachs, insomuch that frequent use of it may 
breed a quartan ague. 

Goat.~\ Savanarola discommends goat's flesh, and so doth 
8 Bruerinus, /. 13, c. 19, calling it a filthy beast, and rammish ; 
and therefore supposeth it will breed rank and filthy sub 
stance ; yet kid, such as are young and tender, Isaac ac 
cepts, Bruerinus and Galen, /. 1, e. 1, de alimentorum facul- 

HartJ] Hart and red deer * hath an evil name : it yields 
gross nutriment ; a strong and great grained meat, next unto 
a horse. Which although some countries eat, as Tartars, and 
they of China ; yet 4 Galen condemns. Young foals are as 
commonly eaten in Spain as red deer, and to furnish their 
navies, about Malaga, especially, often used ; but such meats 
ask long baking, or seething, to qualify them, and yet all will 
not serve. 

Venison, Fallow Deer."] All venison is melancholy, and 
begets bad blood ; a pleasant meat ; in great esteem with us 

1 Frietagius. * Isaac. Non Ian- rinm suppeditat alimentum. * Lib. de 

datur, quia melancholicum praebet all- subtiliss diets. Eqnlna caro et asinina 

mentum. 8 Male allt cervina (inquit equinia danda eat hominibus et assinnta 
Fri. et agios), crassissimum et atribila- 

YOL. I. 18 

290 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a 

(for we have more parks in England than there are in all 
Europe besides) in our solemn feasts. 'Tis somewhat better 
hunted than otherwise, and well prepared by cookery ; but 
generally bad, and seldom to be used. 

Hare.] Hare, a black meat, melancholy, and hard of di 
gestion, it breeds incubus, often eaten, and causeth fearful 
dreams, so doth all venison, and is condemned by a jury of 
physicians. MizaUlus and some others say, that hare is a 
merry meat, and that it will make one fair, as Martial's Epi 
gram testifies to Gellia ; but this is per accidens, because of 
the good sport it makes, merry company and good discourse 
that is commonly at the eating of it, and not otherwise to be 

Conies.'] 1 Conies are of the nature of hares. Magninus 
wmpares them to beef, pig, and goat, Reg. sanit. part. 3, c. 
17 ; yet young rabbits by all men are approved to be good. 

Generally, all such meats as are hard of digestion breed 
melancholy. Areteus, lib. 7, cap. 5, reckons up heads and 
feet, 2 bowels, brains, entrails, marrow, fat, blood, skins, and 
those inward parts, as heart, lungs, liver, spleen, &c. They 
are rejected by Isaac, lib. 2, part. 3. Magninus, part. 3, cap. 
17, Bruerinus, lib. 12, Savanarola, Rub. 32, Tract. 2. 

Milk.'] Milk, and all that comes of milk, as butter and 
cheese, curds, &c., increase melancholy (whey only excepted, 
which is most wholesome) ; * some except asses' milk. The 
rest, to such as are sound, is nutritive and good, especially 
for young children, but because soon turned to corruption, 
4 not good for those that have unclean stomachs, are subject 
to headache, or have green wounds, stone, &c. Of all 
cheeses, I take that kind which we call Banbury cheese to be 
the best, ex vetustis pessimus, the older, stronger, and harder, 
the worst, as Langius discourseth in his Epistle to Melanc- 
thon, cited by Mizaldus, Isaac, p. 5, Gal. 3, de cibis boni 
sued, Sc. 

Mam pro-recant. Piao. Altomar. ehondriacal Melancholy. 

Mem. 2, subs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy. 291 

Fmol.'] Amongst fowl, * peacocks and pigeons, all fenny 
fowl are forbidden, as ducks, geese, swans, herons, cranes, 
coots, didappers, water-hens, with all those teals, curs, shel 
drakes, and peckled fowls, that come hither in winter out of 
Scandia, Muscovy, Greenland, Friezland, which half the 
year are covered all over with snow, and frozen up. Though 
these be fair in feathers, pleasant in taste, and have a good 
outside, like hypocrites, white in plumes, and soft, their flesh 
is hard, black, unwholesome, dangerous, melancholy meat; 
Gravant et putrefaciunt stomachum, saith Isaac, part. 5, de 
vol., their young ones are more tolerable, but young pigeons 
he quite disapproves. 

Fishes.'] Rhasis and 2 Magninus discommend all fish, and 
say, they breed viscosities, slimy nutriment, little and humour 
ous nourishment. Savanarola adds, cold, moist ; and phlegm 
atic, Isaac ; and therefore unwholesome for all cold and mel 
ancholy complexions ; others make a difference, rejecting only 
amongst fresh-water fish, eel, tench, lamprey, crawfish (which 
Bright approves, cap. 6), and such as are bred in muddy and 
standing waters, and have a taste of mud, as Franciscus Bon- 
euetus poetically defines, Lib. de aquatilibus. 

" Nam pisces omnes, qui stagna, lacusqne freqnentant, 
Semper plus succi deterioris habent." 

" All fish, that standing pools, and lakes frequent, 
Do ever yield bad juice and nourishment." 

Lampreys, Paulus Jovius, c. 34, de piscibus fluvial, highly 
magnifies, and saith, None speak against them, but inepti et 
scrupulosi, some scrupulous persons; but "eels, c. 33, "he 
abhorreth in all places, at all times, all physicians detest 
them, especially about the solstice." Gomesius, lib. 1. c. 22, 
de sale, doth immoderately extol sea-fish, which others as 
much vilify, and above the rest, dried, soused, indurate fish, 
as ling, fumados, red-herrings, sprats, stock-fish, haberdine, 
poor-John, all shell-fish. * Tim. Bright excepts lobster and 

1 Wecker Syntax, theor. p. 2. Isaac, madid detestantur angnillas, praesertitt. 
Bruer. lib. 15. cap. 80 et 81. 2 Cap. 18, circa solstitium. Damnantur turn ganw 
part 8. ' Omni loco et omni tempers torn segris. * Cap. 6, in his Tract ot 

292 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

crab Mesarius commends salmon, which Bruerinus contra 
dicts, lib. 22, c. 17. Magninus rejects conger, sturgeon, tur- 
bot, mackerel, skate. 

Carp is a fish of which I know not what to determine. 
Franciscus Bonsuetus accounts it a muddy fish. Hippolitus 
Salvianus, in his Book de Piscium naturd et prceparatione, 
which was printed at Rome in folio, 1554, with most elegant 
pictures, esteems carp no better than a slimy watery meat. 
Paul us Jovius on the other side, disallowing tench, approves 
of it ; so doth Dupravius in his Books of Fish-ponds. Frie- 
tagius * extols it for an excellent wholesome meat, and puts 
it amongst the fishes of the best rank ; and so do most of our 
country gentlemen, that store their ponds almost with no 
other fish. But this controversy is easily decided, in my 
judgment, by Bruerinus, I. 22, c. 13. The difference riseth 
from the site and nature of pools, 2 sometimes muddy, some 
times sweet ; they are in taste as the place is from whence 
they be taken. In like manner almost we may conclude of 
other fresh fish. But see more in Rondoletius, Bellonius, 
Oribasius, lib. 7. cap. 22, Isaac, 1. 1, especially Hippolitus 
Salvianus, who is instar omnium solus, fyc. Howsoever they 
may be wholesome and approved, much use of them is not 
good; P. Forestus, in his medicinal observations, 'relates, 
that Carthusian friars, whose living is most part fish, are 
more subject to melancholy than any other order, and that 
he found by experience, being sometimes their physician 
ordinary at Delft, in Holland. He exemplifies it with an 
instance of one Buscodnese, a Carthusian of a ruddy colour, 
and well liking, that by solitary living, and fish-eating, be 
came so misaffected. 

Herbs."] Amongst herbs to be eaten I find gourds, cucum 
bers, coleworts, melons, disallowed, but especially cabbage. 
It causeth troublesome dreams, and sends up black vapours 

Melancholy. ' Optime nutrlt omnium mentornm sortiantur differentiae, alibi 

jndicio inter primse note pisces gustu suaviores, alibi lutulentiores. 3 Ob- 

pneatantt. " Non est dubium quin, servat. 16. lib. 10. 
pro variorum situ ac naturft, magnas all- 

Mein. 2, subs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy. 293 

to the brain. Galen, loc. affect. I. 3, c. 6, of all herbs con 
demns cabbage ; and Isaac, lib. 2, c. 1, Animce gravitatem 
facit, it brings heaviness to the soul. Some are of opinion 
that all raw herbs and salads breed melancholy blood, except 
bugloss and lettuce. Crato, consil. 21, lib. 2, speaks against 
all herbs and worts, except borage, bugloss, fennel, parsley, 
dill, balm, succory. Magnuius, regim. sanitatis, part. 3, cap. 
31. Omnes herbee simpliciter malfe, via cibi ; all herbs are 
simply evil to feed on (as he thinks). So did that scoffing 
cook in 1 Plautus hold: 

" Non ego ccenam condio ut alii coqui solent, 
Qui mihi condita prata in patinis proferunt, 
Boves qui oonvivas faciunt, herbasque aggerunt." 

" Like other cooks I do not supper dress, 

That put whole meadows into a platter, 
And make no better of their guests than beeves, 
With herbs and grass to feed them fatter." 

Our Italians and Spaniards do make a whole dinner of 
herbs and salads (which our said Plautus calls coenas terres* 
tres, Horace, coenas sine sanguine), by which means, as he 
follows it, 

3 " Hie homines tarn brevem vitam colunt 

Qui herbas hujusmodi in alvum suum congerunt, 

Formidolosum dictn, non esu modb 

Quas herbas pecudes non edunt, homines edunt." 

" Their lives, that eat such herbs, must needs be short, 
And 'tis a fearful thing for to report, 
That men should feed on such a kind of meat, 
Which very juments would refuse to eat." 

* They are windy, and not fit therefore to be eaten of all 
men raw, though qualified with oil, but in broths, or other 
wise. Sec more of these in every 4 husbandman and herbalist. 

Hoots."] Roots, Etsi quorundam gentium opes sint, saith 
Bruerinus, the wealth of some countries, and sole food, are 

1 Pseudolus, act. 8, seen. 2. * Plan- Tel parce degustirit. Kersleius, cap 4, 

tus, ibid. Quart) rectius yaletudini de vero usu med. 4 In Mizaldo da 

use quisque consulet, qui lapsus priorum Horto P. Crescent. Heibastein, &o. 
parentum memor t eas plane Tel omiserit 

294 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a 

windy and bad, or troublesome to the head ; as onions, garlic, 
seal lions, turnips, carrots, radishes, parsnips ; Crato, lib. 2. 
consil. 11, disallows all roots, though 1 some approve of pars 
nips and potatoes. 2 Magninus is of Crato's opinion, 8 " They 
trouble the mind, sending gross fumes to the brain, make 
men mad, especially garlic, onions, if a man liberally feed on 
them a year together." Guianerius, tract. 15, cap. 2, com 
plains of all manner of roots, and so doth Bruerinus, even 
parsnips themselves, which are the best, Lib 9, cap. 14. 

Fruits."] Pastinacarum usus succos gignit improbos. Crato, 
consil. 21, lib. 1, utterly forbids all manner of fruits, as pears, 
apples, plums, cherries, strawberries, nuts, medlars, serves, 
&c. Sanguinem inficiunt, saith Villanovanus, they infect the 
blood, and putrefy it, Magninus holds, and must not therefore 
be taken via cibi, aut quantitate magnd, not to make a meal 
of, or in any great quantity. 4 Cardan makes that a cause 
of their continual sickness at Fessa in Africa, " because they 
live so much on fruits, eating them thrice a day." Lauren 
tius approves of many fruits, in his Tract of Melancholy, 
which others disallow, and amongst the rest apples, which 
some likewise commend, sweetings, pearmains, pippins, as 
good against melancholy; but to him that is any way in 
clined to, or touched with this malady, 6 Nicholas Piso in his 
Practics, forbids all fruits, as windy, or to be sparingly eaten 
at least, and not raw. Amongst other fruits, 'Bruerinus, 
out of Galen, excepts grapes and figs, but I find them like 
wise rejected. 

Pulse.] All pulse are nought, beans, peas, vetches, &<%, 
they fill the brain (saith Isaac) with gross fumes, breed 
black thick blood, and cause troublesome dreams. And 
therefore, that which Pythagoras said to his scholars of old, 
may be forever applied to melancholy men, A f obis abstinete, 
eat no peas, nor beans ; yet to such as will needs eat them, 

1 Cap. 18, part. 8, Bright in his Tract. 18. Improbi sued Bant, cap. 12. Da 

of Mel. * Intellectnm turbant, produ- rerum yarietat. In Fessa plerninque 

cunt insanlam. * Audivi (inquit Mag- morbosi, quod fructus comedant tor in 

nin.) quod si quis ex Us per annum con- die. * Cap. de Mel. Lib. 11, o. 8 
tinut comedat, in insaniam caderet, cap. 

Mem. 2, subs, i.] Causes of Melancholy. 295 

I would give this counsel, to prepare them according to thos< 
rules that Arnoldus Villanovanus, and Frietagius prescribe, 
for eating, and dressing, fruits, herbs, roots, pulse, &c. 

Spices.] Spices cause hot and head melancholy, and are 
for that cause forbidden by our physicians to such men as are 
inclined to this malady, as pepper, ginger, cinnamon, cloves, 
mace, dates, &c., honey and sugar. 1 Some except honey; 
to those that are cold it may be tolerable, but 2 Dulcia se in 
bilem vertunt (sweets turn into bile), they are obstructive. 
Crato therefore forbids all spice, in a consultation of his, for 
a melancholy schoolmaster, Omnia aromatica, et quicquid 
sanguinem adurit ; so doth Fernelius, consil. 45, Guiane- 
rius, tract. 15, cap. 2, Mercurialis, cons. 189. To these I 
may add all sharp and sour things, luscious, and over-sweet, 
or fat, as oil, vinegar, verjuice, mustard, salt ; as sweet things 
are obstructive, so these are corrosive. Gomesius, in his 
books, de sale, 1. 1, c. 21, highly commends salt; so doth 
Codronchus in his tract, de sale Absynthii, Lemn. /. 3, c. 9, 
de occult, not. mir., yet common experience finds salt, and 
salt meats, to be great procurers of this disease. And for 
that cause belike those Egyptian priests abstained from salt, 
even so much, as in their bread, ut sine perturbatione anima 
esset, saith mine author, that their souls might be free from 

Bread.'] Bread that is made of baser grain, as peas, 
beans, oats, rye, or "over-hard baked, crusty, and black, is 
often spoken against, as causing melancholy juice and wind. 
Joh. Mayor, in the first book of his History of Scotland, con 
tends much for the wholesomeness of oaten bread ; it was 
objected to him then living at Paris in France, that his coun 
trymen fed on oats, and base grain, as a disgrace ; but he 
doth ingenuously confess, Scotland, Wales, and a third part 
of England, did most part use that kind of bread, that it waa 
as wholesome as any grain, and yielded as good nourishment 

1 Bright, c. 6, excepts honey. *Hor. edas crustam, choleram quia gitfitt 
apud Scoltzium coiisil. 186. * Ne com- adustam. Scol. Sal. 

296 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. sec. a. 

And yet Wecker out of Galen calls it horse-meat, and fitter 
for juments than men to feed on. But read Galen himself, 
lib. 1, De cibis boni et mali sued, more largely discoursing 
of corn and bread. 

JFme.j All black wines, over-hot, compound, strong thick 
drinks, as Muscadine, Malmsey, Alicant, Rumney, Brown- 
bastard, Metheglen, and the like, of which they have thirty 
several kinds in Muscovy, all such made drinks are hurtful 
in this case, to such as are hot, or of a sanguine choleric com 
plexion, young, or inclined to head-melancholy. For many 
times the drinking of wine alone causeth it Arculanus, 
c. 16, in 9 Rhasis, puts in l wine for a great cause, especially 
if it be immoderately used. Guianerius, tract. 15, c. 2, tells 
a story of two Dutchmen, to whom he gave entertainment hi 
his house, " that 2 in one month's space were both melancholy 
by drinking of wine," one did nought but sing, the other sigh. 
Galen, 1. de causis morb. c. 3. Matthiolus on Dioscorides, 
and above all other Andreas Bachius, /. 3, 18, 19, 20, have 
reckoned upon those inconveniences that come by wine ; yet 
notwithstanding all this, to such as are cold, or sluggish 
melancholy, a cup of wine is good physic, and so doth 
Mercurialis grant, consil. 25, in that case, if the tempera 
ture be cold, as to most melancholy men it is, wine is much 
commended, if it be moderately used. 

Cider, Perry. ~\ Cider and perry are both cold and windy 
drinks, and for that cause to be neglected, and so are all those 
hot spiced strong drinks. 

Seer."] Beer, if it be over-new or over-stale, over-strong, 
or not sodden, smell of the cask, sharp, or sour, is most un 
wholesome, frets, and galls, &c. Henricus Ayrerus, in a 
tf consultation of his, for one that laboured of hypochondriacal 
melancholy discommends beer. So doth 4 Crato in that ex 
cellent counsel of his, Lib. 2, consil. 21, as too windy, be 
cause of the hop. But he means belike that thick black 
Bohemian beer used in some other parts of 6 Germany, 

1 Vinum turbidum. * Ex Tin! paten- sptcel. fol. 278. < Crassum general 
tis Mbltione, duo Alemanl In nno mense wvngulnem. 5 About Dautzic in Spruce, 
melancholic! fact! sunt. * HUdesheim, Hamburgh, Leipsic- 

Mem. 2, subs. 1.] Causes of Melancholy. 297 

" nil spissius ilia 

Dam bibitar, nil clarius est dum mingitur, unde 
Constat, qubd multas faeces in corpore linquat." 

" Nothing comes in so thick, 
Nothing goes out so thin, 
It must needs follow then 
The dregs are left within." 

A.S that 1 old poet scoffed, calling it Stygice monstrum con- 
forme pattudi, a monstrous drink, like the river Styx. But 
let them say as they list, to such as are accustomed unto it, 
" 'tis a most wholesome (so a Polydor Virgil calleth it) and a 
pleasant drink," it is more suhtile and better, for the hop that 
rarefies it, hath an especial virtue against melancholy, as our 
herbalists confess, Fuchsius approves, Lib. 2, sec. 2, instit. 
cap. 1 1, and many others. 

Waters."] Standing waters, thick and ill-coloured; such 
as come forth of pools, and moats, where hemp hath been 
steeped, or slimy fishes live, are most unwholesome, putre 
fied, and full of mites, creepers, slimy, muddy, unclean, cor 
rupt, impure, by reason of the sun's heat, and still-standing ; 
they cause foul distemperatures in the body and mind of man, 
are unfit to make drink of, to dress meat with, or to be 8 used 
about men inwardly or outwardly. They are good for many 
domestic uses, to wash horses, water cattle, &c., or in time 
of necessity, but not otherwise. Some are of opinion, that 
such fat, standing waters make the best beer, and that seeth 
ing doth defecate it, as 4 Cardan holds, Lib. 13, subtil. " It 
mends the substance, and savour of it," but it is a paradox. 
Such beer may be stronger, but not so wholesome as the 
other, as 6 Jobertus truly justifieth out of Galen, Paradox, 
dec. 1, Paradox 5, that the seething of such impure waters 
doth not purge or purify them, Pliny, lib. 31, c. 3, is of the 
same tenet, and P. Crescentius, agricult. lib. 1, et lib. 4, c. 11, 
et c. 45. Pamphilius Herilachus, /. 4, de not. aquarum, such 

1 Henrlcus Abrincensls. apotustum d et male olentes, &c. < Innoxium 

alubris turn jucundus, 1. 1. 8 Galen, reddit et bene olentem. 5 Contendit 

1. 1, de san. tuend. Cavendse aunt aquae haec vitia coctione rum emendari. 
qajto ex stagnis kauriuntur, et qua turbi- 

298 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

waters are nought, not to be used, and by the testimony of 
1 Galen, " breed agues, dropsies, pleurisies, splenetic and mel 
ancholy passions, hurt the eyes, cause a bad temperature, and 
ill disposition of the whole body, with bad colour." This 
Jobertus stiffly maintains, Paradox, lib. 1, part. 5, that it 
causeth blear eyes, bad colour, and many loathsome diseases 
to such as use it ; this which they say, stands with good rea 
son ; for as geographers relate, the water of Astracan breeds 
worms hi such as drink it. a Axius, or as now called Ver- 
duri, the fairest river in Macedonia, makes all cattle black 
that taste of it. Aleacman, now Peleca, another stream in 
Thessaly, turns cattle most part white, si potui diicas. L. 
Aubanus Rohemus refers that * struma or poke of the Bava 
rians and Styrians to the nature of their waters, as 4 Munster 
doth that of the Valesians in the Alps, and 6 Bodine sup- 
poseth the stuttering of some families in Aquitania, about 
Labden, to proceed from the same cause, " and that the filth 
is derived from the water to their bodies." So that they that 
use filthy, standing, ill-coloured, thick, muddy water, must 
needs have muddy, ill-coloured, impure, and infirm bodies. 
And because the body works upon the mind, they shall have 
grosser understandings, dull, foggy, melancholy spirits, and 
be really subject to all manner of infirmities. 

To these noxious simples, we may reduce an infinite num 
ber of compound, artificial, made dishes, of which our cooks 
afford us a great variety, as tailors do fashions in our apparel. 
Such are * puddings stuffed with blood, or otherwise com 
posed ; baked meats, soused indurate meats, fried and broiled 
buttered meats ; condite, powdered and over-dried, 7 all cakes, 
simnels, buns, cracknels made with butter, spice, &c., fritters, 

1 Lib. de bonltate aquae, hydropem derlvantur. Edulia ex sanguine et 

anget, fehres putridaa, splenem, tosses, suffocate parta. Hildesheim. 1 Cupe- 

nocet oculis, malum habitum oorporis et dia vero, placentae, bellaria, commenta- 

colorem. * Mag. Nigritatem inducit si que alia curiosa pistorum et coquorum, 

pecora biberint. Aquas ex nivibus gustui servientium conciliant morboe 

eoactae strumosos faciunt. < Cosmog. turn corpori turn animo insanablles 

I. 3, cap. 86. * Method, hist. cap. 6, Philo Judseus, lib. de victim!*. P. JOT 

balbu".unt Labdoni in Aquitania ob vitaejtu. 
tquas, atque hi morbl ab aquis in corpora 

Slem. 2, subs. 2.] Diet, a Cause. 299 

pancakes, pies, sausages, and those several sauces, sharp, or 
over-sweet, of which scientia popince, as Seneca cidls it, hath 
served those 1 Apician tricks, and perfumed dishes, which 
Adrian the sixth Pope so much admired hi the accounts of 
his predecessor Leo decimus ; and which prodigious riot and 
prodigality have invented in this age. These do generally 
engender gross humours, fill the stomach with crudities, and all 
those inward parts with obstructions. Montanus, concil. 22, 
gives instance, in a melancholy Jew, that by eating such tart 
sauces, made dishes, and salt meats, with which he was over 
much delighted, became melancholy, and was evil affected. 
Such examples are familiar and common. 

SUBSECT. II. Quantity of Diet a Cause. 

THERE is not so much harm proceeding from the substance 
itself of meat, and quality of it, in ill-dressing and preparing, 
as there is from the quantity, disorder of time and place, un 
seasonable use of it, 2 intemperance, overmuch, or overlittle 
taking of it. A true saying it is, Plures crapula quam 
gladius, This gluttony kills more than the sword, this omni- 
vorantia et homicida ffula, this all-devouring and murdering 
gut. And that of * Pliny is truer, " Simple diet is the best ; 
heaping up of several meats is pernicious, and sauces worse ; 
many dishes bring many diseases." 4 Avicen cries out, " That 
nothing is worse than to feed on many dishes, or to protract 
the time of meats longer than ordinary ; from thence proceed 
our infirmities, and 'tis the fountain of all diseases, which arise 
out of the repugnancy of gross humours." Thence, saith 
5 Fernelius, come crudities, wind, oppilations, cacochymia, 
plethora, cachexia, bradiopepsia, * Hinc subitce mortes, atqtte 
intestata senectus, sudden death, &c., and what not. 

1 As lettuce steeped in wine, birds fed multos morbos multa fercula ferunt 

with fennel and sugar, as a Pope's concu- * 31 Dec. 2 c. Nihil detenus quam si 

bine used in Avignon, Stephan. 2 An- tern pus jus to longius comedendo protra- 

Imae negotium ilia facessit, et de templo hatur, et varia ciborum genera nonjun- 

Dii immundum stabulum lacit. Paleti- gantur: inde morborum scatnrigo, qu* 

us, 10, c. 3 Lib. 11, o. 52. Homini ex repugnantia humorum oritur. 

eibus utilissimus simplex, acervatio cibo- 1. 1, e. 14. * JUT. Sat 5. 
turn pestifera, et condimenta perniciosa, 

300 Diet, a Cause. [Part. I. sec. z 

As a lamp is choked with a multitude of oil, or a little fire 
with overmuch wood quite extinguished, so is the natural 
heat with immoderate eating, strangled in the body. Per- 
nitiosa sentina est abdomen insaturabile : one saith, An insa 
tiable paunch is a pernicious sink, and the fountain of all 
diseases, both of body and mind. 1 Mercurialis will have it 
a peculiar cause of this private disease ; Solenander, consil. 5, 
sect. 3, illustrates this of Mercurialis, with an example of one 
BO melancholy, ab intempestivis commessationibus, unseason 
able feasting. 2 Crato confirms as much, in that often cited 
Counsel, 21, lib. 2, putting superfluous eating for a maiu 
cause. But what need I seek farther for proofs? Hear 
* Hippocrates himself, Lib. 2, Aphor. 10, " Impure bodies 
the more they are nourished, the more they are hurt, for the 
nourishment is putrefied with vicious humours." 

And yet for all this harm, which apparently follows surfeit 
ing and drunkenness, see how we luxuriate and rage in this 
kind ; read what Johannes Stuckius hath written lately of 
this subject, in his great volume De Antiquorum Oonviviis, 
and of our present age ; Quam 4 portentosce coence, prodigious 
suppers, 6 Qui dum invitant ad coenam efferunt ad septdchrum, 
what Fagos, Epicures, Apetios, Heliogables, our times afford ? 
Lucullus's ghost walks still, and every man desires to sup in 
Apollo ; jEsop's costly dish is ordinarily served up. * Magis 
itta juvant, quce pluris emuntur. The dearest cates are best, 
and 'tis an ordinary thing to bestow twenty or thirty pounds 
upon a dish, some thousand crowns upon a dinner ; 7 Mully- 
Hamet, king of Fez and Morocco, spent three pounds on the 
sauce of a capon ; it is nothing in our times, we scorn all that 
is cheap. " We loathe the very 8 light (some of us, as Seneca 

1 Nimla repletio eiborum fecit melan- tomb." * Juvenal. " The hlgheat- 

eholicum. * Comestio superflua cibi, priced dishes afford the greatest gratifica- 

t potQg quantitaa nimia. * Impura tion." 1 Quiccardin. 8 Na. quaest. 

corpora quanta magis nutria, tanto magts 4, ca. ult. fastidio est lumen gratuitum, 

laedis : putre&clt enim allmentum vitl- dolet quod sole, quod spiritum emera 

osus humor. Vid. Goclen. de porten- non possimus, quod hie aer non emptua 

tnrit eoenta, Sec. Puteani Com. * Amb. ex faoili, &c., adeo nihil placet, nisi quod 

lib. de Jeju. cap. 14. ' They who invite caruui eat. 
us to our aupper, only conduct us to our 

Mem. 2, subs. 2.] Diet, a Cause. 801 

notes) because it comes free, and we are offended with the 
sun's heat, and those cool blasts, because we buy them not." 
This air we breathe is so common we care not for it ; nothing 
pleaseth but what is dear. And if we be l witty in anything, 
it is ad gulam ; If we study at all, it is erudito luxu, to please 
the palate, and to satisfy the gut " A cook of old was a base 
knave (as 3 Livy complains), but now a great man in request ; 
cookery is become an art, a noble science ; cooks are gentle 
men ; " Venter Deus ; They wear " their brains in their bellies, 
and their guts in their heads," as 'Agrippa taxed some para 
sites of his time, rushing on their own destruction, as if a 
man should run upon the point of a sword, usque dum rum- 
vantur comedunt, " They eat till they burst ; " * All day, all 
night, let the physician say what he will, imminent danger, 
and feral diseases are now ready to seize upon them, that 
will eat till they vomit, Edunt ut vomant, vomunt ut edant, 
eaith Seneca ; which Dion relates of Vitellius, Solo transitu 
ciborum nutriri judicatus ; His meat did pass through and 
away, or till they burst again. 6 Strage animantium ventrem 
onerant, and rake over all the world, as so many 'slaves, 
belly-gods, and land-serpents, Et totus orbis ventri nimis an- 
ffustus, the whole world cannot satisfy their appetite. * " Sea, 
land, rivers, lakes, &c., may not give content to their raging 
guts." To make up the mess, what immoderate drinking in 
every place ? Senem potum pota trahebat anus, how they 
flock to the tavern ; as if they were fruges consumere nati, 
born to no other end but to eat and drink, like Offellius 
Bibulus, that famous Roman parasite, Qui dum vixit, aut 
bibit aut minxit ; as so many casks to hold wine, yea worse 
than a cask, that mars wine, and itself is not marred by it ; 
yet these are brave men, Silenus Ebrius was no braver. 
Et qua fuerunt vitia, mores sunt ; 'tis now the fashion of our 
times, an honour ; Nunc verd res ista eo rediit (as Chrysost. 

1 Ingeniosi ad Gulam. 2 Olim Tile torius. * Seneca. Mancipla pulse, 

manoipium, nunc in omni aestimatione, dapes non sapore sed sumptu aestimantes. 

nunc aw haberi capta, &c. Episti Seneca consol. ad HelYidium ' Ssevi- 

28, 1. 7, quorum in Tentre ingenium, in entia guttura satiate non possunt fluvif 

Datinis, &c. * In lucem coenat. Ser- et maria. tineas Sylvius de miser, curia) 

802 Diet, a Cause. [Part. I. sec. 4 

serai. 30, in v. Ephes. comments) Ut effeminates ridendceque 
ignavice loco habeatur, nolle inebriari ; 'tis now come to that 
pass that he is no gentleman, a very milk-sop, a clown of no 
bringing up, that will not drink ; fit for no company ; he is 
your only gallant that plays it off finest, no disparagement 
now to stagger in the streets, reel, rave, &c., but much to 
his fame and renown ; as in like case Epidicus told Thesprio 
his fellow-servant, in the * Poet, jffldipol f acinus improbum, 
one urged, the other replied, At jam alii fecere idem, erit itti 
ilia res honori, 'tis now no fault, there be so many brave ex 
amples to bear one out ; 'tis a credit to have a strong bmin, 
and carry his liquor well ; the sole contention who can drink 
most, and fox his fellow the soonest. 'Tis the summum bonum 
of our tradesmen, their felicity, life, and soul, Tanta dulcedine 
ajfectant, saith Pliny, lib. 14, cap. 12, ut magna part, non 
aliud vitce prcemium inteUigat, their chief comfort, to be merry 
together in an alehouse or tavern, as our modern Muscovites 
do in their mede-inns, and Turks in their coffee-houses which 
much resemble our taverns ; they will labour hard all day, 
long to be drunk at night, and spend totius anni labores, as 
St. Ambrose adds, in a tippling feast ; convert day into night, 
as Seneca taxes some in his times, Pervertunt officia noctis et 
lucis ; when we rise, they commonly go to bed, like our an 

" Nosque ubi primus eqnis oriens afflavit anhelis, 
Illis sera rubens accendit lamina vesper." 

So did Petronius in Tacitus, Heliogabalus in Lampridius. 

* " Nocftes vigilabat ad ipsum 
Mane, diem totum stertebat." 

" He drank the night away 
Till rising dawn, then snored out all the day." 

Snymdiris the Sybarite never saw the sun rise or set so 
much as once in twenty years. Verres, against whom Tully 
o much inveighs, in winter he never was extra tectum vix 

iPlautug. *Hor. lib. 1 Sat. 8. 

Mem. 2, subs. 2.] Diet, a C'ause. 303 

extra lectum, never almost out of bed, * still wenching and 
drinking; so did he spend his time, and so do myriads in 
our days. They have gymnasia bibonum, schools and ren 
dezvous ; these centaurs and lapithae toss pots and bowls as 
so many balls ; invent new tricks, as sausages, anchovies, to 
bacco, caviare, pickled oysters, herrings, fumadoes, &c. ; in 
numerable salt meats to increase their appetite, and study 
how to hurt themselves by taking antidotes 2 " to carry their 
drink the better ; 8 and when nought else serves, they will 
go forth, or be conveyed out, to empty their gorge, that they 
may return to drink afresh." They make laws, insanas leges, 
contra bibendi faJlacias, and 4 brag of it when they have done, 
crowning that man that is soonest gone, as their drunken pred 
ecessors have done, 6 quid ego video ? Ps. Own corona 

Pseudolum ebrium tuum . And when they are dead, will 

have a can of wine with ' Maron's old woman to be engraven 
on their tombs. So they triumph in villany, and justify their 
wickedness ; with Rabelais, that French Lucian, drunkenness 
is better for the body than physic, because there be more old 
drunkards than old physicians. Many such frothy arguments 
they have, 7 inviting and encouraging others to do as they do, 
and love them dearly for it (no glue like to that of good fellow 
ship). So did Alcibiades in Greece ; Nero, Bonosus, Helio- 
gabalus in Rome, or Alegabalus rather, as he was styled of 
old (as 8 Ignatius proves out of some old coins). So do many 
great men still, as 9 Heresbachius observes. When a prince 
drinks till his eyes stare, like Bitias in the Poet, 

10 " (ille impiger hausit 
Spumantem vino pateram)." 

" a thirsty soul ; 

He took challenge and embraced the bowl 
With pleasure swill'd the gold, nor ceased to draw 
Till he the bottom of the brimmer saw." 

1 Die! breyitas conviyiis, noctia longl- rasa relnt ad ostentatlonem, fee. 

tudo stupris conterebatur. * Et quo 5 Plantus. Lib. 8. Anthcl c. 20. 

plus capiant, irritamenta excogitantur. 1 Oratiam conciliant potando. Notta 

Fores portantur ut ad conrivium repor- ad Csesares. Lib. de educandis prin- 

tontur, repleri ut exhauriant, et exhau- cipum liberis. > Virg. X. 1. 
riri ut bibant. Ambros. * Ingentia 

304 Diet, a Caust. [Part. I. sec. . 

and comes off clearly, sound trumpets, fife and drums, the 
spectators will applaud him, "the l bishop himself (if he 
belie them not) with his chaplain, will stand by and do as 
much," dignum principe haustum, 'twas done like a prince. 
" Our Dutchmen invite all comers with a pail and a dish,** 
Velut infundibula integras obbas ezhauriunt, et in monstrosis 
poculis, ipsi monstrosi monstrosius epotant, " making bar 
rels of their bellies." Incredibile dictu, as a one of their 
own countrymen complains : * Quantum liquoris immodes- 
tissima gens capiat, fyc. " How they love a man that 
will be drunk, crown him and honour him for it," hate him 
that will not pledge him, stab him, kill him ; a most intoler 
able offence, and not to be forgiven. 4 " He is a mortal 
enemy that will not drink with him," as Munster relates of 
the Saxons. So in Poland, he is the best servitor, and the 
honestest fellow, saith Alexander Gaguinus, 8 " that drinketh 
most healths to the honour of his master, he shall be re 
warded as a good servant, and held the bravest fellow that 
carries his liquor best," when a brewer's horse will bear much 
more than any sturdy drinker, yet for his noble exploits in 
this kind, he shall be accounted a most valiant man for 6 Tarn 
inter epulas fortis vir esse potest ac in bello, as much valour 
is to be found in feasting as in fighting, and some of our city 
captains, and carpet knights will make this good, and prove 
it Thus they many times wilfully pervert the good tempera 
ture of their bodies, stifle their wits, strangle nature, and 
degenerate into beasts. 

Some again are in the other extreme, and draw this mis 
chief on their heads by too ceremonious and strict diet, being 
over-precise, cockney-like, and curious in their observation 

1 Idem strennl potatoria Episcopi Sacel- immodest* gens capiat, plus potantem 

lanus, cum ingentem pateram exhaurit amicissimum habent, et gerto coronant, 

princeps. s Bohemua In Sa&^nia. Ad- inhnidssimum e contra qui non vult, et 

eo Immoderate et immodeste ab ipsig blbi- ctede et fustibus ezpiant. 4 Qui potare 

tur, ut in compotationibus suis non eya- recusat, hostis habetur, et cde nonnnn- 

tliis Holum et cantharis sat infundere quam res expiatar. 6 Qui melinfl bibit 

pogsint, ged impletum mulctrale ap- pro salute dominl, mellor habetur minia- 

ponant. et scntella injecta hortantur ter. Gnec. Poeta apud Stobseum, 

quemlibet ad libitum potare. a Dictn ser. 18. 
Incredibile, quantum hujnsce liquoris 

Stem. 2, subs. 3.] Causes of Melancholy. 305 

of meats, times, as that Medicina statica prescribes, just so 
many ounces at dinner, which Lessius enjoins, so much at 
supper, not a little more, nor a little less, of such meat, and 
at such hours, a diet-drink in the morning, cock-broth, China- 
broth, at dinner, plum-broth, a chicken, a rabbit, rib of a rack 
of mutton, wing of a capon, the merry-thought of a hen, &c. ; 
to sounder bodies this is too nice and most absurd. Others 
offend in overmuch fasting ; pining adays, saith 1 Guianerius, 
and waking anights, as many Moors and Turks in these our 
times do. " Anchorites, monks, and the rest of that supersti 
tious rank (as the same Guianerius witnesseth, that he hath 
often seen to have happened in his tune) through immoderate 
fasting, have been frequently mad." Of such men belike 
Hippocrates speaks, 1 Aphor. 5, when as he saith, 3 " They 
more offend in too sparing diet, and are worse damnified, 
than they that feed liberally, and are ready to surfeit. 

SUBSECT. HI. Custom of Diet, Delight, Appetite, Necessity, 
how they cause or hinder. 

No rule is so general, which admits not some exception ; 
to this, therefore, which hath been hitherto said (for I shall 
otherwise put most men out of commons), and those incon 
veniences which proceed from the substance of meats, an 
intemperate or unseasonable use of them, custom somewhat 
detracts and qualifies, according to that of Hippocrates 2, 
Aphorism. 50, 8 " Such things as we have been long accus 
tomed to, though they be evil in their own nature yet they 
are less offensive." Otherwise it might well be objected that 
it were a mere 4 tyranny to live after those strict rules of 
physic ; for custom 6 doth alter nature itself, and to such a? 
are used to them it makes bad meats wholesome, and unseason 
able times to cause no disorder. Cider and perry are windy 

1 Qui de die jejunant, et nocte vigilant, victu eegri delinquunt, ex quo fit nt ma- 

facile cadunt in melancholiam ; et qui jorl afficiantur detrimento, majorque fit 

naturae modum excedunt, c. 5, tract. 15, error tenni quam pleniore victu. Qua 

e. 2. Longa famis tolerantia, nt its 8tepe longo tempore consueta eunt, etiamsi de- 

accidit qui tanto cum ferrore Deo serrire teriora, minus in assuetis moles tara 

eupiunt per jejunium, quod maniac! cffl- solent. 4 Qui medice vivit, misere 

eiantur, ipse ridi saepe. * In tenui ririt. 5 Consuetude alter* ruitura. 

VOL. I. 20 

806 Catcses of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a 

drinks, so are all fruits windy in themselves, cold most part, 
yet in some shires of * England, Normandy in France, 
Guipuscoa in Spain, 'tis their common drink, and they are no 
whit offended with it. In Spain, Italy, and Africa, they live 
most on roots, raw herbs, camel's 9 milk, and it agrees well 
with them ; which to a stranger will cause much grievance. 
In Wales, lacticiniis vescuntur, as Humphrey Llwyd con- 
fesseth, a Cambro-Briton himself, in his elegant epistle to 
Abraham Ortelius, they live most on white meats ; in Hol 
land on fish, roots, * butter ; and so at this day in Greece, as 

* Bellonius observes, they had much rather feed on fish than 
flesh. With us, Maxima pars victus in came consistit, we 
feed on flesh most part, saith 4 Polydor Virgil, as all northern 
countries do ; and it would be very offensive to us to live 
after their diet, or they to live after ours. We drink beer, 
they wine ; they use oil, we butter ; we hi the north are 

* great eaters ; they most sparing in those hotter countries ; 
and yet they and we following our own customs are well 
pleased. An Ethiopian of old seeing an European eat bread, 
wondered, guomodo stercoribus vescentes viverimus, how we 
could eat such kind of meats ; so much differed his country 
men from ours in diet, that as mine f author infers, si quis 
ittorum victum apud nos eemulari vettet ; if any man should 
so feed with us, it would be all one to nourish, as Cicuta, 
Aconitum, or Hellebore itself. At this day in China, the 
common people live in a manner altogether on roots and 
herbs, and to the wealthiest, horse, ass, mule, dogs, cat-flesh, 
is as delightsome as the rest, so * Mat. Riccius the Jesuit 
relates, who lived many years amongst them. The Tartars 

1 Herefordshire, Gloucestershire, Wor- land. Muscovy, and thorn northern parts, 

eestershire. - Leo Afer. 1. 1, solo came- t Suidas vict. Herod, nihilo cum eo mell- 

lorum lacte content!, nil praterea delicla- us quam si quis Cicntam. Aconitum, &c. 

rum ambiunt. ' Flandri vinum butyro Ezpedit. in Sinus, lib. 1, c. 8, hortenri- 

dllutum bibunt (nauseo referens) ubique um herbarum et olerum, apud Sinai 

butyrum inter omnia feroula et bellarta quam apud nos longe frequentlor usus, 

locum obtinet. Steph praefat. Herod, complures quippe de vulgo reperias nulli 

* Delectantur Oneci piscibus magls quam alia re Tel tenui tatis. Tel religionis causa 

earnibus * Lib. 1. hist. Ang. & P. vescentes. Equus, Mulus, Asellus, &c., 

Jovius detcript. Bntonum. They sit, aeque fere vescuntur ac pabula omnia, 

Mt and drink al' day at dinner in Ice- Mat. Riccius, lib. 5, cap. 12. 

Mem. 2, subs. 8.] Causes of Melancholy, 307 

eat raw meat, and most commonly * horse-flesh, drink milk 
and blood, as the Nomades of old. Et lac concretum cum 
sanguine potat equino. They scoff" at our Europeans for eat 
ing bread, which they call tops of weeds, and horse meat, not 
fit for men; and yet Scaliger accounts them a sound and 
witty nation, living a hundred years ; even in the civilest 
country of them they do thus, as Benedict the Jesuit ob 
served in his travels, from the great Mogul's Court by land 
to Pekin, which Riccius contends to be the same with Cam- 
bula in Cataia, In Scandia their bread is usually dried fish, 
and so likewise in the Shetland isles ; and their other fare, as 
in Iceland, saith 2 Dithmarus Bleskenius, butter, cheese, and 
fish; their drink water, their lodging on the ground. In 
America in many places their bread is roots, their meat 
palmitos, pinas, potatoes, &c., and such fruits. There be of 
them too that familiarly drink * salt sea-water all their lives, 
eat f raw meat, grass, and that with delight "With some, 
fish, serpents, spiders ; and in divers places they * eat man's 
flesh, raw and roasted, even the Emperor * Montezuma him 
self. In some coasts, again, 6 one tree yields them cocoa- 
nuts, meat and drink, fire, fuel, apparel ; with his leaves, oil, 
vinegar, cover for houses, &c., and yet these men going 
naked, feeding coarse, live commonly a hundred years, are 
seldom or never sick ; all which diet our physicians forbid. 
In "Westphalia they feed most part on fat meats and wourts, 
knuckle deep, and call it * cerebrum lovis ; in the Low Coun 
tries with roots, in Italy frogs and snails are used. The 
Turks, saith Busbequius, delight most in fried meats. In 
Muscovy, garlic and onions are ordinary meat and sauce, 
which would be pernicious to such as are unaccustomed to 
them, delightsome to others ; and all is T because they have 

1 Tartar! mulis.equlgYescunfrnretcrudis Ind. descrlpt. lib. 11, cap. 10. Aquam 

earnibus, et fruges contemnunt, dicentes, marfnam Inhere, sueti absque noxl. 

hoc jumentorum pabulum et bourn, non t Davies 2, voyage. * Patagones. 

hominum. Islandise descriptlone, 4 Benzo et Fer. Cortesius lib. novus orbii 

victus eorum butyro, lacte, caseo consis- inscrlp. 6 Linscoften, c. 56, palmee in- 

Mt ; places loco panls habent, potug, aqua star to this orbisarboribus longe prsestan- 

aut serum, sic vivunt sine medicina tior. * Lips, epist. T Teneris assn 

multi ad annos 200 * Laet. Occident, escere multum. 

308 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. X 

been brought up unto it. Husbandmen, and such as labour, 
can eat fat bacon, salt gross meat, hard cheese, &c., ( dura 
messorum ilia), coarse bread at all times, go to bed and labour 
upon a full stomach, which to some idle persons would be 
present death, and is against the rules of physic, so that cus 
tom is all in all. Our travellers find this by common experi 
ence when they come in far countries, and use their diet, 
they are suddenly offended, * as our Hollanders and English 
men when they touch upon the coasts of Africa, those Indian 
capes and islands, are commonly molested with calentures, 
fluxes, and much distempered by reason of their fruits. 
* Peregrina, etsi suavia, solent vescentibus perturbationes in- 
signes adferre, strange meats, though pleasant, cause notable 
alterations and distempers. On the other side, use or custom 
mitigates or makes all good again. Mithridates by often use, 
which Pliny wonders at, was able to drink poison ; and a 
maid, as Curtius records, sent to Alexander from K. Porus, 
was brought up with poison from her infancy. The Turks, 
saith Bellonius, lib. 3, c. 15, eat opium familiarly, a drachm 
at once, which we dare not take in grains. * Garcius ab 
Horto writes of one whom he saw at Goa in the East Indies, 
that took ten drachms of opium in three days ; and yet con- 
tulto loquebatur, spake understandingly, so much can custom 
do. 4 Theophrastus speaks of a shepherd that could eat helle 
bore in substance. And therefore Cardan concludes out of 
Galen, Consuetudinem tttcungue ferendam, nisi valde malam. 
Custom is howsoever to be kept, except it be extremely bad ; 
he adviseth all men to keep their old customs, and that by the 
authority of * Hippocrates himself, Dandum aliquid tempori, 
cetati, regioni, consuetudini, and therefore to "continue as 
they began, be it diet, bath, exercise, &c., or whatsoever 

Another exception is delight, or appetite, to such and such 

1 Repentinae mntationes noxam part- 1. 8, e. 19, praz. med. * Aphorism . 17 

ant. Hippocmt. Aphorism. 21, Epist. * In dubiin conauetndinem sequatur ado 

6, sect. 8. * Bruerlnus, lib. 1, cap. 28. lescens, et inoeptls penerreret. 
> Simpl. med. o. 4, L 1. * Heurnius, 

Mem. 2, subs. 4.] Retention and Evacuation, Causes. 309 

meats; though they be hard of digestion, melancholy; yet as 
Fuchsius excepts cap. 6, lib. 2, Institut sect. 2. * " The 
stomach doth really digest, and willingly entertain such meata 
we love most, and are pleasing to us, abhors on the other 
side such as we distaste." Which Hippocrates confirms, 
Aphorism. 2, 38. Some cannot endure cheese out of a 
secret antipathy, or to see a roasted duck, which to others is 
a a delightsome meat. 

The last exception is necessity, poverty, want, hunger, 
which drives men many tunes to do that which otherwise 
they are loth, cannot endure, and thankfully to accept of it ; 
as beverage in ships, and in sieges of great cities, to feed on 
dogs, cats, rats, and men themselves. Three outlaws in 
8 Hector Boethius, being driven to their shifts, did eat raw 
flesh, and flesh of ?uch fowl as they could catch, in one of the 
Hebrides for some few months. These things do mitigate or 
disannul that which hath been said of melancholy meats, and 
make it more tolerable ; but to such as are wealthy, live 
plenteously, at ease, may take their choice, and refrain if 
they will, these viands are to be forborne, if they be inclined 
to, or suspect melancholy, as they tender their healths; 
Otherwise if they be intemperate, or disordered in their diet, 
at their peril be it. Qui monet amot, Ave et cave. 

He who advises is your friend, 
Farewell, and to your health attend 

STTBSECT. IV. Retention and Evacuation a cause, and how. 

OF retention and evacuation, there be divers kinds, which 
are either concomitant, assisting, or sole causes many times 
of melancholy. 4 Galen reduceth defect and abundance to 
this head; others 6 "A11 that is separated, or remains." 

Costiveness.'] In the first rank of these, I may well reckon 
up costiveness, and keeping in of our ordinary excrements, 

1 Qui cum Tolnptate assumuntur cibi, stomach, as the saying is. * Lib. 7, 

Tentrlculus ayidius complectitur, expe- Hist. Scot. * 90, artis. & Qua J 

dltiusque concoquit, et quse displicent cernuntur aut subsiutunt 
aversatut. - Nothing against a good 

310 Retention and Evacuation, Causes. [Part. I. sec. z. 

which as it often causeth other diseases, so this of melancholy 
in particular. * Celsus, lib. 1, cap. 3, saith, " It produceth 
inflammation of the head, dulness, cloudiness, headache, &c.' 
Prosper Calenus, lib. de atrd bile, will have it distemper not 
the organ only, 3 " but the mind itself by troubling of it ; " 
and sometimes it is a sole cause of madness, as you may read 
in the first book of * Skenkius's Medicinal Observations. A 
young merchant going to Nordeling fair in Germany, for ten 
days' space never went to stool ; at his return he was 
4 grievously melancholy, thinking that he was robbed, and 
would not be persuaded but that all his money was gone ; 
his friends thought he had some philtrum given him, but 
Cnelius, a physician, being sent for, found his "costiveness 
alone to be the cause, and thereupon gave him a clyster, by 
which he was speedily recovered. Trincavellius, consult. 
35, lib. 1, saith as much of a melancholy lawyer, to whom he 
administered physic, and Rodericus a Fonseca, consult, 85, 
torn. 2,* of a patient of his, that for eight days was bound, 
and therefore melancholy affected. Other retentions and 
evacuations there are, not simply necessary, but at some 
times ; as Fernelius accounts them. Path. lib. 1, cap. 15, 
as suppression of haemorrhoids, or monthly issues in women, 
bleeding at nose, immoderate or no use at all of Venus ; or 
any other ordinary issues. 

6 Detention of haemorrhoids, or monthly issues, Villano- 
vanus Breviar. lib. 1, cap. 18, Arculanus, cap. 16, in 9. 
Rhasis, Vittorius Faventinus, pract. mag. Tract. 2, cap. 15, 
Bruel, &c., put for ordinary causes. Fuchsius, 1. 2, sect. 5, c. 
30, goes farther, and saith, 7 " That many men unseasonably 
cured of the haemorrhoids have been corrupted with melan 
choly, seeking to avoid Scylla, they fall into Charybdis. 
Galen, 1. de hum. commen. 3, ad text. 26, illustrates this by an 

1 Ex Tentre suppresso. inflammations, dies alvnm slccum habet, et nihil reddlt. 

eapltisdolores,caliginescrescunt. *Ex- Siye per nares, sire hsemorrhoides. 

crementa retenta mentis agitationem par- 1 Multi intempestiye ab hsemorrhoidibuj 

ere solent. ' Cap. de Mel. * Tarn curati, melancholia corrupt! aunt. IP- 

,leliru<>. ut vix se bomlnem agnosceret. cidit in Scyllam, &c 
i Alrus as t rictus causa. * Per octo 

Mem. 2, subs. 4.] Retention and Evacuation, Causes. 311 

example of Lucius Martius, whom he cured of madness, 
contracted by this means ; And * Skenkius hath two other 
instances of two melancholy and mad women, so caused from 
the suppression of their months. The same may be said of 
bleeding at the nose, if it be suddenly stopped, and have 
been formerly used, as 2 Villanovanus urgeth ; And 8 Fuch- 
sius, lib. 2, sect. 5, cap. 33, stiffly maintains " That without 
great danger, such an issue may not be stayed." 

Venus omitted produceth like effects. Mathiolus, epist. 5, 
1, penult. 4 "avoucheth of his knowledge, that some through 
bashfulness abstained from venery, and thereupon became 
very heavy and dull ; and some others that were very timo 
rous, melancholy, and beyond all measure sad." Oribasius, 
med. cbttect. I. 6, c. 37, speaks of some, 6 " That if they do not 
use carnal copulation, are continually troubled with heaviness 
and headache ; and some in the same case by intermission of 
it." Not use of it hurts many, Arculanus, c. 6, in 9. Rhasis, 
et Magninus, part. 3, cap. 5, think, because it 8 " sends up 
poisonous vapours to the brain and heart." And so doth 
Galen himself hold, " That if this natural seed be over-long 
kept (in some parties), it turns to poison." Hieronymus Mer- 
curialis, in his chapter of Melancholy, cites it for an especial 
cause of this malady, 7 Priapismus, Satyriasis, &c., Haliabbas, 
5 Theor. c. 36, reckons up this and many other diseases, 
Villanovanus Breviar. /. 1, c. 18, saith, "He knew 8 many 
monks and widows grievously troubled with melancholy, and 
that for this sole cause." 'Lodovicus Mercatus, I. 2, de 
mulierum affect, cap. 4, and Rodericus a Castro, de morbis 
mulier. I. 2, c. 3, treat largely of this subject, and will have 
it produce a peculiar kind of melancholy in stale maids, nuns, 

1 Lib. 1, de Mania. - Breviar. 1. 7, tristes et Ita factos ex intermissione Vene- 

e. 18. 8 Non sine magno incommodo ris. Vapores venemtos mittit sperma 

ejus, cui sanguis a naribus promanat. ad cor et cerebrum. Sperma plus diu re- 

noxii sanguinis vacuatio impediri potesti tentum, transit in venenum. 7 Graves 

1 Novi quosdam prse pudore i coitu ab- producit corporis et animi aegritudines. 

stinentes. torpidos, pigrosque factos; 8 Ex spermate supra modum retentomon- 

nonnullos etiam melancholicos, prater achos et viduas melancholicos spe fieri 

modum moestos, timidosque. & Non- vidi. ' Melancholia orta a vasis semi 

nulli nisi coeant, assidue capitis gravitate nariis in utero. 
Infestantur. Dicit se novisse quosdam 

812 Retention and Evacuation, Causes. [Part. I. sec. x 

and widows, Ob suppressionem mensium et venerem omissam, 
ttmidee, mcestte, anxia, verecundee, suspiciosce, languentes, con- 
silii inopes, cum summa vitce et rerum meliorum desperatione, 
fyc., they are melancholy in the highest degree, and all for 
want of husbands. .^Elianus Montaltus, cap. 37, de melanchol. 
confirms as much out of Galen ; so doth Wierus, Christoferus 
a Vega de art. med. lib. 3, c. 14, relates many such examples 
of men and women, that he had seen so melancholy. Foalix 
Plater, in the first book of his Observations, * " tells a story 
of an ancient gentleman in Alsatia, that married a young 
wife, and was not able to pay his debts in that kind for a long 
time together, by reason of his several infirmities ; but she, 
because of this inhibition of Venus, fell into a horrible fury, 
and desired every one that came to see her, by words, looks, 
and gestures, to have to do with her," &c. a Bernardus Pa- 
ternus, a physician, saith, " He knew a good honest, godly 
priest, that because he would neither willingly marry, nor 
make use of the stews, fell into grievous melancholy fits." 
Hildesheim, spicel. 2, hath such another example of an Ital 
ian melancholy priest, in a consultation had Anno 1580. 
Jason Pratensis gives instance in a married man, that from 
his wife's death abstaining, 8 " after marriage, became exceed 
ingly melancholy," Rodericus a Fonseca in a young man so 
misaflfected, Tom. 2, consult. 85. To these you may add, if 
you please, that conceited tale of a Jew, so visited in like 
sort, and so cured, out of Poggius Florentinus. 

Intemperate Venus is all but as bad in the other extreme. 
Galen, /. 6, de morbis popular, sect. 5, text. 26, reckons up 
melancholy amongst those diseases which are 4 " exasperated 
by venery ;" so doth Avicenna, 2, 3, c. 11. Oribasius, loc. 
citat. Ficinus, lib. 2, de sanitate tuendd. Marsilius Cogna- 

> Nobilis 0enex Alsatus juvenem ux- sentirent, moloesos AnglicanOB maeno 

orem duxit, at Hie colico dolore, et mul- expetilt clamore. * Vidi aacerdotein 

tis morbis correptus, non potuit prsestare optimum et plum, qul quod nollet uti 

offlcium inuriti. vix Inito matrimonio Vencre, in melancholica symptomata in- 

aegrotug. Ilia in horrendum furorera cidit. 3 Ob abstinentiain & concubitn 

Incidit, ob Venerem cohibitam, nt ornni- Incidit in melanchollam. * Quaa I 

am earn invisentium congressum, voce, coitu exacerbantur. 
nilto, gestu expeteret, et quum non con- 

Mem. 2, sabs. 4.] Retention and Evacuation, Causes. 313 

tus, Montaltus, cap. 27. Guianerius, Tract. 3, cap. 2. Mag 
ninus, cap. 5, part. 3, * gives the reason, because 2 " it infrigi- 
dates and dries up the body, consumes the spirits, and would 
therefore have all such as are cold and dry to take heed of 
and to avoid it as a mortal enemy." Jacchinus in 9 Rhasis, 
cap. 15, ascribes the same cause, and instanceth in a patient 
of his, that married a young wife in a hot summer, 8 " and so 
dried himself with chamber-work, that he became in short 
space from melancholy, mad ; " he cured him by moistening 
remedies. The like example I find in Laelius a Fonte Eu- 
gubinus, consult. 129, of a gentleman of Venice, that upon 
the same occasion was first melancholy, afterwards mad. 
Read in him the story at large. 

Any other evacuation stopped will cause it, as well as these 
above named, be it bile, 4 ulcer, issue, &c. Hercules de Sax- 
onia, lib. 1, c. 16, and Gordonius, verify this out of their ex 
perience. They saw one wounded in the head, who as long 
as the sore was open, Lucida kabuit mentis intervaUa, was 
well ; but when it was stopped, Rediit melancholia, his mel 
ancholy fit seized on him again. 

Artificial evacuations are much like in effect, as hot houses, 
baths, bloodletting, purging, unseasonably and immoderately 
used. 6 Baths dry too much, if used in excess, be they nat 
ural or artificial, and offend extreme hot or cold ; ' one dries, 
the other refrigerates overmuch. Montanus, consil. 137, 
saith, they overheat the liver. Joh. Struthius, Stigmat. artis. 
I. 4, c. 9, contends, * " that if one stays longer than ordinary 
at the bath, go in too oft, or at unseasonable times, he putre 
fies the humours in his body." To this purpose writes 
Magninus, I. 3, c. 5. Guianerius, Tract. 15, c. 21, utterly 
disallows all hot baths in melancholy adust 8 " I saw (saith he) 

' Superfluum coitum causam ponunt. reddunt corpus. t SI quis longiui 

* corpus, spiritug consumit, &c., moretur in iis, aut nimis frequenter, aut 

taveant ab hoc sicci, yelut inimico mor- importune utatur, humores putrefacit. 

tali. s jta exsiccatus ut e melancholico 8 Ego anno superiors, quendiftn gutto- 

gtatim fuerit insanus, ab humectantibus sum vidi adustum, qui ut liberaretur d 

curatus. * Ex cauterio et ulcere ex- gutta, ad balnea accessit, et de gutta lib 

siccato. & Gord. c. 10, lib. 1. Discom- eratus, maniacus factus est. 
mouda cold baths as noxious. 6 Siccum 

314 detention and Evacuation, Causes. [Part. I. sec. 1 

a man that laboured of the gout, who to be freed of his mal 
ady came to the bath, and was instantly cured of his disease, 
but got another worse, and that was madness." But this 
judgment varies as the humour doth, in hot or cold ; baths 
may be good for one melancholy man, bad for another ; that 
which will cure it in this party, may cause it in a second. 

Phlebotomy.] Phlebotomy, many times neglected, may do 
much harm to the body, when there is a manifest redundance 
of bad humours, and melancholy blood ; and when these hu 
mours heat and boil, if this be not used in time, the parties 
affected, so inflamed, are in great danger to be mad ; but if 
it be unadvisedly, importunely, immoderately used, it doth as 
much harm by refrigerating the body, dulling the spirits, and 
consuming them ; as Joh. x Curio in his 10th Chapter well 
reprehends, such kind of letting blood doth more hurt than 
good ; 2 " The humours rage much more than they did before, 
and is so far from avoiding melancholy, that it increaseth it, 
and weakeneth the sight." "Prosper Calenus observes as 
much of all phlebotomy, except they keep a very good diet 
after it ; yea, and as * Leonartus Jacchinus speaks out of his 
own experience, 6 " The blood is much blacker to many men 
after their letting of blood than it was at first." For this 
cause belike Salust. Salvinianus, 1. 2, c. 1, will admit or hear 
of no bloodletting at all in this disease, except it be man 
ifest it proceed from blood ; he was (it appears) by his own 
words in that place, master of an hospital of mad men, 
6 " and found by long experience, that this kind of evacua 
tion, either in head, arm, or any other part, did more harm 
than good." To this opinion of his, * Felix Plater is quite 

1 On Schola Salernitana. * Calefactio spiritus debilitatnr inde, et ego longft ex 

et ebullitio per venae incisionem. magis perientii observavi in proprio Xenodo- 

saepe incitatur et augetur, majore impetu cbio. quod desipientes ex phlebotomia 

humores per corpus discurrunt. 8 Lib. magis laeduntur, et magis desipiunt, et 

de flatulenta Melancholia. Frequens melancholic! ssepe flunt inde pejores. 

sanguinis missio corpus extenuat. * In * De mentis alienat. cap. 8, etsi niultog 

9 Rhasis. atram bilem parit, et visum de- hoc improblsse sciam. innumeros hc 

billtat. * Multo nigrior spectatur san- ratione sanatos longi observation cog- 

fuis poet dies quosdam, quim fuit ab ini- novi, qui vicies, sexagies venas tunden 

f .lo. o jfon laudo eos qui in desipientia do, so. 
decent wcandam ease venam frontis, quia 

Mem. 2, subs. 5.] Bad Air, a Cause. 315 

opposite, " though some wink at, disallow, and quite contra 
dict all phlebotomy in melancholy, yet by long experience 
I have found innumerable so saved, after they had been 
twenty, nay, sixty times let blood, and to live happily after it. 
It was an ordinary thing of old, in Galen's time, to take at 
once from such men six pounds of blood, which now we dare 
scarce take in ounces ; sed viderint medici ; " great books are 
written of this subject. 

Purging upward and downward, in abundance of bad 
humours omitted, may be for the worst ; so likewise as in the 
precedent, if overmuch, too frequent or violent, it l weakeneth 
their strength, saith Fuchsius, L 2, sect. 2, c. 17, or if they be 
strong or able to endure physic, yet it brings them to an ill 
habit, they make their bodies no better than apothecaries' 
shops, this and such like infirmities must needs follow. 

SUBSECT. V. Bad Air, a Cause of Melancholy. 

AIR is a cause of great moment, in producing this, or any 
other disease, being that it is still taken into our bodies by 
respiration, and our more inner parts. 2 " If it be impure and 
foggy, it dejects the spirits, and causeth diseases by infection 
of the heart," as Paulus hath it, lib. 1, c. 49. Avicenna lib. 
1. Gal. de son. tuendd. Mercurialis, Montaltus, &c., 8 Fer- 
nelius saith, " A thick air thickeneth the blood and humours." 
4 Lemnius reckons up two main things most profitable, and 
most pernicious to our bodies ; air and diet ; and this peculiar 
disease, nothing sooner causeth ( 6 Jobertus holds) " than the 
air wherein we breathe and live." * Such as is the air, such 
be our spirits ; and as our spirits, such are our humours. It 
offends commonly if it be too 6 hot and dry, thick, fuliginous, 
cloudy, blustering, or a tempestuous air. Bodine in his fifth 
Book, De repub. cap. 1, 5, of his Method of History, proves 
that hot countries are most troubled with melancholy, and 

' Vires debilitat. Impurus aSr hitur humor melancholicns. * Qualii 

vpiritus (lejicit, infecto corde glgnit mor- aer, talis spiritus : et cujusmodi spiritus 

bos. 3 Sanguinem densat. et humores, humores. ./Elianus Montaltus, cap 

P. 1, c. 18. 4 Lib. 3, cap. 8. 6 Lib. 11, calidus et siccus, frigidus et sfcetu 

de quartana. Ex acre ambiente contra- paludinosus, crassus. 

316 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 3. 

that there are therefore in Spain, Africa, and Asia Minor 
great numbers of mad men, insomuch that they are com 
pelled in all cities of note, to build peculiar hospitals for 
them. Leo 1 Afer, lib. 3, de Fessa urbe, Ortelius and Zuin- 
ger, confirm as much ; they are ordinarily so choleric in their 
speeches, that scarce two words pass without railing or chid 
ing in common talk, and often quarrelling in the streets. 
8 Grordonius will have every man take notice of it : " Note 
this (saith he) that in hot countries it is far more familiar 
than in cold." Although this we have now said be not con 
tinually so, for as 8 Acosta truly saith, under the Equator 
itself, is a most temperate habitation, wholesome air, a para 
dise of pleasure ; the leaves ever green, cooling showers. 
But it holds in such as are intemperately hot, as * Johannes 
a Meggen found in Cyprus, others in Malta, Apulia, and the 

* Holy Land, where at some seasons of the year is nothing 
but dust, their rivers dried up, the air scorching hot, and 
earth inflamed ; insomuch that many pilgrims going barefoot 
for devotion sake, from Joppa to Jerusalem upon the hot 
sands, often run mad, or else quite overwhelmed with sand, 
profundis arenis, as in many parts of Africa, Arabia Deserta, 
Bactriana, now Charassan, when the west wind blows 
t Involuti arenis transeuntes necantur. 6 Hercules de Saxonia, 
a professor in Venice, gives this cause why so many Venetian 
women are melancholy, Quod diu sub sole degant, they tarry 
too long in the sun. Montanus, consil. 21, amongst other 
causes assigns this ; Why that Jew his patient was mad, 
Quod tarn multum exposuit se calori et frigori : he exposed 
himself so much to heat and cold, and for that reason in 
Venice, there is little stirring in those brick paved streets in 
summer about noon, they are most part then asleep ; as they 
are likewise in the great Mogol's countries, and all over the 

1 Malta hie In XenodochJts fanaticorum ut ante flnem Mali pene exusta sit. 

tnlllia qua strictissime catenate, gervan- t" They perish in clouds of sand." Ma- 

tur. * Lib. med. part. 2, cap. 19. In- ginus Pers. * Pantheo seu Pract. med. 

tellige, quod in calidia regionibus, fre- 1. 1. cap. 16. Venetse mulieres, quae diu 

quenter accidit mania, in frigidis autem sub sole vivunt, aliquando melancholic* 

tarde. * Lib. 2. * Hodopericon, cap. 7. eradunt. 

* Apulia sestiyo calore maiime fervet, ita 

Mem 2, subs. 6.] Bad Air, a Cause. 317 

East Indies. At Aden in Arabia, as * Lodovicus Vertoman- 
nus relates in his travels, they keep their markets in the 
night, to avoid extremity of heat ; and in Ormus, like cattle 
in a pasture, people of all sorts lie up to the chin in water all 
day long. At Braga in Portugal ; Burgos in Castile ; Mes 
sina in Sicily, all over Spain and Italy, their streets are most 
part narrow, to avoid the sunbeams. The Turks wear great 
turbans ad fugandos solis radios, to refract the sunbeams ; 
and much inconvenience that hot air of Bantam in Java 
yields to our men, that sojourn there for traffic ; where it ia 
so hot, 2 " that they that are sick of the pox, lie commonly 
bleaching in- the sun to dry up their sores." Such a com 
plaint I read of those isles of Cape Verde, fourteen degrees 
from the Equator, they do male audire ; * One calls them 
the unhealthiest clime of the world, for fluxes, fevers, fren 
zies, calentures, which commonly seize on seafaring men that 
touch at them, and all by reason of a hot distemperature of 
the air. The hardiest men are offended with this heat, and 
stiffest clowns cannot resist it, as Constantine affirms, AgricuU. 
I. 2. c. 45. They that are naturally born in such air, may 
not 'endure it, as Niger records of some part of Mesopo 
tamia, now called Diarbecha: Quibusdam in locis scevienti 
cestui adeo subfecta est, ut pleraque animalia fervore solis et 
cceli extinguantur, 'tis so hot there in some places, that men 
of the country and cattle are killed with it ; and f Adrico- 
mius of Arabia Felix, by reason of myrrh, frankincense, and 
hot spices there growing, the air is so obnoxious to their 
brains, that the very inhabitants at some times cannot avoid 
it, much less weaklings and strangers. % Amatus Lusitanus, 
cent. 1, cur at. 45, reports of a young maid, that was one Vin 
cent a currier's daughter, some thirteen years of age, that 
would wash her hair hi the heat of the day (in July) and so 
let it dry in the sun, 4 " to make it yellow, but by that means 

1 Navig. lib. 2, cap. 4, commercia nocte kins in his Observations, sect. 13. * Hip- 
bora secundft, ob nimios qui Bieviunt in- pocrates, 3. Aphorismorum idem ait. 
terdiu sestus, exercent. * Morbo Galli- t Idem Maginus in Persia. t Descript. 
co laborantes, exponunt ad solem ut Ter. sanctae. 4 Quum ad solis radios in 
morbos exsiccent. * Sir Richard Haw- leone longam moram traheret, ut capillof 

318 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2 

tarrying too long in the heat, she inflamed her head, and 
made herself mad." 

Cold air in the other extreme is almost as bad as hot, and 
so doth Montaltus esteem of it, c. 11, if it be dry withal. In 
those northern countries, the people are therefore generally 
dull, heavy, and many witches, which (as I have before quoted) 
Saxo Grammaticus, Olaus, Baptista Porta ascribe to melan 
choly. But these cold climes are more subject to natural 
melancholy (not this artificial) which is cold and dry; for 
wliich cause 1 Mercurius Britannicus belike puts melancholy 
men to inhabit just under the Pole. The worst of the three 
is a 2 thick, cloudy, misty, foggy air, or such as come from 
fens, moorish grounds, hikes, muckhills, draughts, sinks, where 
any carcasses or carrion lies, or from whence any stinking 
fulsome smell comes; Galen, Avicenna, Mercurialis, new 
and old physicians, hold that such air is unwholesome, and 
engenders melancholy, plagues, and what not ? 8 Alexan- 
dretta an haven-town in the Mediterranean Sea, Saint John 
de Ulloa, an haven in Nova-Hispania, are much condemned 
for a bad air, so are Durazzo in Albania, Lithuania, Dit- 
marsh, Pomptinae Paludes in Italy, the territories about Pisa, 
Ferrara, &c., Romney Marsh with us ; the Hundreds in 
Essex, the fens in Lincolnshire. Cardan, de rerum varietate, 
L 17. c. 96, finds fault with the sight of those rich, and most 
populous cities in the Low Countries, as Bruges, Ghent, 
Amsterdam, Leyden, Utrecht, &c., the air is bad ; and so at 
Stockholm in Sweden ; Regium in Italy, Salisbury with us, 
Hull and Lynn; they may be commodious for navigation, 
this new kind of fortification, and many other good necessary 
uses; but are they so wholesome? Old Rome hath de 
scended from the hills to the valley, 'tis the site of most of 
our new cities, and held best to build in plains, to take the 
opportunity of rivers. Leander Albertus pleads hard for the 
air and site of Venice, though the black Moorish lands ap- 

flfiTos redderet, In manlam incidit. aer, trUtem efflcit animam. 8 <v>m- 
I Mundus alter et idem, seu Terra Ana- monly called Scandaroon in Asia Minor 
trails incognita. * Crassus et turbidus 

Mem. 2, subs. 6.] Bad Air, a Cause. 319 

pear at every low water; the sea, fire, and smoke (as he 
thinks) qualify the air; and 1 some suppose that a thick 
foggy air helps the memory, as in them of Pisa hi Italy; 
and our Cambden, out of Plato, commends the site of Cam 
bridge, because it is so near the fens. But let the site of 
such places be as it may, how can they be excused that have 
a delicious seat, a pleasant air, and all that nature can afford, 
and yet through their own nastiness, and sluttishness, im- 
mund and sordid manner of life, suffer their air to putrefy, 
and themselves to be choked up ? Many cities in Turkey do 
male audire in this kind ; Constantinople itself, where com 
monly carrion lies in the street. Some find the same fault 
in Spain, even in Madrid, the king's seat, a most excellent 
air, a pleasant site ; but the inhabitants are slovens, and the 
streets uncleanly kept 

A troublesome, tempestuous air is as bad as impure, rough 
and foul weather, impetuous winds, cloudy dark days, as it is 
commonly with us, Ccelum visit foedum, 2 Polydore calls it a 
filthy sky, et in quo facile generantur nubes ; as Tulles 
brother Quintus wrote to him in Rome, being then Quaestor 
in Britain. " In a thick and cloudy air (saith Lemnius) men 
are tetric, sad, and peevish ; And if the western winds blow, 
and that there be a calm, or a fair sunshine day, there is 
a kind of alacrity in men's minds ; it cheers up men and 
beasts ; but if it be a turbulent, rough, cloudy, stormy weath 
er, men are sad, lumpish, and much dejected, angry, waspish, 
dull, and melancholy." This was 'Virgil's experiment of 


" Verum ubi tempestas, et cceli mobilis humor 
Mutavere vices, et Jupiter humidns Austro, 
Vertuntur species animorum, et pectore motui 
Concipiunt alios " 

" But when the face of heaven changed is 
To tempests, rain, from season fair: 

1 Atlas geographic UR Memoria Talent Zephyro, maxima in mentibus hrminnm 

Pisaui, quod crassiore fruantur acre, alacritaa existit, mentisque erectio uW 

2 Mb. 1, hist. lib. 2, cap. 41. Aura deusa telura solig splendors nitescit, Maxima 

ac caliginosa tetrici homines existunt, et dejectio moerorque siquando aura caligi- 

subtristes, et cap. 3, stante subsolano et nosa eat. * Oeor. 

320 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a. 

Our minds are altered, and in our breasts 
Forthwith some new conceits appear." 

And who is not weather-wise against such and such conjunc 
tions of planets, moved in foul weather, dull and heavy in 
such tempestuous seasons ? * Gelidum contristat Aquarius 
annum ; the time requires, and the autumn breeds it ; winter 
is like unto it, ugly, foul, squalid, the air works on all men, 
more or less, but especially on such as are melancholy, or in 
clined to it, as Lemnius holds, a " They are most moved with 
it, and those which are already mad, rave downright, either 
in, or against a tempest Besides, the devil many times 
takes his opportunity of such storms, and when the humours 
by the air be stirred, he goes in with them, exagitates our 
spirits, and vexeth our souls ; as the sea waves, so are the 
spirits and humours in our bodies tossed with tempestuous 
winds and storms." To such as are melancholy, therefore, 
Montanus, consil. 24, will have tempestuous and rough air to 
be avoided, and consil. 27, all night air, and would not have 
them to walk abroad, but in a pleasant day. Lemnius, /. 3, 
c. 3, discommends the south and eastern winds, commends 
the north. Montanus, consil. 31, 8 " wills not any windows 
to be opened in the night." Consil. 229, et consil. 230, he 
discommends especially the south wind, and nocturnal air; 
so doth 4 Plutarch. The night and darkness makes men sad, 
the like do all subterranean vaults, dark houses in caves and 
rocks, desert places cause melancholy in an instant, especially 
such as have not been used to it, or otherwise accustomed. 
Read more of air in Hippocrates, ^Etius, 1. 3, a c 171, ad 175. 
Oribasius, a c 1, ad 21. Avicen. 1. 1, can. Fen. 2, doc. 2, 
Fen. 1, c. 123, to the 12, &c. 

1 Hor. * Meng quibus racillat ab Insinuant, eamque vexant, exagitant, et 

agre cito offenduntur, et multi insani ut fluctus marini, humanum cnrpui 

apud Belgas ante tempeetates ssevtunt, rentis agitator. 8 Aer noctu densatur. 

allter quieti. Splritus qnoque aSris et et cogit moestitiam. * Lib. de Iside el 

mall genii allquando ee tempestatibus Osyride. 
Ingerunt, et menti humanae M lateuter 

Mem. 2, subs. 6.] Idleness, a Oattse. 321 

SUBSECT. VI. Immoderate Exercise a Caitse, and how. 
Solitariness, Idleness. 

NOTHING so good but it may be abused ; nothing better 
than exercise (if opportunely used) for the preservation of 
the body ; nothing so bad if it be unseasonable, violent, or 
overmuch. Fernelius out of Galen, Path. lib. 1, c. 16, saith, 
1 " That much exercise and weariness consumes the spirits 
and substance, refrigerates the body ; and such humours 
which Nature would have otherwise concocted and expelled, 
it stirs up and makes them rage ; which being so enraged, 
diversely affect and trouble the body and mind." So doth it, 
if it be unseasonably used, upon a full stomach, or when the 
body is full of crudities, which Fuchsius so much inveighs 
against, lib. 2, instit. sect. 2, c. 4, giving that for a cause why 
school-boys in Germany are so often scabbed, because they 
use exercise presently after meats. 3 Bayerus puts in a 
caveat against such exercise, because " it * corrupts the meat 
in the stomach, and carries the same juice raw, and as yet 
undigested, into the veins (saith Lemnius), which there 
putrefies and confounds the animal spirits." Crato, consiL 
21, I. 2, * protests against all such exercise after meat, as 
being the greatest enemy to concoction that may be, and 
cause of corruption of humours, which produce this, and 
many other diseases. Not without good reason then doth 
Salust. Salvianus, 1. 2. c. 1, and Leonartus Jacchinus, in 9, 
Shasis. Mercurialis, Arcubanus, and many other, set down 
6 immoderate exercise as a most forcible cause of melancholy. 

Opposite to exercise is idleness (the badge of gentry) or 
want of exercise, the bane of body and mind, the nurse of 
naughtiness, step-mother of discipline, the chief author of all 

1 Multa defetigatio, gpiritus, viriumque que. * In Venl mecum : Libro sic in- 

inbstantiam exhaurit, e corpus refrige- scripto. 3 Instit. ad Tit. Christ, cap. 44, 

rat. ITumores corruptos qui aliter a natu- cibos crndos in venas rnpit, qui putres- 

ra concoqui. et domari possint. et demum eentes illic spirit us animates inficiunt. 

blande excludi, irritat, et quasi in faro- * Crudi hsec humoris copia per Tenas a- 

ram agit, qui postea mota camerina, tetro greditur, unde morbi multiplies. & Im 

vapore corpus yarii lacessunt, animum- modicum exercittam. 

VOL. i. 21 

322 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2 

mischief, one of the seven deadly sins, and a sole cause of 
this and many other maladies, the devil's cushion, as l Gual- 
ter calls it, his pillow and chief reposal. " For the mind can 
never rest, but still meditates on one thing or other, except it 
be occupied about some honest business, of his own accord it 
rusheth into melancholy. 3 As too much and violent exercise 
offends on the one side, so doth an idle life on the other 
(saith Crato), it fills the body full of phlegm, gross humours, 
and all manner of obstructions, rheums, catarrhs," &c. 
Rhasis, cont. lib. 1, tract. 9, accounts of it as the greatest 
cause of melancholy. 8 " I have often seen (saith he) that 
idleness begets this humour more than anything else." Mon- 
taltus, c. 1, seconds him out of his experience, 4 "They that 
are idle are far more subject to melancholy than such as are 
conversant or employed about any office or business." 6 Plu 
tarch reckons up idleness for a sole cause of the sickness of 
the soul : " There are they (saith he) troubled in mind, that 
nave no other cause but this." Homer, Iliad. 1, brings in 
Achilles eating of his own heart in his idleness, because he 
might not fight. Mercurialis, consil. 86, for a melancholy 
young man urgeth 6 it is a chief cause ; why was he melan 
choly ? because idle. Nothing begets it sooner, increaseth 
and continueth it oftener than idleness. 7 A disease familiar 
to all idle persons, an inseparable companion to such as 
live at ease, Pingui otio desidiose agentes, a life out of action, 
and have no calling or ordinary employment to busy them 
selves about, that have small occasions ; and though they 
have, such is their laziness, dulness, they will not com 
pose themselves to do aught ; they cannot abide work, 

l Horn. 81, In 1 Cor. yi. Nam qul ponitur otium ab aliis causa, et hoc i 

mena hominis qulescere non poasit, sed nobis obaerratum eos huic mp.lo magia 

continue circa varius cogitationea discur- obnoxlos qui plane otiosi aunt, quam eos 

rat, nisi honeato aliquo negotio occupe- qui aliquo munere reraantur exequendo. 

tur, ad tnelancholiam aponte delabitur. 6 De Tranquil, animie. Sunt quos ipaum 

2 Crato conail. 21. Ut Immodicu corporis otium in animi conjicit tegritudinam. 

exercitatio nocet corporibua, ita vita Nihil eat quod seque melancboliam alar 

deses et otiosa: otium animal pituitoaum ac augeat, ac otium et abstinentia & cor- 

reddit, yiscerum obstructiones et crebras poria et animi exercitationibus. " Ni- 

fluxiones, et morbos concitat. s Et nil magis exceecat intellectum, quam 

rldi quod una de rebus quse magis gene- otium. Gordonius de obeerrat. Tit. bum. 

rut melancholiam, eat otiofdtas. < Re- lib. 1 

alem. 2, subs. 8.] Idleness, a Cause. 828 

though it be necessary ; easy as to dress themselves, write a 
letter or the like ; yet as he that is benumbed with cold sits 
still shaking, that might relieve himself with a little exercise 
or stirring do they complain, but will not use the facile and 
ready means to do themselves good ; and so are still tor 
mented with melancholy. Especially if they have been 
formerly brought up to business, or to keep much company, 
and upon a sudden come to lead a sedentary life ; it crucifies 
their souls, and seizeth on them in an instant ; for whilst 
they are any ways employed, in action, discourse, about 
any business, sport or recreation, or in company to their 
liking ; they are very well ; but if alone or idle, tormented 
instantly again ; one day's solitariness, one hour's sometimes, 
doth them more harm, than a week's physic, labour, and 
company can do good. Melancholy seizeth on them forth 
with being alone, and is such a torture, that as wise Seneca 
well saith, Malo mihi male quam moUiter esse, I had rather 
be sick than idle. This idleness is either of body or mind. 
That of body is nothing but a kind of benumbing laziness, 
intermitting exercise, which if we may believe * Fernelius, 
" causeth crudities, obstructions, excremental humours, quench- 
eth the natural heat, dulls the spirits, and makes them unapt 
to do anything whatsoever." 

2 ' Neglectis urenda filix innascitur agria." 

" for, a neglected field 
Shall for the fire its thorns and thistles yield." 

As fern grows in untilled grounds, and all manner of weeds, 
so do gross humours in an idle body, Ignavum corrumpunt 
otia corpus. A horse in a stable that never travels, a hawk 
in a mew that seldom flies, are both subject to diseases ; 
which left unto themselves, are most free from any such in- 
cumbrances. An idle dog will be mangy, and how shall an 
idle person think to escape ? Idleness of the mind is much 

1 Pajh. lib. 1, cap. 17, exercitationis segniores reddlt, crudltates, obitruo- 
mtermissio, inertem eolorem, languidos tiones, et excrementorum proventun & 
ipiritus, et ignayog. et ad omnes actiones cit. * Hor. Ser. 1, Sat. 8- 

324 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I see. 2 

worse than this of the body ; wit without employment is a 
disease, l ^Erugo animi, rubigo ingenii : the rust of the soul, 
* a plague, a hell itself, Maximum animi nocumentum, Galen 
calls it * " As in a standing pool, worms and filthy creepers 
increase (et vitium capiunt ni moveantur aquce, the water 
itself putrefies, and air likewise, if it be not continually 
stirred by the wind), so do evil and corrupt thoughts in an 
idle person," the soul is contaminated. In a commonwealth, 
where is no public enemy, there is likely civil wars, and they 
rage upon themselves ; this body of ours, when it is idle, and 
knows not how to bestow itself, macerates and vexeth itself 
with cares, griefs, false fears, discontents, and suspicions ; it 
tortures and preys upon his own bowels, and is never at rest. 
Thus much I dare boldly say, " He or she that is idle, be 
they of what condition they will, never so rich, so well allied, 
fortunate, happy, let them have all things in abundance and 
felicity that heart can wish and desire, all contentment, so 
long as he or she or they are idle, they shall never be 
pleased, never well in body and mind, but weary still, sickly 
still, vexed still, loathing still, weeping, sighing, grieving, 
suspecting, offended with the world, with every object, wish 
ing themselves gone or dead, or else carried away with some 
foolish fantasy or other. And this is the true cause that so 
many great men, ladies, and gentlewomen, labour of this dis 
ease in country and city ; for idleness is an appendix to 
nobility ; they count it a disgrace to work, and spend all 
their days in sports, recreations, and pastimes, and will there 
fore take no pains ; be of no vocation ; they feed liberally, 
fare well, want exercise, action, employment (for to work, I 
say, they may not abide), and company to their desires, and 
thence their bodies become full of gross humours, wind, crudi 
ties ; their minds disquieted, dull, heavy, &c., care, jealousy, 
fear of some diseases, sullen fits, weeping fits seize too * famil 
iarly on them. For what will not fear and fantasy work in 

1 Seneca. * Moerorem animi, et ma- main cogitationes. Sen. 4 Now thli 
dwn, Plutarch calk It. * Sicut in leg, now that arm, now their head, heart, 
ttaguo generantur vennes, ric et otioso &o. 

Mem. 2, subs. 6.] Idleness, a Cause. 325 

an idle body ? what distempers will they not cause ? when 
the children of * Israel murmured against Pharaoh in Egypt, 
he commanded his officers to double their task, and let them 
get straw themselves, and yet make their full number of 
bricks ; for the sole cause why they mutiny, and are evil at 
ease is, " they are idle." When you shall hear and see so 
many discontented persons in all places where you come 
so many several grievances, unnecessary complaints, fear, 
suspicions,! the best means to redress it is to set them awork, 
so to busy their minds ; for the truth is, they are idle. "Well 
they may build castles in the air for a time, and soothe up 
themselves with fantastical and pleasant humours, but in the 
end they will prove as bitter as gall, they shall be still I say 
discontent, suspicious, * fearful, jealous, sad, fretting and vex 
ing of themselves ; so long as they be idle, it is impossible to 
please them, Otio qui nescit uti, plus habet negotii quam qui 
negotium in negotio, as that a Agellius could observe : He 
that knows not how to spend his time, hath more business, 
care, grief, anguish of mind, than he that is most busy in the 
midst of all his business, Otiosus animus nescit quid volet : 
An idle person (as he follows it) knows not when he is well, 
what he would have, or whither he would go, Quum ittuc 
ventum est ittinc lubet, he is tired out with everything, dis 
pleased with all, weary of his life ; Nee bene domi, nee militia. 
neither at home nor abroad, errat, et prceter vitam vivitur, 
he wanders and lives besides himself. In a word, What the 
mischievous effects of laziness and idleness are, I do not find 
anywhere more accurately expressed, than in these verses of 
Philolaches in the { Comical Poet, which for their elegancy 
I will in part insert. 

" Novarum aedium esse arbitror similem ego hominem, 
Quando hie natus est : Ei rei arguments dicam. 
Jdes qnando sunt ad amussim expolitse, 
Quisque laudat fabrum, atque exemplum, expetit, &c. 

* Exod. T. t (For they cannot well Pigrum dejicit timor. Heantontimora- 

tell what aileth them, or whac they would menon. - Lib. 19, e. 10. t Plautua, 

hare themselves) my heart, my head, my Prol. Mostel. 
husband, my son, &c. 1 Prov. xviii. 

326 Cawes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a 

At ubi illo migrat nequam homo indiligensque, &c. 
Tempestas venit, confringit tegulas, iinbricesque, 
Putrifacit aer operam fabri, &c. 
Dicam ut homines similes esse medium arbitremini, 
Fabri parentes fundamentum substruunt liberorum, 
Expoliunt, decent literas, nee parcunt sumptui 
Ego autem sub fabrorum potestate frugi foi, 
Postquam autem migravi in ingenium meum, 
Perdidi operam fabrorum illicb, oppidb, 
Venit ignavia, ea mihi tempestas fuit, 
Adventuque suo grandinem et imbrem attulit, 
Ilia mihi virtutem deturbavit, c." 

" A young man is like a fair new house, the carpenter leaves 
it well built, in good repair, of solid stuff; but a bad tenant 
lets it rain in, and for want of reparation, fall to decay, &c. 
Our parents, tutors, friends, spare no cost to bring us up in 
our youth, in all manner of virtuous education ; but when 
we are left to ourselves, idleness as a tempest drives all 
virtuous motions out of our minds, et nihili sumus, on a 
sudden, by sloth and such bad ways, we come to nought." 
Cousin-german to idleness, and a concomitant cause, which 
goes hand in hand with it, is * nimia solitudo, too much soli 
tariness, by the testimony of all physicians, cause and symp 
tom both ; but as it is here put for a cause it is either coact, 
enforced, or else voluntarily. Enforced solitariness is com 
monly seen in students, monks, friars, anchorites, that by 
their order and course of life must abandon all company, 
society of other men, and betake themselves to a private 
cell ; Otio superstitioso seclusi, as Bale and Hospinian well 
term it, such as are the Carthusians of our time, that eat no 
flesh (by their order), keep perpetual silence, never go 
abroad. Such as live in prison, or some desert place, and 
cannot have company, as many of our country gentlemen do 
in solitary houses, they must either be alone without com 
panions, or live beyond their means, and entertain all comers 
as so many hosts, or else converse with their servants and 
hinds, such as are unequal, inferior to them, and of a con- 

1 Piso, Montaltua, Mercurialis, &c 

Mem. 2, subs. 6.J Idleness, a Cause. 327 

trary disposition ; or else as some do, to avoid solitariness, 
spend their time with lewd fellows in taverns, and in ale 
houses, and thence addict themselves to some unlawful dis 
ports, or dissolute courses. Divers again are cast upon this 
rock of solitariness for want of means, or out of a strong 
apprehension of some infirmity, disgrace, or through bashful- 
ness, rudeness, simplicity, they cannot apply themselves to 
others' company. Nuttum solum infelid gratius solitudine, 
ubi nuttus sit qui miseriam exprobret ; this enforced solitari 
ness takes place, and produceth his effect soonest in such as 
have spent their time jovially, peradventure in all honest 
recreations, hi good company, in some great family or popu 
lous city, and are upon a sudden confined to a desert coun 
try cottage far off, restrained of their liberty, and barred from 
their ordinary associates ; solitariness is very irksome to 
such, most tedious, and a sudden cause of great incon 

Voluntary solitariness is that which is familiar with melan 
choly, and gently brings on h'ke a siren, a shoeing-horn, or 
some sphinx to this irrevocable gulf, * a primary cause, Piso 
calls it ; most pleasant it is at first, to such as are melancholy 
given, to lie in bed whole days, and keep their chambers, to 
walk alone in some solitary grove, betwixt wood and water, 
by a brook side, to meditate upon some delightsome and 
pleasant subject, which shall affect them most ; amabilis in- 
sania, et mentis gratissimus error ; a most incomparable de 
light it is so to melancholize, and build castles in the air, to 
go smiling to themselves, acting an infinite variety of parts, 
which they suppose and strongly imagine they represent, or 
that they see acted or done ; Blandce quidem ab initio, saith 
Leumius, to conceive and meditate of such pleasant things, 
sometimes, 3 " present, past, or to come," as Rhasis speaks. 
So delightsome these toys are at first, they could spend whole 
days and nights without sleep, even whole years alone in 

1 A quibus n.-ilum. velut -i primarla cunda rerum prsesentium, preteritarum, 
?ausa, occasionem nactum est - Ju- et futurarum meditatdo. 

328 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a, 

uucli contemplations, and fantastical meditations, which are 
like unto dreams, and they will hardly be drawn from them, 
or willingly interrupt, so pleasant their vain conceits are, that 
they hinder their ordinary tasks and necessary business, they 
cannot address themselves to them, or almost to any study or 
employment, these fantastical and bewitching thoughts so 
covertly, so feelingly, so urgently, so continually set upon, 
creep in, insinuate, possess, overcome, distract, and detain 
them, they cannot, I say, go about their more necessary 
business, stave off or extricate themselves, but are ever 
musing, melancholizing, and carried along, as he (they say) 
that is led round about a heath with a Puck in the night, 
they run earnestly on in this labyrinth of anxious and solic 
itous melancholy meditations, and cannot well or willingly 
refrain, or easily leave off, winding and unwinding them 
selves, as so many clocks, and still pleasing their humours, 
until at last the scene is turned upon a sudden, by some 
bad object, and they being now habituated to such vain 
meditations and solitary places, can endure no company, 
can ruminate of nothing but harsh and distasteful subjects. 
Fear, sorrow, suspicion, subrusticits pudor, discontent, cares, 
and weariness of life surprise them in a moment, and they 
can think of nothing else, continually suspecting, no sooner 
are their eyes open, but this infernal plague of melancholy 
seizeth on them, and terrifies their souls, representing some 
dismal object to their minds, which now by no means, no 
labour, no persuasions they can avoid, hceret lateri lethalu 
arundo (the arrow of death still remains in the side), they 
may not be rid of it, l they cannot resist. I may not deny 
but that there is some profitable meditation, contemplation, 
and kind of solitariness to be embraced, which the fathers 
so highly commended, 2 Hierom, Chrysostom, Cyprian, Aus 
tin, in whole tracts, which Petrarch, Erasmus, Stella, and 

1 Facilis doficensua Avernl : Sed revo- dinem Paradisum : solum scorpionibui 

ears graduui, superasque evadere ad infectum. sacco amictus, humi cubang 

uras. Hie labor, hoc opus est. Virg. aqua et herbis Tictitans, Romania prr 

* Hieronimus ep. 72. dixit oppida et tulit deliciis. 
urbe rlderi sibi tetroe careeres. solitu- 

Mem. 2, tabs. 6.] Idleness, a Cause. 320 

others, so much magnify in their books ; a paradise, a heaven 
on earth, if it be used aright, good for the body, and better 
for the soul ; as many of those old monks used it, to divine 
contemplations, as Simulus a courtier in Adrian's time, Dio- 
clesian the emperor, retired themselves, &c., in that sense, 
Vatia solus scit vivere, Vatia lives alone, which the Romans 
were wont to say, when they commended a country life. Or 
to the bettering of their knowledge, as Democritus, Cleanthus, 
and those excellent philosophers have ever done, to sequester 
themselves from the tumultuous world, or as in Pliny's villa 
Laurentana, Tully's Tusculan, Jovius's study, that they might 
better vacare studiis et Deo, serve God, and follow their 
studies. Methinks, therefore, our too zealous innovators 
were not so well advised in that general subversion of 
abbeys and religious houses, promiscuously to fling down 
all ; they might have taken away those gross abuses crept 
in amongst them, rectified such inconveniences, and not so 
far to have raved and raged against those fair buildings, and 
everlasting monuments of our forefathers' devotion, conse 
crated to pious uses ; some monasteries and collegiate cells 
might have been well spared, and their revenues otherwise em 
ployed, here and there one, in good towns or cities at least 
for men and women of all sorts and conditions to live in, to 
sequester themselves from the cares and tumults of the world, 
that were not desirous, or fit to marry ; or otherwise willing 
to be troubled with common affairs, and know not well where 
to bestow themselves, to live apart in, for more conveniency 
good education, better company sake, to follow their studies 
(I say), to the perfection of arts and sciences, common good 
and as some truly devoted monks of old had done, freely and 
truly to serve God. For these men are neither solitary, nor 
idle, as the poet made answer to the husbandman in JEsop, 
that objected idleness to him ; he was never so idle as in his 
company ; or that Scipio Africanus in * Tully, Nunquam 
minus solus, quam cum solus ; nunquam minus otiosus, quant 

1 Offic. 8 

830 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. l. sec. 2. 

quum esset otiosus ; never less solitary, than when he was 
alone, never more busy, than when he seemed to be most 
idle. It is reported by Plato in his dialogue de Amore, in 
that prodigious commendation of Socrates, how a deep medi 
tation coming into Socrates's mind by chance, he stood still 
musing, eodem vestigio cogitobundus, from morning to noon, 
and when as then he had not yet finished his meditation, 
perstabat cogitans, he so continued till the evening, the sol 
diers (for he then followed the camp) observed him with 
admiration, and on set purpose watched all night, but he 
persevered immovable ad exortum solis, till the sun rose in 
the morning, and then saluting the sun went his ways. In 
what humour constant Socrates did thus, I know not, or how 
he might be affected, but this would be pernicious to another 
man ; what intricate business might so really possess him, I 
cannot easily guess ; but this is otiosum otium, it is far other 
wise with these men, according to Seneca, Omnia nobis mala 
solitudo persuadet ; this solitude undoeth us,pugnat cum.vitd 
sociali ; 'tis a destructive solitariness. These men are devils 
alone, as the saying is, Homo solus aut Deus, ant Dtemon : 
a man alone, is either a saint or a devil, mens ejus aut lan- 
guescit, aut tumescit; and * Vee soli in this sense, woe be to 
him that is so alone. These wretches do frequently degener 
ate from men, and of sociable creatures become beasts, mon 
sters, inhumane, ugly to behold, Misanthropi ; they do even 
loathe themselves, and hate the company of men, as so many 
Timons, Nebuchadnezzars, by too much indulging to these 
pleasing humours, and through their own default. So that 
which Mercurialis, consil. 11, sometimes expostulated with 
his melancholy patient, may be justly applied to every soli 
tary and idle person in particular. * Nalura de te videtur 
conqueri posse, fyc. " Nature may justly complain of thee, 
that whereas she gave thee a good wholesome temperature, a 

* Eccl. 4 l Natura de te yidetur con- tempsisti modo, verum corrupted, M- 

querl posse, quod cum ab ea temperatU- dastl, prodidUti, optimam temperaturam 

iiin inn corpus adeptus sis, tarn prw- otio, crapull it aliis vitae erroribus, &c. 
olarum 4 Deo ac utile donum, non con- 

Mem. 2, SUDS. 7.j Sleeping and Waking, Causes. 331 

sound body, and God hath given thee so divine and excel 
lent a soul, so many good parts, and profitable gifts, thou 
hast not only contemned and rejected, but hast corrupted 
them, polluted them, overthrown their temperature, and per 
verted those gifts with riot, idleness, solitariness, and many 
other ways, thou art a traitor to God and nature, an enemy 
to thyself and to the world." Perditio tua ex te ; thou hast 
lost thyself wilfully, cast away thyself, " thou thyself art the 
efficient cause of thine own misery, by not resisting such vain 
cogitations, but giving way unto them." 

SUBSECT. VII. Sleeping and Waking, Causes. 

WHAT I have formerly said of exercise, I may now repeat 
of sleep. Nothing better than moderate sleep, nothing worse 
than it, if it be in extremes, or unseasonably used. It is a 
received opinion, that a melancholy man cannot sleep over 
much ; Somnus supra modum prodest, as an only antidote, 
and nothing offends them more, or causeth this malady 
sooner, than waking, yet in some cases sleep may do more 
harm than good, in that phlegmatic, swinish, cold, and slug 
gish melancholy which Melancthon speaks of, that thinks of 
waters, sighing most part, &c. 1 It dulls the spirits, if over 
much, and senses ; fills the head full of gross humours ; caus 
eth distillations, rheums, great store of excrements in the 
brain, and all the other parts, as a Fuchsius speaks of them, 
that sleep like so many dormice. Or if it be used in the 
daytime, upon a full stomach, the body ill-composed to rest, 
or after hard meats, it increaseth fearful dreams, incubus 
night walking, crying out, and much unquietness ; such sleep 
prepares the body, as 8 one observes, " to many perilous dis 
eases." But as I have said, waking overmuch, is both a 
symptom, and an ordinary cause. " It causeth dryness of the 
brain, frenzy, dotage, and makes the body dry, lean, hard, 

1 Path. lib. cap. 17. Fernel. corpus bro et aliis partibus conseryat. * Jo 

Infrigidat, omnes sensus, mentisque vires Ratzius lib, de rebus 6 non naturaliLus 

torpore debilitat. - Lib. 2, sect. 2, Prseparat corbus talis somnus ad mul 

sap. 4 Magnam excrementorum vini cere- tas periculosas segritudines. 

832 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. L sec. 2 

and ugly to behold," as 1 Lemnius hath it. " The tempera 
ture of the brain is corrupted by it, the humours adust, the 
eyes made to sink into the head, choler increased, and the 
whole body inflamed ; " and, as may be added out of Galen 
3, de sanitate tuendd, Avicenna 3, 1. a " It overthrows the 
natural heat, it causeth crudities, hurts concoction," and what 
not? Not without good cause therefore Crato consil. 21, lib. 
2 ; Hildesheim, spicel. 2, de Delir. et Mania, Jacchinus, 
Arculanus on llhasis, Guianerius and Mercurialis, reckon up 
this overmuch waking as a principal cause. 


SUBSECT. I. Passions and Perturbations of the Mind, how 
they cause Melancholy. 

As that gymnosophist in 8 Plutarch made answer to Alex 
ander (demanding which spake best), Every one of his fel 
lows did speak better than other; so I may say of these 
causes ; to him that shall require which is the greatest, every 
one is more grievous than the other, and this of passion the 
greatest of all. A most frequent and ordinary cause of 
melancholy, *fulmen perturbationum (Piccolomineus calls it) 
this thunder and lightning of perturbation, which causeth 
such violent and speedy alterations in this our microcosm, 
and many times subverts the good estate and temperature of 
it. For as the body works upon the mind by his bad hu 
mours, troubling the spirits, sending gross fumes into the 
brain, and so per consequent disturbing the soul, and all 
the faculties of it, 

1 Tiintit. ad vitam optimum cap. 26, profandos reddit oculos, calorem auget. 
oerebro siccitatem adfert, phrenesin et * Naturalem calorem dissipat, laeea con- 
delirium, corpu aridum fecit, squali- coctione eradicates facit. Attenuant ju- 
dum, strlgosum, humores adurit, teinpe- yenum vigilatu- corpora nocteg. * Vita 
ramentum cerebri corrumpit, maciem Alexan * Grad. 1, c. 14 
inducit : exsiccat corpus, bilem accendlt, 

Mwn. 8, subs. 1.] Perturbations of the Mind. 333 

* " Corpus onustum, 
Hesternis vitiis animum qnoqne praegravat una," 

with fear, sorrow, &c., which are ordinary symptoms of this 
disease ; so on the other side, the mind most effectually works 
upon the body, producing by his passions and perturbations 
miraculous alterations, as melancholy, despair, cruel diseases, 
and sometimes death itself. Insomuch that it is most true 
which Plato saith in his Charmides, omnia corporis mala all 
animd procedere ; all the * mischiefs of the body proceed 
from the soul ; and Democritus in 2 Plutarch urgeth, Dam- 
natum iri animam a corpore, if the body should in this be 
half bring an action against the soul, surely the soul would be 
cast and convicted, that by her supine negligence had caused 
such inconveniences, having authority over the body, and 
using it for an instrument, as a smith does his hammer (saith 
* Cyprian), imputing all those vices and maladies to the 
mind. Even so do * Philostratus, non coinquinatur corpus^ 
nisi consensu animee ; the body is not corrupted, but by the 
soul. Lodovicus Vives will have such turbulent commotions 
proceed from ignorance and indiscretion. 6 All philosophers 
impute the miseries of the body to the soul, that should have 
governed it better, by command of reason, and hath not done 
it. The Stoics are altogether of opinion (as 'Lipsius and 
7 Piccolomineus record), that a wise man should be drratffa, 
without all manner of passions and perturbations whatsoever, 
as 8 Seneca reports of Cato, the 9 Greeks of Socrates, and 10 lo. 
Aubanus of a nation in Africa, so free from passion, or rather 
so stupid, that if they be wounded with a sword, they will 
only look back. 11 Lactantius 2 instit. will exclude "fear 
from a wise man ; " others except all, some the greatest 
passions. But let them dispute how they will, set down 
in Thesi, give precepts to the contrary; we find that of 

*Hor. " The body oppressed by yester- lonij lib. 1. * Lib. de anim. ab incon- 

day's vices weighs down the spirit also." siderantia, et ignorantia omnes animl 

1 Pertnrbationes clavi sunt, quibus cor- motus. De Physiol. Stoic. 7 Grad. 

pori animus seupatibuloaffigitur. Jamb. 1, c. 82. > Epist. 104. Jflianus. 

de mist. - Lib. de sanitat. tuend. 10 Lib. 1, cap. 6, si quia ense percusserit 

' Prolog, de virtu te Christ! ; Quae utitur eos, tantum respiciun t. H Terror in 

sorpore. ut faber malleo. * Vita Apol- sapiente esse non debet. 

334 Causes of Melancholy. rpart. I. sec. 2 

1 Lemnius true by common experience ; " No mortal man is 
free from these perturbations ; or if he be so, sure he is either 
a god, or a block." They are born and bred with us, wo 
have them from our parents by inheritance. A parentibut 
hdbcmus malum hunc assem, saith 2 Pelezius, Nasdtur und 
nobiscum, aliturque, 'tis propagated from Adam, Cain was 
melancholy, * as Austin hath it, and who is not ? Good 
discipline, education, philosophy, divinity (I cannot deny), 
may mitigate and restrain these passions in some few men at 
some times, but most part they domineer, and are so violent, 
8 that as a torrent (torrens velut aggere rupto) bears down all 
before, and overflows his banks, sternit agros, sternit sata, 
(lays waste the fields, prostrates the crops,) they overwhelm 
reason, judgment, and pervert the temperature of the body ; 
Fertur * equis auriga, nee audit currus habenas. Now such 
a man (saith 'Austin), " that is so led, in a wise man's eye, 
is no better than he that stands upon his head." It is 
doubted by some, Gravioresne morbi a perturbationibus, an 
ab humoribus, whether humours or perturbations cause the 
more grievous maladies. But we find that of our Saviour, 
Mat xxvi. 41, most true, " The spirit is willing, the flesh is 
weak," we cannot resist ; and this of 6 Philo Judaeus, " Per 
turbations often offend the body, and are most frequent 
causes of melancholy, turning it out of the hinges of his 
health." Vives compares them to 7 " Winds upon the sea, 
some only move as those great gales, but others turbulent 
quite overturn the ship." Those which are light, easy, and 
more seldom, to our thinking, do us little harm, and 
are therefore contemned of us ; yet if they be reiterated, 

1 De occult, nat. mlr. 1. 1. e. 16. cal. passional maximi corpus offemlnnt 

Nemo mortalinm qui affections non da- et animam, et frpquentissimse causa 

catur : q ui non movetur, aut saxum, melancholias, dimoventes ab ingenio et 

ant ilniiH Rt. * Instit. 1. 2, de hu- sanitate pristina. 1 8, de anima. ? Pra> 

manorum affect, morborumque carat, na et stimuli animi, velut in marl quae- 

* Epiat. 105. * Qranatensis. * Virg. dam aurae leves, quaedam placidne, qnae- 

' De civil. Del, 1. 14, c. 9, qoalis la dam turbulent: sic in corpora quae- 

oenlis hominnm qui inversis pedibus dam affectiones excitant tantum, quaedam 

tunbulat. tails, in oculls sapientum, cui ita movent ut de statu judicii depel 

paseiones dominantur. Lib. d De- lant. 

Mem. 3, subs. 1.] Perturbations of the Mind. 335 

1 " as the rain (saith Austin) doth a stone, so do these pertur 
bations penetrate the mind ; " 2 and (as one observes) " pro 
duce a habit of melancholy at the last, which having gotten 
the mastery in our souls, may well be called diseases." 

How these passions produce this effect, 8 Agrippa hath 
handled at large, Occult. Philos. I. 11, c. 63, Cardan, /. 14. 
subtil. Lemnius, 1. 1, c. 12, de occult, not. mir. et lib. 1, cap. 
16, Suarez, Met. dispitt. 18, sect. 1, art. 25, T. Bright, cap. 
12, of his Melancholy Treatise. Wright the Jesuit in hi? 
book of the Passions of the Mind, &c. Thus in brief, to our 
imagination cometh by the outward sense or memory, some 
object to be known (residing in the foremost part of the 
brain), which he misconceiving or amplifying presently 
communicates to the heart, the seat of all affections. The 
pure spirits forthwith flock from the brain to the heart, by 
certain secret channels, and signify what good or bad object 
was presented ; * which immediately bends itself to prosecute, 
or avoid it ; and withal draweth with it other humours to help 
it ; so in pleasure, concur great store of purer spirits ; in 
sadness, much melancholy blood ; in ire, choler. If the imag 
ination be very apprehensive, intent, and violent, it sends 
great store of spirits to, or from the heart, and makes a 
deeper impression, and greater tumult, as the humours in the 
body be likewise prepared, and the temperature itself ill or 
well disposed, the passions are longer and stronger ; so that 
the first step and fountain of all our grievances in this kind, 
is *lcesa imaginatio^ which misinforming the heart, causeth 
all these distemperatures, alteration, and confusion of spirits 
and humours. By means of which, so disturbed, concoction 
is hindered, and the principal parts are much debilitate I; 
as ' Dr. Navarra well declared, being consulted by Montanus 

1 Ut gutta lapidem, sic paulatim hee causeth dis temperature of the body." 

penetrant animnm. 2 Usu valentes = Spiritus et sangnis a laesa imagination* 

recte morbi animi Tocantnr. * Itnag- contaminantur, humores enim mutati 

inatio movet corpus, ad cujus motum actioues animi immutant, Piso. 6 Mon- 

excitantur humores, et spiritns vitales, tani, consil. 22. Has vero quomodo cau- 

quibus alteratur. * Eccles. xiii. 26. sent melancholiam, clarum ; et quod con 

"The heart alters the countenance to coctionem impediant, et membra prin 

good or eril, and distraction of the mind cipalia debilitent. 


336 Cawes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2 

about a melancholy Jew. The spirits so confounded, the 
nourishment must needs be abated, bad humours increased, 
crudities and thick spirits engendered with melancholy blood. 
The other parts cannot perform their functions, having the 
spirits drawn from them by vehement passion, but fail in 
sense and motion ; so we look upon a thing, and see it not ; 
hear, and observe not; which otherwise would much affect 
us, had we been free. I may therefore conclude with 1 Ar- 
noldus, Maxima vis est phantasice, et huic uni fere, non autem 
corporis intemperiei, omnis melancholia causa est ascribenda ; 
" Great is the force of imagination, and much more ought the 
cause of melancholy to be ascribed to this alone, than to the 
distemperature of the body." Of which imagination, because 
it hath so great a stroke in producing this malady, and is so 
powerful of itself, it will not be improper to my discourse, to 
make a brief digression, and speak of the force of it, and how 
it causeth this alteration. Which manner of digression how 
soever some dislike, as frivolous and impertinent, yet I am 
of * Beroaldus's opinion, " Such digressions do mightily de 
light and refresh a weary reader, they are like sauce to a 
bad stomach, and I do therefore most willingly use them." 

SUBSECT. H. Of the force of Imagination. 

WHAT imagination is, I have sufficiently declared in my 
digression of the anatomy of the soul. I will only now point 
at the wonderful effects and power of it ; which, as it is emi 
nent in all, so most especially it rageth in melancholy per 
sons, in keeping the species of objects so long, mistaking, 
amplifying them by continual and a strong meditation, until 
at length it produceth in some parties real effects, causeth 
this and many other maladies. And although this fantasy 
of ours be a subordinate faculty to reason, and should be 
ruled by it, yet in many men, through inward or outward 

Hreviar. 1. 1, cap. 18. * Solent llbenter eieurro. * Ab imagination? 

tmjusmodl egresriones favorabiliter ob- orluntur Wfectiones, quibus anima com 

lectare, et lectorem lassum jucunde ref- ponitur, aut turbata deturbatur, Jo. 

OTere, stomachumque nauseantem, quo- Sarisbur. Matolog. lib. 4, c. 10. 
lam quasi condimento reflcere, et ego 

Mem. 3, subs. 2.] Of the Force of Imagination. 337 

distemperatures, defect of organs, which are unapt, or other 
wise contaminated, it is likewise unapt, or hindered, and hurt. 
This we see verified in sleepers, which by reason of humours 
and concourse of vapours troubling the fantasy, imagine many 
times absurd and prodigious things, and in such as are troub 
led with incubus, or witch-ridden (as we call it), if they lie on 
their backs, they suppose an old woman rides, and sits so 
hard upon them, that they are almost stifled for want of 
breath ; when there is nothing offends, but a concourse of bad 
humours, which trouble the fantasy. This is likewise evi 
dent in such as walk in the night in their sleep, and do 
strange feats ; 1 these vapours move the fantasy, the fantasy 
the appetite, which moving the animal spirits causeth the 
body to walk up and down as if they were awake. Fracast. 
I. 3, de intellect, refers all ecstasies to this force of imagina 
tion such as lie whole days together in a trance ; as that 
priest whom 2 Celsus speaks of, that could separate himself 
from his senses when he list, and lie like a dead man, void of 
life and sense. Cardan brags of himself, that he could do as 
much, and that when he list. Many times such men when 
they come to themselves, tell strange things of heaven and 
hell, what visions they have seen ; as that St. Owen, in Mat 
thew Paris, that went into St. Patrick's purgatory, and the 
monk of Evesham in the same author. Those common ap 
paritions in Bede and Gregory, Saint Bridget's revelations, 
Wier. 1. 3, de lamiis, c. 11. Caesar Vanninus, in his Dia 
logues, &c., reduceth (as I have formerly said), with all those 
tales of witches' progresses, dancing, riding, transformations, 
operations, &c., to the force of 8 imagination, and the 4 devil's 
illusions. The like effects almost are to be seen in such as 
are awake ; how many chimeras, antics, golden mountains 
and castles in the air do they build unto themselves? I 

i Scalig. exercit. 2 QuS quoties vole- phantasiam regit, ducitque ad loca ab 

bat, mortuo similis jacebat auferens se a ipsis desiderata, corpora vero earuin sine 

eensibus. et quum pungeretur dolorem sensu permanent, quse umbra cooperit 

oon sensit. 3 Idem Nymannus orat. de diabolus, ut nuUi sint conspicua, et post, 

IiiKiu'iiiiit. 4 Verbis et unctionibus se umbra sublata, propriis corporibus eM 

consecrant daemon! pessimae mulieres, restituit. 1. 3, c. 11, Wier 
qui iis ad opus suum utitur, et eurum 

VOL. I. 22 

838 Catises of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 3. 

Appeal to painters, mechanicians, mathematicians. Some 
ascribe all vices to a false and corrupt imagination, anger 
revenge, lust, ambition, covetousness, which prefers falsehood 
before that which is right and good, deluding the soul with 
false shows and suppositions. l Bernardus Penottus will 
have heresy and superstition to proceed from this fountain ; 
as he falsely imagineth, so he believeth ; and as he conceiv- 
eth of it, so it must be, and it shall be, contra gentes, he will 
have it so. But most especially in passions and affections, it 
shows strange and evident effects ; what will not a fearful 
man conceive in the dark? What strange forms of bug 
bears, devils, witches, goblins ? Lavater imputes the greatest 
cause of spectrums, and the like apparitions, to fear, which 
above all other passions begets the strongest imagination 
(saith 2 Wierus), and so likewise, love, sorrow, joy, &c. 
Some die suddenly, as she that saw her eon come from the 
battle at Cannae, &c. Jacob the patriarch, by force of imagi 
nation, made speckled lambs, laying speckled rods before his 
sheep. Persina that ./Ethiopian queen in Heliodorus, by 
seeing the picture of Perseus and Andromeda, instead of a 
blackamoor, was brought to bed of a fair white child. In 
imitation of whom belike, a hard-favoured fellow in Greece, 
because he and his wife were both deformed, to get a good 
brood of children, Elegantissimas imagines in thalamo cotto- 
cavit, Sfc., hung the fairest pictures he could buy for money 
in his chamber, " That his wife by frequent sight of them, 
might conceive and bear such children." And if we may be 
lieve Bale, one of Pope Nicholas the Third's concubines by 
seeing of 8 a bear was brought to bed of a monster. " If a 
woman (saith 4 Lemnius), at the time of her conception think 
of another man present or absent, the child will be like him." 
Great-bellied women, when they long, yield us prodigious 
examples in this kind, as moles, warts, scars, harelips, mon- 

1 Denario medico. - Solet timor, pro cap. 4, de occult, nat. mir. si inter am- 

omnibug affectibus, fortes imaginationes plexus et suavia cogitet de vino, aut all* 

gignere, post, amor, &c. 1. 8, c. 8. abannte, ejus efflgiea solet in foetu elucM 
1 El Yiso urso, fovlem peperit. t Lib. 1. 

Mem. 3, subs. 2.] Of the Jf'orce of Imagination. 339 

sters, especially caused in their children by force of a de 
praved fantasy in them : Ipsam speciem quam animo effigiat, 
fcetui inducit : She imprints that stamp upon her child which 
she * conceives unto herself. And therefore Lodovicus Vives, 
lib, 2, de Christ, fcem. gives a special caution to great-bellied 
women, 2 " That they do not admit such absurd conceits and 
cogitations, but by all means avoid those horrible objects, 
heard or seen, or filthy spectacles." Some will laugh, weep, 
sigh, groan, blush, tremble, sweat, at such things as are sug 
gested unto them by their imagination. Avicenna speaks of 
one that could cast himself into a palsy when he list ; and 
some can imitate the tunes of birds and beasts that they can 
hardly be discerned ; Dagebertus's and Saint Francis's scars 
and wounds, like those of Christ's (if at the least any such 
were), 8 Agrippa supposeth to have happened by force of imagi 
nation ; that some are turned to wolves, from men to women, 
and women again to men (which is constantly believed) to 
the same imagination ; or from men to asses, dogs, or any 
other shapes. * Wierus ascribes all those famous transforma 
tions to imagination ; that in hydrophobia they seem to see 
the picture of a dog, still in their water, 6 that melancholy 
men and sick men conceive so many fantastical visions, ap 
paritions to themselves, and have such absurd apparitions, as 
that they are kings, lords, cocks, bears, apes, owls ; that they 
are heavy, light, transparent, great and little, senseless and 
dead (as shall be showed more at large, in our * sections of 
symptoms), can be imputed to nought else, but to a corrupt, 
false, and violent imagination. It works not in sick and 
melancholy men only, but even most forcibly sometimes in 
such as are sound ; it makes them suddenly sick, and 6 alters 

1 Quid non fretui adhuc matri unito, gestent, admittant absurdaa cogitationes, 

iubit3 spirituum vibratione per nervos, Bed et visu, audituque foeda et horreuda 

quibus matrix cerebro conjuncta est, im- devitent 3 Occult. Philos. lib. 1, cap 

primit impregnate imaginatio ? ut si 64. * Lib. 3, de Lamiis, cap. 10 

Imagineturmalumgranatum, illiusnotus 6 Agrippa, lib. 1, cap. 64. * Sect. 3, 

securn proferet foetus : Si leporem, infans memb. 1, subsect. 3- 6 Malleus malefic, 

editur supremo labeUo bifido, et dissecto : fol. 77, corpus mutari potest in diverse! 

Vehemens cogitatio movet rerum species, segritudines, ex forti apprehension* 
Vfier. lib. 3, cap, 8 Ne dum uterum 

340 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 1 

their temperature in an instant. And sometimes a strong 
conceit or apprehension, as l Valesius proves, will take awaj 
diseases ; in both kinds it will produce real effects. Men, if 
they see but another man tremble, giddy or sick of some fear 
ful disease, their apprehension and fear is so strong in this 
kind, that they will have the same disease. Or if by some 
soothsayer, wiseman, fortune-teller, or physician, they be told 
they shall have such a disease, they will so seriously appre 
hend it, that they will instantly labour of it. A thing familiar 
in China (saith Riccius the Jesuit), 2 " If it be told them they 
shall be sick on such a day, when that day comes they will 
surely be sick, and will be so terribly afflicted, that sometimes 
they die upon it." Dr. Cotta in his discovery of ignorant 
practitioners of physic, cap. 8, hath two strange stories to this 
purpose, what fancy is able to do. The one of a parson's 
wife in Northamptonshire, An. 1607, that coming to a physi 
cian, and told by him that she was troubled with the sciatica, 
as he conjectured (a disease she was free from), the same 
night after her return, upon his words, fell into a grievous fit 
of a sciatica ; and such another example he hath of another 
good wife, that was so troubled with the cramp, after the 
same manner she came by it, because her physician did but 
name it. Sometimes death itself is caused by force of fan 
tasy. I have heard of one that coming by chance in com 
pany of him that was thought to be sick of the plague (which 
was not so) fell down suddenly dead. Another was sick of 
the plague with conceit One seeing his fellow let blood falls 
down in a swoon. Another (saith 8 Cardan out of Aristotle), 
fell down dead (which is familiar to women at any ghastly 
sight), seeing but a man hanged. A Jew in France (saith 
4 Lodovicus Vives), came by chance over a dangerous pas 
sage or plank, that lay over a brook in the dark, without 

1 FT. Vales. 1. 6, cont. 6, nonnunquam tali die eos morbo corriplendos, II, nW 

Attain morbl diuturni consequuntur, dies advenerit, iu morbum incidunt, et 

quandoque curantur. 2 Expedit. in vi metils afflicti, cum spgritudine. all 

81nM, 1 1, c. 9, tantuni porro multi prse- quando etiam cum morte colluctantur 

Uctoribus hisce tribuunt ut ipse metus < Subtil. 18. 4 Lib. 3, de anima, cap 

flieui faciat : nam si prsedi-tum us fuerit de mel. 

Mem. 3, subs. 2.] Of the Force of Imagination. 341 

harm, the next day perceiving what danger he was in, fell 
down dead. Many will not believe such stories to be true, 
but laugh commonly, and deride when they hear of them 
but let these men consider with themselves, as * Peter Byarus 
illustrates it, If they were set to walk upon a plank on 
high, they would be giddy, upon which they dare securely 
walk upon the ground. Many (saith Agrippa), 2 " strong- 
hearted men otherwise, tremble at such sights, dazzle, and 
are sick, if they look but down from a high place, and what 
moves them but conceit ? " As some are so molested by fan 
tasy ; so some again, by fancy alone, and a good conceit, are 
as easily recovered. We see commonly the toothache, gout, 
falling-sickness, biting of a mad dog, and many such mala 
dies, cured by spells, words, characters, and charms, and 
many green wounds by that now so much used Unguentum 
Armaritim, magnetically cured, which Crollius and Goclenius 
in a book of late hath defended, Libavius in a just tract as 
stiffly contradicts, and most men controvert. All the world 
knows there is no virtue in such charms or cures, but a strong 
conceit and opinion alone, as 8 Pomponatius holds, " which 
forceth a motion of the humours, spirits, and blood, which 
takes away the cause of the malady from the parts affected." 
The like we may say of our magical effects, superstitious 
cures, and such as are done by mountebanks and wizards. 
" As by wicked incredulity many men are hurt (so saith 
* Wierus of charms, spells, &c.), we find in our experience, 
by the same means many are relieved." An empiric often 
times, and a silly chirurgeon, doth more strange cures than a 
rational physician. Nymannus gives a reason, because the 
patient puts his confidence in him, 4 which Avicenna " pre 
fers before art, precepts, and all remedies whatsoever." Tis 

1 Lib. de Peste. 2 Lib. 1, cap. 68. sangnis, ac tmi morbifieas causas parti- 
Ex alto despicientes aliqui pro timore bug affectis eripit. * Lib. 3, c. 18, de 
contremiscunt, caligant, infirmantur; praestig. TJt impia credulitate quis laedl- 
ric singultus, febres, morbi comitiales tur, sic et levari eundem credibile eet, 
qnandoque sequuntur, quandoque rece- usuque observatum < JEgri persuasio 
duTit. 3 Lib. de Incantatione. Im- et fiducia. omni arti et consilio et medl- 
aginatio gubitum humorum et spirituum cinse praeferenda. Avicen. 
motum infert, unde vario affectu rapitur 

342 Catises of Melancholy. [Part. I. we. i 

opinion alone (saith * Cardan), that makes or mars physicians, 
and he doth the best cures, according to Hippocrates, in whom 
most trust So diversely doth this fantasy of ours affect, 
turn, and wind, so imperiously command our bodies, which as 
another 2 " Proteus, or a chameleon, can take all shapes ; and 
is of such force (as Ficinus adds), that it can work upon 
others, as well as ourselves." How can otherwise blear eyes 
in one man cause the like affection in another ? Why doth 
one man's yawning 8 make another yawn ? One man's piss 
ing, provoke a second many times to do the like? Why doth 
scraping of trenchers offend a third, or hacking of files? 
Why doth a carcass bleed when the murderer is brought be- 
fors it, some weeks after the murder hath been done ? Why 
do witches and old women fascinate and bewitch children : 
but as Wierus, Paracelsus, Cardan, Mizaldus, Valleriola, 
Caesar Vanninus, Campanella, and many philosophers think, 
the forcible imagination of the one party moves and alters 
the spirits of the other. Nay more, they can cause and cure 
not only diseases, maladies and several infirmities, by this 
means, as Avicenna de anim. I. 4, sect. 4, supposeth in parties 
remote, but move bodies from their places, cause thunder, 
lightning, tempests, which opinion Alkindus, Paracelsus, and 
some others, approve of. So that I may certainly conclude 
this strong conceit or imagination is astrum honinis, and the 
rudder of this our ship, which reason should steer, but over 
borne by fantasy cannot manage, and so suffers itself and this 
whole vessel of ours to be overruled, and often overturned. 
Read more of this in Wierus, /. 3, de Lamiis, c. 8, 9, 10. 
Franciscus, Valesius med. controv. I. 5, cont. 6. Marcellus 
Donatus, 1. 2, c. 1, de hist. med. mirdbil. Levinus Lemnius, de 
occult, not. mir. I. 1, c. 12. Cardan, I. 18, de rerum var. 
Corn. Agrippa, de occult, philos. cap. 64, 65. Camerarius, 
1 cent. cap. 54, horarum subcis. Nymannus, morat. de Imag. 

1 Plures ganat In quern plures confl- Chamasleon, corpus proprlnm et alienum 

dunt. lib. de sapientia. * MivrclHus nonnunquam afflclens. * Cor oacitantef 

netting, 1. 18, e. 18, de theolog. Platonicft. oscitent, Wierus. 
fmaginatio eat tanquam Proteus Tel 

Mem. a, subs. 3.] Division of Perturbations. 343 

Laurentius, and him that is instar omnium, Fienus, a famous 
physician of Antwerp that wrote three books de viribus imagi 
nationis. I have thus far digressed, because this imagination 
is the medium deferens of passions, by whose means they 
work and produce many times prodigious effects ; and as the 
fantasy is more or less intended or remitted, and their hu 
mours disposed, so do perturbations move, more or less, and 
take deeper impression. 


SUBSECT. III. Division of Perturbations. 

PERTURBATIONS and passions, which trouble the fantasy, 
though they dwell between the confines of sense and reason, 
yet they rather follow sense than reason, because they are 
drowned in corporeal organs of sense. They are commonly 
1 reduced into two inclinations, irascible and concupiscible. 
The Thomists subdivide them into eleven, six in the covet 
ing, and five in the invading. Aristotle reduceth all to 
pleasure and pain, Plato to love and hatred, 2 Vives to good 
and bad. If good, it is present, and then we absolutely joy 
and love ; or to come, and then we desire and hope for it. 
If evil, we absolutely hate it ; if present, it is sorrow ; if to 
come, fear. These four passions 8 Bernard compares " to the 
wheels of a chariot, by which we are carried in this world." 
All other passions are subordinate unto these four, or six, as 
some will : love, joy, desire, hatred, sorrow, fear ; the rest, as 
anger, envy, emulation, pride, jealousy, anxiety, mercy, shame, 
discontent, despair, ambition, avarice, &c., are reducible unto 
the first ; and if they be immoderate, they 4 consume the 
spirits, and melancholy is especially caused by them. Some 
few discreet men there are, that can govern themselves, and 
curb in these inordinate affections, by religion, philosophy, 
and such divine precepts, of meekness, patience, and the 
like ; but most part for want of government, out of indiscre 
tion, ignorance, they suffer themselves wholly to be led by 

1 T. W. Jesuit. * 3, de Anhna. hoc nmndo. * Harum quippe fan mode 

* Ser. 35. Hse quatuor passiones aunt ratione, spirit us marcescunt. Fernet 
tanquain rotse in curru, quibus rehimur 1. 1. Path. o. 18. 

344 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. i. sec. a. 

sense, and are so far from repressing rebellious inclinations, 
that they give all encouragement unto them, leaving the 
reins, and using all provocations to further them ; bad by na 
ture, worse by art, discipline, * custom, education, and a per 
verse will of their own, they follow on, wheresoever their 
unbridled affections will transport them, and do more out of 
custom, self-will, than out of reason. Contumax voluntas 
as Melancthon calls it, malvm fadt : this stubborn will of 
ours perverts judgment, which sees and knows what should 
and ought to be done, and yet will not do it. Mancipia 
gulce, slaves to their several lusts and appetite, they precipi 
tate and plunge 2 themselves into a labyrinth of cares blinded 
with lust, blinded with ambition ; 8 " They seek that at God's 
hands which they may give unto themselves, if they could 
but refrain from those cares and perturbations, wherewith 
they continually macerate their minds." But giving way to 
these violent passions of fear, grief, shame, revenge, hatred, 
malice, &c., they are torn in pieces, as Actason was with his 
dogs, and * crucify their own souls. 

SUBSECT. IV. Sorrow, a Cause of Melancholy. 

Sorrow. Insanus dolor."] In this catalogue of passions, 
which so much torment the soul of man, and cause this 
malady (for I will briefly speak of them all, and in their 
order), the first place in this irascible appetite, may justly be 
challenged by sorrow. An inseparable companion, 6 " The 
mother and daughter of melancholy, her epitome, symptom, 
and chief cause ; " as Hippocrates hath it, they beget one 
another, and tread in a ring, for sorrow is both cause and 

1 Mal& eonsnetudine depraratur inge- turhationibus, quibus assidue 86 mace- 

Limn ne bene faciat. Prosper Calenus, rant, imperare vellent. * Tanto studU 

. de atrt bile. Plant feciunt homines 6 miseriarum causag, et alimenta dolorum 

consuetudine, quam e ratione. A tcneris quserimus, vitamque secus felicissimam, 

Hssut-jTcre multum est. Video meliora tristem et miserabilem efflcimus. Pe- 

proboque, deteriora sequor. Ovid. Ne- trarch. prsefat. de Itemediis, &c. * Ti- 

mo leeditur r.isi i seipso. 3 Multi se in mor et ina-sti tin . si din perseTerent, causa 

inquietudlnem praecipitant ambitione et soboles atri humoris sunt, et in circu 

etcupiditatibusexcaecati, non intelligunt lum se procreant. Hip. Aphoris. 28, 1. 6 

se illud i diis petere, quod aibi ipsig si Idem Montaltus, cap. 19. Victorius Far 

velint praestare possin', ri curls et per- entinus pract. iinag. 

Mem. 3, suos. 4.] Sorrow, a Cause. 345 

symptom of this disease. How it is a symptom shall be 
shown in its place. That it is a cause all the world acknowl- 
edgeth, Dolor nonnuHus insanice causa fuit, et aliorum mor- 
borum insandbilium, saith Plutarch to Apollonius ; a cause 
of madness, a cause of many other diseases, a sole cause of 
this mischief, 1 Lemnius calls it. So doth Rhasis, cont. L 1, 
tract. 9. Guianerius, Tract. 15, c. 5. And if it take root 
once, it ends in despair, as 2 Felix Plater observes, and as in 
8 Cebes's table may well be coupled with it. 4 Chrysostom 
in his seventeenth epistle to Olympia, describes it to be a 
cruel torture of the soul, a most inexplicable grief, poisoned 
worm, consuming body and soul, and gnawing the very heart, 
a perpetual executioner, continual night, profound darkness, a 
whirlwind, a tempest, an ague not appearing, heating worse 
than any fire, and a battle that hath no end. It crucifies 
worse than any tyrant ; no torture, no strappado, no bodily 
punishment is like unto it. 'Tis the eagle without question 
which the poets feigned to gnaw 8 Prometheus heart, and " no 
heaviness is like unto the heaviness of the heart," Eccles. 
xxv. 15, 16. '"Every perturbation is a misery, but 
grief a cruel torment," a domineering passion ; as in old 
Rome, when the Dictator was created, all inferior magistra 
cies ceased ; when grief appears, all other passions vanish. 
" It dries up the bones," saith Solomon, ch. 17, Prov., 
"makes them hollow-eyed, pale, and lean, furrow-faced, to 
have dead looks, wrinkled brows, shrivelled cheeks, dry bod 
ies, and quite perverts their temperature that are misaffected 
with it. As Eleonora, that exiled mournful duchess (in our 
7 English Ovid), laments to her noble husband Humphrey, 
duke of Glocester, 

1 Haiti ex moerore et me tu hue delapsi consumens, jugis nox, et tenebrae profun- 

aunt. Lemn. lib. 1, cap. 16. - MuM dae, tempestas et turbo et febris non ap- 

curft et tristitia faciunt accedere melan- parens, omni igne validius incendena ; 

choliam (cap. 3, de mentis alien.) si altas longior, et pugna? flnem non habens 

radices agat, in veram fixamque degene- crucem circumfert dolor, facu-mque omni 

rat melancholiam et in desperationem tyranno crudeliorem prae se fert. 6 Nat. 

tosinit. 3 Die Inctus, ejus yero soror Comes Mythol. 1. 4, c. 6. Tully 8, 

desperatio slmul ponitur. * Animarnm Tnsc. omnis perturbatio miseria et car- 

crudele tormentum, dolor inexplicabilis, nificiua eat dolor. " M. Dravton in nil 

tinea, non solum ossa sed corda pertin- Her. ep. 
i?cns, perpetuus carnifez, Tires anima> 

346 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 1 

* Sawest thou those eyes in whose sweet c heerful look 
Duke Humphry once such joy and pleasure took, 
Sorrow hath so despoil'd me of all grace, 
Thou could'st not say this was my Elnor's face. 
Like a foul Gorgon," &c. 

1 " it hinders concoction, refrigerates the heart, takes away 
stomach, colour, and sleep, thickens the blood ( 2 Ferneliu.s 
/. 1, cap. 18, de morb. causis), contaminates the spirits." 
(* Piso.) Overthrows the natural heat, perverts the good 
estate of body and mind, and makes them weary of their 
lives, cry out, howl and roar for very anguish of their souls. 
David confessed as much, Psalm xxxviii. 8, " I have roared 
for the very disquietness of my heart." And Psalm cxix. 
4 part, 4 v. " My soul melteth away for very heaviness," 
v. 83, " I am like a bottle in the smoke." Antiochus com 
plained that he could not sleep, and that his heart fainted for 
grief, * Christ himself, Vir dolorum, out of an apprehension 
of grief, did sweat blood, Mark xiv. " His soul was heavy to 
the death, and no sorrow was like unto his." Crato consil. 
21, L 2, gives instance in one that was so melancholy by rea 
son of 'grief; and Montanus consil. 30, in a noble matron, 
* " that had no other cause of this mischief." I. S. D. in 
Hildesheim, fully cured a patient of his that was much 
troubled with melancholy, and for many years, T " but after 
wards, by a little occasion of sorrow, he fell into his former 
fits, and was tormented as before." Examples are common, 
how it causeth melancholy, 8 desperation, and sometimes death 
itself; for (Eccles. xxxviii. 15), "Of heaviness comes death; 
worldly sorrow causeth death." 2 Cor. vii. 10, Psalm xxxi. 
10. " My life is wasted with heaviness, and my years with 
mourning." Why was Hecuba said to be turned to a dog ? 
Niobe into a stone ? but that for grief she was senseless and 

1 Crato connil. 21, lib. 2, moestitia uni- vi. 16, 11. 6 Moerore maceror, mar- 

Tersum infrigidat corpus, calorem ID- cesco et consenesco miser, ossa atqu 

natum extioguit, appetitum destruit. pellis sum miaera macritudine. Plant. 

* Cor refrigerat tristitin. spiritus ex- 6 Malum inceptum et actum a tristitin 

siccat, innatumque calorem ohruit. sola. * Hildesheim. spicel. 2. de mel 

vigilian inducit, concoctionem labefactat, ancholia, moerore animi postea accedente, 

amguinem incrassat, exaggeratque mel- in priora symptomata incidlt. * ViTM 

ancholicum sucoum. * Spiritus et san- 8, de anima, c. de moerore, Sabin. in 

(uta hoc coutainiuatur. Piso. * Marc, Grid. 

Mem. 8, subs. 5.] Fear, a Cause. #47 

stupid. Severus, the Emperor, *died for grief; and how 
* many myriads besides ? Tanta itti est feritas, tanta est 
insania luctus* Melancthon gives a reason of it, 4 "the 
gathering of much melancholy hlood about the heart, which 
collection extinguisheth the good spirits, or at least dulleth 
them, sorrow strikes the heart, makes it tremble and pine 
away, with great pain ; and the black blood drawn from the 
spleen, and diffused under the ribs, on the left side, makes 
those perilous hypochondriacal convulsions, which happen to 
them that are troubled with sorrow." 

SUBSECT. V. Fear, a Cause. 

COTJSIN-GEKMAN to sorrow is fear, or rather a sister, Jldus 
Achates, and continual companion, an assistant and a prin 
cipal agent in procuring of this mischief ; a cause and symp 
tom as the other. In a word, as 6 Virgil of the Harpies, 
I may justly say of them both, 

" Tristius hand illis monstrum, nee ssevior ulla 
Pesti8 et ira Deum stygiis sese extulit nndis." 

" A sadder monster, or more cruel plague so fell, 
Or vengeance of the gods, ne'er came from Styx or Hell." 

This foul fiend of fear was worshipped heretofore as a god 
by the Lacedaemonians, and most of those other torturing 
'affections, and so was sorrow amongst the rest, under the 
name of Angerona Dea, they stood in such awe of them, as 
Austin de Civitat. Dei, lib. 4, cap. S, noteth out of Varro, fear 
was commonly 7 adored and painted in their temples with a 
lion's head; and as Macrobius records, I. 10, Saturnalium; 
8 " hi the calends of January, Angerona had her holy day, to 

1 Herodian. 1, 3, man-ore magis quam accidit Us qui dititurna cura et moestttia 

morbo consumptuft est. 2 Bothwellius conflictantur. Melancthon. 6 Lib, 8, 

atribilarius obiit. Brixarrns Genuensis Ma. 4. Et metum ideo deam sa- 

hist. &c 3 So great is the fierceness cr&rnnt ut bonam nientem concederet. 

and madness of melancholy. * Moes- Varro, Lactantius, Aug. t Lilius 

titia cor quasi percussum constringitur, Girald. Syntag. 1, de diis miscellaniis. 

(remit et languescit cum acti sensu do- 8 Oalendis Jan. feriae aunt divae Ange- 

loris. In tristitia cor fugiens attrahit ex ronae, cui pontifices in sacello Volupiae 

Bplene lentum humorein melancholicum, sacra faciunt, quod angorcs et animi sol 

%ui effusus sub costis in sinistro latere licitudines propitiata propellat. 
hypochondriacos flatus facit, quod ssepe 

348 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2 

whom in the temple of Volupia, or goddess of pleasure, their 
augurs and bishops did yearly sacrifice ; that, being propitious 
to them, she might expel all cares, anguish, and vexation of 
the mind for that year following." Many lamentable effects 
this fear causeth in men, as to be red, pale, tremble, sweat, 
1 it makes sudden cold and heat to come over all the body, 
palpitation of the heart, syncope, &c. It amazeth many men 
that are to speak, or show themselves in public assemblies, or 
before some great personages, as Tully confessed of himself, 
that he trembled still at the beginning of his speech ; and 
Demosthenes, that great orator of Greece, before Philippus. 
It confounds voice and memory, as Lucian wittingly brings 
in Jupiter Tragoedus, so much afraid of his auditory, when he 
was to make a speech to the rest of the gods, that he could 
not utter a ready word, but was compelled to use Mercury's 
help in prompting. Many men are so amazed and astonished 
with fear, they know not where they are, what they say, 
'what they do, and that which is worse, it tortures them 
many days before with continual affrights and suspicion. It 
hinders most honourable attempts, and makes their hearts 
ache, sad and heavy. They that live in fear are never free, 
* resolute, secure, never merry, but in continual pain ; that, 
as Vives truly said, NuUa est miseria major quam metus, no 
greater misery, no rack, nor torture like unto it, ever sus 
picious, anxious, solicitous, they are childishly drooping with 
out reason, without judgment, * " especially if some terrible 
object be offered," as Plutarch hath it. It causeth oftentimes 
sudden madness, and almost all manner of diseases, as I have 
sufficiently illustrated in my 6 digression of the force of imag 
ination, and shall do more at large in my section of ' terrors. 
Fear makes our imagination conceive what it list, invites the 

1 Timor inducit frigus, cordis palpita- moriam consternat, sed et Institutnm 

ttonem, vocig defectum atque pallorem. nnimi omne et laudabilem conatum im- 

Agrippa, lib. 1, cap. 68. Timldi semper pedlt. Thucydides. * Lib. de ford- 

plritus habent frlgidos. Mont. * EfTu- Incline et virtute Alexandri, ubi prop* 

8M cernens fugientes agmine turmas; res adfuit terribilis. * Sect. 2, Memb. ft 

quli mea nunc Inflat cornua Faunus Subs. 2. * Sect. 2, Memb 4, Sub*. 8. 
alt? Alclat. * Metus non solum me- 

Mem. 3, subs. 6.] Shame and Disgrace, Causes. 34S 

devil to come to us, as J Agrippa and Cardan avouch, and 
tyrannizeth over our fantasy more than all other affections, 
especially in the dark. We see this verified in most men, as 
8 Lavater saith, QIUB metuunt, fingunt ; what they fear they 
conceive, and feign unto themselves ; they think they see 
goblins, hags, devils, and many times become melancholy 
thereby. Cardan, subtil, lib. 18, hath an example of such an 
one, so caused to be melancholy (by sight of a bugbear) all 
his life after. Augustus Caesar durst not sit in the dark, mat 
aliquo assidente, saith 8 Suetonius, Nunquam tenebris evigilavit. 
And 'tis strange what women and children will conceive unto 
themselves, if they go over a churchyard in the night, lie, or 
be alone in a dark room, how they sweat and tremble on a 
sudden. Many men are troubled with future events, fore 
knowledge of their fortunes, destinies, as Severus the em 
peror, Adrian and Domitian, Quod sciret uUimum vitce diem, 
saith Suetonius, valde solicitus, much tortured in mind because 
he foreknew his end ; with many such, of which I shall speak 
more opportunely in another place. 4 Anxiety, mercy, pity, 
indignation, &c., and such fearful branches derived from these 
two stems of fear and sorrow, I voluntarily omit ; read more 
of them in 6 Carolus Pascalius, 6 Dandinus, &c. 

SUBSECT. VI. Shame and Disgrace, Causes. 

SHAME and disgrace cause most violent passions and bitter 
pangs. Ob pudorem et dedecus publicum, ob errorem commit- 
sum seepe moventur generosi animi (Felix Plater, lib. 3, de 
alienat. mentis) : Generous minds are often moved with 
shame, to despair for some public disgrace. And he, saith 
Philo, lib. 2, de provid. dei, * " that subjects himself to fear, 
grief, ambition, shame, is not happy, but altogether miserable, 
tortured with continual labour, care, and misery." It is as 

1 Subtil. 18, lib. timor attrahit ad se Com. in Arist. de Anima. * Qnl 

Daemonas. timor et error multum in mentem subjecit timoris domination!, 

hominibus possunt. ' Lib. 2, Spectris cupiditatis. doloris, ambitionis, pudoris 

ea. &, fortes raro spectra vident. qnia felix non est, sed omnin miser, assiiuls 

minus timent. 3 Vita ejus. * Sect. 2, laboribus torquetur et misena. 
Uemb. 4, Subs. 7. * De virt. et vitiia 

350 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a 

forcible a batterer as any of the rest ; 1 " Many men neglect 
the tumults of the world, and care not for glory, and yet they 
are afraid of infamy, repulse, disgrace, (Tul. offic. I 1,) they 
can severely contemn pleasure, bear grief indifferently, but 
they are quite 3 battered and broken with reproach and oblo 
quy ;" (siquidem vita etfama pari passu ambulant) and are 
so dejected many times for some public injury, disgrace, as a 
box on the ear by their inferior, to be overcome of their ad 
versary, foiled in the field, to be out in a speech, some foul 
fact committed or disclosed, &c., that they dare not come 
abroad all their lives after, but melancholize in corners, and 
keep in holes. The most generous spirits are most subject to 
it ; Spiritus altos frangit et generosos : Hieronymus. Aris 
totle, because he could not understand the motion of Euripus, 
for grief and shame drowned himself : Ccdius Rodiginus an- 
tiquar. lee. lib. 29, cap. 8. Homerus pudore consumptus, was 
swallowed up with this passion of shame 8 " because he could 
not unfold the fisherman's riddle." Sophocles killed himself, 
4 " for that a tragedy of his was hissed off the stage : " Valer. 
Max. lib. 9, cap. 12. Lucretia stabbed herself, and so did 
Cleopatra, " when she saw that she was reserved for a tri 
umph, to avoid the infamy." Antonius the Roman, 6 " after 
he was overcome of his enemy, for three days' space sat soli 
tary in the fore-part of the ship, abstaining from all company, 
even of Cleopatra herself, and afterwards for very shame 
butchered himself," Plutarch vita ejus. "Apollonius Rho- 
dius 7 wilfully banished himself, forsaking his country, and all 
his dear friends, because he was out in reciting his poems," 
Plinius, lib. 7, cap. 23. Ajax ran mad, because his arms 
were adjudged to Ulysses. In China 'tis an ordinary thing 
for such as are excluded in those famous trials of theirs, or 

1 Multi contemnunt mundi 8trepltum, vere non posset. * Ob Tragoediam 

nptitant pro nihilo gloriam, sed timent explosain, mortem sibi Rladio conscivit. 

Infamiani, offensionem, repulsam. Vo- 6 Cum vidit in triumphum se servari, 

Inptatem seYerisgime contemnunt, in causa ejus ignominise vitandte mortem 

dolore sunt molliores, gloriam negligunt, sibi conscivit Plut. 8 Bello rictus, 

franguntur infaniia. 2 Orayius con- per tres dies sedit in prora navis, absti- 

tnmeliam feriraus quam detrimentum, ni nens ab omni consortio, etiam Cleopatrse, 

ftbjecto nimis animo simus. Plut. in postea se interfecit. ; Cum HIM].'- red- 

Timol 3 Quod piscatoris acriignia sol- tasset Argonautica, ob pudorem exularit 

Mem. 3, subs. 6.] Shame and Disgrace, Causes. 351 

should take degrees, for shame and grief to lose theii wits, 
1 Mat. Ricdus expedit. ad Sinas, I. 3, c. 9. Hostratus the 
friar took that hook which Eeuchlin had writ against him, 
under the name of Epist. obscurorum virorum, so to heart, 
that for shame and grief he made away himself, 2 Jovius in 
el off Us. A grave and learned minister, and an ordinary 
preacher at Alcmar in Holland, was (one day as he walked 
in the fields for his recreation) suddenly taken with a lax or 
looseness, and thereupon compelled to retire to the next 
ditch; but being 'surprised at unawares, by some gentle 
women of his parish wandering that way, was so abashed, 
that he did never after show his head in public, or come into 
the pulpit, but pined away with melancholy : (Pet. Forestvts 
med. observat. lib. 10, observat. 12.) So shame amongst other 
passions can play his prize. 

I know there be many base, impudent, brazen-faced rogues, 
that will 4 Nulld pallescere culpd, be moved with nothing, take 
no infamy or disgrace to heart, laugh at all ; let them be 
proved perjured, stigmatized, convict rogues, thieves, traitors, 
lose their ears, be whipped, branded, carted, pointed at, hissed, 
reviled, and derided with 6 Ballio the Bawd in Plautus, they 
rejoice at it, Cantores probos ; " babse and bombax," what 
care they ? We have too many such in our times, 

" Exclamat Melicerta pertsse 
Frontem de rebus," 8 

Yet a modest man, one that hath grace, a generous spirit, 
tender of his reputation, will be deeply wounded, and so 
grievously affected with it, that he had rather give myriads 

1 Quidam prse verecundia simul et Ps. Verbero. B. quippeni? Ps. furcifer. 

dolore In insaniam incidunt, eo quod a B. factum optime. Ps. seel fraude. B. 

literatorum gradu in examine excludun- sunt mea istsec. Ps. parricida. B. perg 

tur. 2 Hostratus cucullatus adeo tu. Ps. sacrilege. B. fateor. Ps. perjure, 

^raviter ob Reuclini librum, qui inscribi- B. vera dicis. Ps. pernities adolewentum. 

tur, Epistolse obscurorum virorum, do- B. acerrime. Ps. fur. B. babse. Ps. fugl- 

lore simul et pudore sauciatus, ut seip- tive. B. bombax! Ps. fraus popu'.i. B. 

Fum interfecerit. 3 Propter ruborem Planissime. Ps. impure leno, coenum. 

confusus, statim coepit delirare, &n., ob B. cantores probos. Pseudolus, Act. 1. 

Huspicionem, quod vili ilium criinine ac- Seen. 3. Melicerta exclaims, " all 

cusarent. *IIorat. 6 Ps. Impudice. shame bas vanished from burnt n trans- 

B Ita est. Ps. sceleste. B. dicis vera. actions." Persius, Sat. 6. 

352 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a 

of crowns, lose his life, than suffer the least defamation of 
honour, or blot in his good name. And if so be that he can 
not avoid it, as a nightingale, Qua cantando victa moritur 
(saith 1 Mizaldus), dies for shame if another bird sing better, 
he languisheth and pineth away in the anguish of his spirit 

SUBSECT. VII. Envy, Malice, Hatred, Causes. 

ENVY and malice are two links of this chain, and both, as 
Guianerius Tract. 15, cap. 2, proves out of Galen 3 Aphor 
ism, com. 22, 2 " cause this malady by themselves, especially 
if their bodies be otherwise disposed to melancholy." "Tis 
Valescus de Taranta, and Foelix Platerus's observation, 
8 u Envy so gnaws many men's hearts, that they become alto 
gether melancholy." And therefore belike Solomon, Prov. 
xiv. 13, calls it, " the rotting of the bones," Cyprian, vidmu 

occultum ; 

4 " Siculi non invenere tyranni 
Majus tormentum " 

The Sicilian tyrants never invented the like torment. It 
crucifies their souls, withers their bodies, makes them hollow- 
eyed, 8 pale, lean, and ghastly to behold, Cyprian, ser. 2, de 
zelo et livore. 8 "As a moth gnaws a garment, so," saith 
Chrysostom, " doth envy consume a man ; to be a living 
anatomy ; a skeleton, to be a lean and 7 pale carcass, quick 
ened with a 8 fiend," Hall in Charact. for so often as an en 
vious wretch sees another man prosper, to be enriched, to 
thrive, and be fortunate in the world, to get honours, offices, 
or the like, he repines and grieves. 

9 " intabescitque videndo 
Successus hominum suppliciumque suum est." 

1 Cent. 7 e Plinlo. Multos videmus consumit. 1 Pallor in ore sedet, 

propter invidiam et odium in melan- macies in corpora toto. Nusquam recta 

choliam incidiase: et ill' is potissiinum acies, livent ruhigine denies. 8 Diaboli 

quorum corpora ad hanc apta sunt expressa Imago, toxicumcharitatis, vene- 

* Invidiii affligit homines adeo et corrodit, mini amicitiae, abyssus mentis, non est 
ut hi melancholic! penitus fiant. * Hnr. eo monstrosius monstrum, damnoniug 

* His vultus minax. torvus aspectus, pal- damnum, urit, torret, discruciat, macie 
lor in facie, in labiis tremor, stridor in et squalore conficit. Austin. Domin. pri- 
dentibus, &c. Ut tinea corrodit ves- mi Advent. 9 Ovid. He pines away at 
timtntuiu, sic invidia cum qul zelatur the sight of another's success it il 

Mem. 3, subs. 7.] Envy, Malice, Hatred, Causes. 353 

He tortures himself if his equal, friend, neighbour, be pre 
ferred, commended, do well ; if he understand of it, it galls 
him afresh ; and no greater pain can come to him than tc 
hear of another man's well-doing ; 'tis a dagger at his heart 
every such object He looks at him as they that fell down 
in Lucian's rock of honour, with an envious eye, and will 
damage himself to do another a mischief: Atque cadet subito, 
dum super hoste cadat. As he did in _<Esop, lose one eye 
willingly, that his fellow might lose both, or that rich man in 

* Quintilian that poisoned the flowers in his garden, because 
his neighbour's bees should get no more honey from them. 
His whole life is sorrow, and every word he speaks a satire ; 
nothing fats him but other men's ruins. For to speak in a 
word, envy is nought else but Tristitia de bonis alienis, sor 
row for other men's good, be it present, past, or to come ; et 
gaudium de adversis, and J joy at their harms, opposite to 
mercy, 2 which grieves at other men's mischances, and mis- 
affects the body in another kind ; so Damascen defines it, lib. 
2, de orthod. fid. Thomas 2, 2, qucest. 36, art. 1, Aristotle, 
I 2, Bhet. c. 4 et 10, Plato Philebo., Tully 3 Tusc., Greg. 
Nic. I. de virt. animce, c. 12, Basil, de Invidia, Pindarus Od. 
1, ser. 5, and we find it true. 'Tis a common disease, and 
almost natural to us, as 8 Tacitus holds, to envy another man's 
prosperity. And 'tis in most men an incurable disease. * " I 
have read," saith Marcus Aurelius, " Greek, Hebrew, Chal- 
dee authors ; I have consulted with many wise men for a 
remedy for envy, I could find none, but to renounce all hap 
piness, and to be a wretch, and miserable for ever." 'Tis the 
beginning of hell in this life, and a passion not to be excused. 

* " Every other sin hath some pleasure annexed to it, or will 

his special torture. * Declam. 13, lini- situm mortalibns a natura recentem all- 
Tit flores maleficia guccis in yenenum orum faelicitatem segris oculia intueri, 
mella converters. 1 Statuis cereis Ba- hist. 1. 2. Tacit. * Legi Chaldaeos, 
silius eos comparat, qui Uquefiunt ad Grsecos, Hebraeos, consului sapieotes pro 
praesentiam solis, qua alii gandent et or- remedio invidiae. hoc enlm inveni, renun- 
nantur. Muscis alii, quae ulceribus gau- clare felicitati, et perpetud miser esse. 
dent, amcena praetereunt, sistunt in foet- 6 Oinne peccatum aut excusationem se- 
Idis. - Misericordia etiam quae tristi- cum habet, aut voluptatem, sola invidia 
tla qusedam eat, saepe miserantis corpus utraque caret, reliqua vitia finem ba- 
male afflcit Agrippa. 1. 1, cap. 68. 8 In- bent, ira defervescit, gala satiatur, odi- 
VOL. i. 23 

354 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. sec. a 

admit of an excuse ; envy alone wants both. Other sins last 
but for awhile ; the gut may be satisfied, anger remits, 
hatred hath an end, envy never ceaseth." Cardan, lib. 2, de 
sap. Divine and human examples are very familiar; you 
may run and read them, as that of Saul and David, Cain and 
Abel, angebat ilium non proprium peccatum, sedfratris pros- 
peritas, saith Theodoret, it was his brother's good fortune 
galled him. Rachel envied her sister, being barren, Gen. 
xxx. Joseph's brethren, him, Gen. xxxvii. David had a 
touch of this vice, as he confesseth, 1 Ps. 37. a Jeremy and 
8 Habakkuk, they repined at others' good, but in the end they 
corrected themselves. Ps. 75, " fret not thyself," &c. Domi- 
tian spited Agricola for his worth, 4 "that a private man 
should be so much glorified." 8 Cecinna was envied of his 
fellow-citizens, because he was more richly adorned. But 
of all others, 8 women are most weak, ob pulchritudinem in- 
vidce sunt fcemince (Musceus) out amat, aut odit, nihil est 
tertiwn (Granatensis). They love or hate, no medium 
amongst them. Implacabiles plerumque Icesce mulieres, Agrip- 
pina like, 7 u A woman if she see her neighbour more neat 
or elegant, richer in tires, jewels, or apparel is enraged, and 
like a lioness sets upon her husband, rails at her, scoffs at 
her, and cannot abide her ; " so the Roman ladies in Tacitus 
did at Solonina, Cecinna's wife, 8 " because she had a better 
horse, and better furniture, as if she had hurt them with it ; 
they were much offended." In like sort our gentlewomen do 
at their usual meetings, one repines or scoffs at another's 
bravery and happiness. Myrsine, an Attic wench, was mur 
dered of her fellows, '"because she did excel the rest in 
beauty," Constantine Agricult. I. 11, c. 7. Every village 
will yield such examples. 

urn finem habet, inridia nunqnam qui- Guianerius, lib. 2, cap. 8, Tim. M. Aure- 

escit. 1 Ure 
Btnltos. > Hi 

Invi.lit priva 

:bat me eemulatio propter lii foemina vicinum elegantiua se vestitara 

Elier. 12, 1. Hab. 1. videng, lesense inatar in virum Insurgit, 

- ,,nvdti nomen supra prineipis &o. 8 Quod insigni equo et ve- 
attoUi. 5 Tacit. Hist. lib. 2, part 6. heretur, quanquam nullius cum injuria, 

Periturae dolore et invidia, si quern rid- ornatum ilium tanquam laesse gravaban 
rint ornatiorem se in publlcum prodi- tur. Quod pulchritudine omnes e 
taM. Platina dial, amornm. ' Ant. oelleret, paellw indignatfe occiderunt 

Mem. 3, subs. 8.] Emulation, Hatred, Syc 355 

SUBSECT. VIII. Emulation, Hatred, Faction, Desire of 

Revenge, Causes. 

OUT of this root of envy 1 spring those feral branches of 
faction, hatred, livor, emulation, which cause the like griev 
ances, and are, serree anima, the saws of the soul, * consterna- 
tionis pleni affectus, affections full of desperate amazement ; 
or as Cyprian describes emulation, it is 2u a moth of the soul, 
a consumption to make another man's happiness his misery, 
to torture, crucify, and execute himself, to eat his own heart. 
Meat and drink can do such men no good, they do always 
grieve, sigh, and groan, day and night without intermission, 
their breast is torn asunder ; " and a little after, 8 " Whom 
soever he is whom thou dost emulate and envy, he may 
avoid thee, but thou canst neither avoid him nor thyself; 
wheresoever thou art he is with thee, thine enemy is ever in 
thy breast, thy destruction is within thee, thou art a captive, 
bound hand and foot, as long as thou art malicious and envi 
ous, and canst not be comforted. It was the devil's over 
throw ; " and whensoever thou art thoroughly affected with 
this passion, it will be thine. Yet no perturbation so fre 
quent, no passion so common. 

4 Ko2 KepafjiEdf icepapel /coreet not TSKTOVI TKTUV, 
Koi irruxdf trruxv <t>&oveet Ka2 aouSbf uoidti. 

A potter emulates a potter ; 

One smith envies another: 
A beggar emulates a beggar: 

A singing man his brother 

i Late patet Invidiae foecundae pemities, dies et noctes, pectns sine Intermission* 

et livor radix omnium malorum, fons laceratnr. 3 Quisquis est Hie quem 

cladium, inde odium surgit, emulatio. aemularis. cui invides is te subterfuge** 

Cyprian, ser. 2, de Livore. * Valerius, potest, at tu non te ubicunque fugeria, 

1. 3, cap. 9. - Quails est animi tinea, adversarius tuus tecnm est, hostis tung 

quse tabes pectoris zelare in altero vel semper in pectore tuo est, pernicies intui 

liorum ftelicitatem suam facere miseri- inclusa, ligatus es, rictus, zelo domi- 

am, et velut quosdam pectori suo admo- nante captirus : nee solatia tibi ulla sub- 

Tere carnifioes, cogitationibua et sensibus veniunt : hinc diabolus inter initia statin 

suis adhibere tortores, qui se intestinis mundi. et periit primus, et perdidit, 

eruciatibus lacerent. Non cibus talibus Cyprian, ser. 2, de zelo et livnre. 

ltus, non potus potest esse jucundus; * Hesiod. Op. et Dies. 
suspiratur semper et gemitur, et doletur 

356 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. z 

Every society, corporation, and private family is foil of it, it 
takes hold almost of all sorts of men, from the prince to 
the ploughman, even amongst gossips it ia to be seen, scarce 
three in a company but there is siding, faction, emulation, 
between two of them, some simultas, jar, private grudge, 
heart-burning in the midst of them. Scarce two gentlemen 
dwell together in the country (if they be not near kin or 
linked in marriage), but there is emulation betwixt them 
and their servants, some quarrel or some grudge betwixt 
their wives or children, friends and followers, some conten 
tion about wealth, gentry, precedency, &c., by means of 
which, like the frog in * JEsop, " that would swell till she was 
as big as an ox, burst herself at last ; " they will stretch be 
yond their fortunes, callings, and strive so long that they con 
sume their substance in lawsuits, or otherwise in hospitality, 
feasting, fine clothes, to get a few bombast titles, for ambi- 
tiosd paupertate Idboramus omnes, to outbrave one another, 
they will tire their bodies, macerate their souls, and through 
contentions or mutual invitations beggar themselves. Scarce 
two great scholars in an age, but with bitter invectives they 
fall foul one on the other, and their adherents; Scotists, 
Thomists, Reals, Nominals, Plato and Aristotle, Galenists 
and Paracelsians, &c., it holds in all professions. 

Honest 2 emulation in studies, in all callings is not to be 
disliked, 'tis ingeniorum cos, as one calls it, the whetstone of 
wit, the nurse of wit and valour, and those noble Romans out 
of this spirit did brave exploits. There is a modest am 
bition, as Themistocles was roused up with the glory of Mil- 
tiades ; Achilles's trophies moved Alexander, 

* " Ambire semper, stnlta confidentia est, 
Ambire nunquam, deses arrogantia est." 

Tis a sluggish humour not to emulate or to sue at all, to 
withdraw himself, neglect, refrain from such places, honours, 

1 Rnna cnpida seqnandi bovem. se dls- Bptff. lib. 1. " Ambition always IB 
tendebat, &c. * jEomlatio alit ingenla : foolish confidence, never a slothful arro- 
Pmtareulus poster. TO!. * Grottos, gance." 

Mem. 3, subs. 8.] Emulation, Hatred, tyc. 357 

offices, through sloth, niggardliness, fear, bashfulness, or 
otherwise, to which -by his birth, place, fortunes, education^ 
he is called, apt, fit, and well able to undergo ; but when it is 
immoderate, it is a plague and a miserable pain. What a 
deal of money did Henry VIII. and Francis I. king of 
France, spend at that x famous interview? and how many vain 
courtiers, seeking each to outbrave other, spent themselves, 
their livelihood and fortunes, and died beggars ? 2 Adrian the 
emperor was so galled with it, that he killed all his equals ; 
so did Nero. This passion made 8 Dionysius the tyrant 
banish Plato and Philoxenus the poet, because they did excel 
and eclipse his glory, as he thought ; the Romans exile Co- 
riolanus, confine Camillus, murder Scipio ; the Greeks by 
ostracism to expel Aristides, Nicias, Alcibiades, imprison 
Theseus, make away Phocion, &c. When Richard I. and 
Philip of France were fellow soldiers together, at the siege 
of Aeon in the Holy Land, and Richard had approved him 
self to be the more valiant man, insomuch that all men's eyes 
were upon him, it so galled Philip, Francum urebat Regis 
victoria, saith mine 4 author, tarn cegre ferebat Richardi 
gloriam, itt carpere dicta, calumniari facta ; that he cavilled 
at all his proceedings, and fell at length to open defiance ; 
he could contain no longer, but hasting home, invaded his 
territories, and professed open war. " Hatred stirs up con 
tention," Prov. x. 12, and they break out at last into immor 
tal enmity, into virulency, and more than Vatinian hate and 
rage ; * they persecute each other, their friends, followers, 
and all their posterity, with bitter taunts, hostile wars, scur- 
rile invectives, libels, calumnies, fire, sword, and the like, and 
will not be reconciled. Witness that Guelph and Ghibel- 
line faction in Italy ; that of the Adurni and Fregosi in 
Genoa ; that of Cneius Papirius, and Quintus Fabius in 
Rome ; Caesar and Pompey ; Orleans and Burgundy in 

1 Anno 1519, between Ardes and Quine. rem. .Sterna bella pace sublatd gernnt. 

Spartian. 3 Plutarch. 4 Johannes Jurat odium, nee ante invisum OSM 

Heraldus. 1. 2, c. 12, de bello sacr. desinit, quam esse desiit. Paterculua, 

* Nulla dies taut urn poterit lenire f uro yol. 1. 

368 Games of Melancholy. [Part. l. sec. 2 

France , Yoik and Lancaster in England ; yea, this passion 
so rageth 1 many times, that it subverts not men only, and 
families, but even populous cities, * Carthage and Corinth 
can witness as much, nay flourishing kingdoms are brought 
into a wilderness by it. This hatred, malice, faction, and 
desire of revenge, invented first all those racks and wheels, 
strappadoes, brazen bulls, feral engines, prisons, inquisitions, 
severe laws to macerate and torment one another. How 
happy might we be, and end our time with blessed days and 
sweet content, if we could contain ourselves, and, as we ought 
to do, put up injuries, learn humility, meekness, patience, 
forget and forgive, as in 3 God's word we are enjoined, com 
pose such final controversies amongst ourselves, moderate 
our passions in this kind, " and think better of others," as 
* Paul would have us, " than of ourselves : be of like affection 
one towards another, and not avenge ourselves, but have 
peace with all men." But being that we are so peevish and 
perverse, insolent and proud, so factious and seditious, so 
malicious and envious ; we do invicem angariare, maul and 
vex one another, torture, disquiet, and precipitate ourselves 
into that gulf of woes and cares, aggravate our misery and 
melancholy, heap upon us hell and eternal damnation. 

SUBSECT. IX. Anger, a Cause. 

ANGER, a perturbation, which carries the spirits outwards, 
preparing the body to melancholy, and madness itself; Ira 
furor brevis est, " anger is temporary madness ; " and as 4 Pic- 
colomineus accounts it, one of the three most violent passions. 
5 Areteus sets it down for an especial cause (so doth Seneca, 
ep. 18, 1.1) of this malady. 6 Magninus gives the reason, 
Exfrequenti ira supra modum calefiunt ; it overheats their 
bodies, and if it be too frequent, it breaks out into manifest 

1 Ita s-i-vit haec stygia ministra ut ur- * Paul. 8 Col. * Rom. 12. < Orad. 

bes Hiibvertat aliquando, deleat populos, 1. c. 54. 5 Ira et moeror et ingens ani- 

provincias alioqui florentes redigat in sol- mi consternatio melancholicos faclt. 

itudines, mortales vero iniscros in pro- Areteus. Ira immodicagignit insaniam. 

funda miseriarum valle miserabiliter im- 6 Reg. Sanit. parte 2, c. 8. in apertam 

mergat. * Carthago tcmula Roman! insaniam mox ducitur iratuB. 
imperil funditus interilt. Salust. Catil. 

Mtm. 3, subs. 9.] Anger, a Cause. 359 

madness, saith St. Ambrose. 'Tis a known saying, Furor fit 
Icesa sfepius patientia, the most patient spirit that is, if he be 
often provoked, will be incensed to madness ; it will make a 
devil of a saint ; and therefore Basil (belike) in his Homily 
de Ird, calls it tenebras rationis, morbum animee, et dcemonem 
vessimum ; the darkening of our understanding, and a bad 
angel. 1 Lucian, in Abdicate, torn. 1, will have this passion 
to work this effect, especially in old men and women. " Anger 
and calumny (saith he) trouble them at first, and after awhile 
break out into madness ; many things cause fury in women, 
especially if they love or hate overmuch, or envy, be much 
grieved or angry ; these things by little and little lead them 
on to this malady." From a disposition they proceed to an 
habit, for there is no difference between a mad man, and an 
angry man, in the time of his fit ; anger, as Lactantius de 
scribes it. L. de Ira Dei, ad Donatum, c. 5, is 2 sceva animi 
tempestas, fyc., a cruel tempest of the mind ; " making hia 
eyes sparkle fire, and stare, teeth gnash in his head, his 
tongue stutter, his face pale, or red, and what more filthy 
imitation can be of a mad man ? " 

8 " Ora tument ira, fervescunt sanguine venae, 
Lumina Gorgonio saevius angue micant." 

They are void of reason, inexorable, blind, like beasts and 
monsters for the time, say and do they know not what, curse, 
swear, rail, fight, and what not ? How can a mad man do 
more ? as he said in the comedy, 4 Iracundia non sum apua 
me, I am not mine own man. If these fits be immoderate, 
continue long, or be frequent, without doubt they provoke 
madness. Montanus, consil. 21, had a melancholy Jew to 
his patient, he ascribes this for a principal cause : Irascebatur 
levibus de cattsis, he was easily moved to anger. Ajax had 

i Gilberto Cognato interprete. Multis,et eant, &c., haec paulatim in insaniam 
pnesertimsenibus ira impotens insaniam tandem evadunt. 2 Saera aninii tern- 
fecit, et importuua calumnia, haec loitio pestas tantos excitans fluctus ut statim 
perturbat animum, paulatim vergi t ad ardescant oculi, ostremat, lingua titubet, 
Insaniam. Porro mulierum corpora mul- dentes concrepant, &c. 3 OtH 
ta infestant, et in hunc morbum addu- * Terence. 
:uiit, praeoipue si qua oderint aut iuvij- 

360 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a 

no other beginning of his madness ; and Charles the Sixth, 
that lunatic French king, fell into this misery, out of the ex 
tremity of his passion, desire of revenge and malice, l incensed 
against the Duke of Britain, he could neither eat, drink, nor 
sleep for some days together, and in the end, about the cal 
ends of July, 1392, he became mad upon his horseback, draw 
ing his sword, striking such as came near him promiscuously, 
and so continued all the days of his life, JEmil. lib. 10, GaL 
hist. ^E/gesippus de excid. urbis Hieros. 1. 1, c. 37, hath such 
a story of Herod, that out of an angry fit, became mad, a leap 
ing out of his bed, he killed Josippus, and played many such 
bedlam pranks, the whole court could not rule him for a long 
tune after; sometimes he was sorry and repented, much 
grieved for that he had done, Postquam deferbuit ira, by and 
by outrageous again. In hot, choleric bodies, nothing so soon 
causeth madness, as this passion of anger, besides many other 
diseases, as Pelesius observes, cap. 21, /. 1, de hum. affect, 
causis ; Sanguinem imminuit, fel auget ; and as 8 Valesius 
controverts, Med. controv. lib. 5, contro. 8, many times kills 
them quite out. If this were the worst of this passion, it 
were more tolerable, 4 " but it rums and subverts whole 
towns, 6 cities, families, and kingdoms ; " Nutta pestis humano 
generi pluris stetit, saith Seneca, de Ira, lib. 1. No plague 
hath done mankind so much harm. Look into our histories, 
and you shall almost meet with no other subject, but what a 
company 6 of hare-brains have done in their rage. We may 
do well, therefore, to put this in our procession amongst the 
rest ; " From all blindness of heart, from pride, vainglory, 
and hypocrisy, from envy, hatred and malice, anger, and all 
such pestiferous perturbations, good Lord deliver us." 

SDBSECT. X. Discontents, Cares, Miseries, fyc., Gauset. 
DISCONTENTS, cares, crosses, miseries, or whatsoever it is, 

1 Infensus Britanniae Duel, et in ultio- rentem non capiebat aula, &o. * An 

nem versus, nee cibum cepit. nee quie- ira possit hominem interimere. * At>- 

tem, -td Oalendas Julias 1392, comitea ernethy. 5 As Troy, saevae niemorem 

ocelot. * Indignatione uiinil furens, Junonia ob iram. Stultorum return 

ftubuique unpotens, exiliit de lecto, fu- et populorum continet sestus. 

Mem. 8, subs. 10.] discontents, Cares, fyc. 361 

that shall cause any molestation of spirits, grief, anguish, and 
perplexity, may well be reduced to this head (preposterously 
placed here in some men's judgments they may seem), yet in 
that Aristotle in his l Rhetoric defines these cares, as he doth 
envy, emulation, &c., still by grief, I think I may well rank 
them in this irascible row ; being that they are as the rest, 
both causes and symptoms of this disease, producing the like 
inconveniences, and are most part accompanied with anguish 
and pain. The common etymology will evince it, Cura, quasi 
cor uro, Dementes cures, insomnes euros, damnosce curce, tristes, 
mordaces, carnifices, fyc., biting, eating, gnawing, cruel, bitter, 
sick, sad, unquiet, pale, tetric, miserable, intolerable cares, as 
the poets 2 call them, worldly cares, and are as many in num 
ber as the sea sands. 8 Galen, Fernelius, Felix Plater, 
Valescus de Taranta, &c., reckon afflictions, miseries, even 
all these contentions, and vexations of the mind, as principal 
causes, in that they take away sleep, hinder concoction, dry 
up the body, and consume the substance of it. They are not 
so many in number, but their causes be as divers, and not 
one of a thousand free from them, or that can vindicate 
himself, whom that Ate dea, 

* " Per hominum capita molliter ambnlans, 
Plantas pednm teneras habens : " 

" Over men's heads walking aloft, 
With tender feet treading so soft," 

Homer's Goddess Ate hath not involved into this discon 
tented 4 rank, or plagued with some misery or other. Hy- 
ginus,fab. 220, to this purpose hath a pleasant tale. Dame 
Cura by chance went over a brook, and taking up some of 
the dirty slime, made an image of it ; Jupiter eflsoons com 
ing by, put life to it, but Cura and Jupiter could not agree 
what name to give him, or who should own him ; the matter 

iLfb. 2. Invidia est dolor et ambitio nes rant maxima melancholicl, qnan- 

est dolor, &c. Insomnes, Claudianus. do vigiliis multis, et solicitudinibus, et 

Trlstes.Virg. Mordaees, Luc. Edaces, Hor. laborious, et curis fuerint clrcumrentl. 

Moestse, Amarse, Ovid. Damnosse, Inqui- * Lucian. Podag. < Omnia imperfecta, 

MSB, Mart. Urentes, Rodentes, Mant. &c. confusa, et perturbatione plena, Cardan 
* Galen, 1. 3, c 7, de locis aflectis, homi- 

362 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. L sec. 2. 

was referred to Saturn as judge, he gave this arbitrament 
his name shall be Homo ab humo, Oura eum possideat quam~ 
diu vivat, Care shall have him whilst he lives, Jupiter his 
soul, and Tellus his body when he dies. But to leave tales. 
A general cause, a continuate cause, an inseparable accident, 
to all men, is discontent, care, misery ; were there no other 
particular affliction (which who is free from?) to molest a 
man in this life, the very cogitation of that common misery 
were enough to macerate, and make him weary of his life ; 
to think that he can never be secure, but still in danger, 
sorrow, grief, and persecution. For to begin at the hour of 
his birth, as * Pliny doth elegantly describe it, " he is born 
naked, and falls 2 a whining at the very first, he is swad 
dled and bound up like a prisoner, cannot help himself, and 
so he continues to his life's end." Cujusque ferae pabulum, 
saith * Seneca, impatient of heat and cold, impatient of la 
bour, impatient of idleness, exposed to fortune's contumelies. 
To a naked mariner Lucretius compares him, cast on shore 
by shipwreck, cold and comfortless in an unknown land ; 
t no estate, age, sex, can secure himself from this common 
misery. " A man that is born of a woman is of short con 
tinuance, and full of trouble." Job xiv. 1, 22. " And while 
his flesh is upon him he shall be sorrowful, and while his 
soul is in hirn it shall mourn." " All his days are sorrow 
and his travels, griefs ; his heart also taketh not rest in the 
night," Eccles. ii. 23, and ii. 11. " All that is in it is sorrow 
and vexation of spirit." 8 Ingress, progress, regress, egress, 
much alike ; blindness seizeth on us in the beginning, labour 
in the middle, grief in the end, error in all. What day 
ariseth to us without some grief, care or anguish? Or 
what so secure and pleasing a morning have we seen, that 

1 Ub. 7, Nat. Hist. cap. 1, homlnem rior, &c. * Ad Marinum. t Bo- 

nudum, et ad vagitum edit nature, ethius. 8 Initium ctecitas, progres 

sions ab initio. devinctus jacet, &c. sum labor, exit u m dolor, error omnia : 

i Au/cmio reuv fyevourjv. KCU Scufovrbf quern tranquillum quseso, quom non la- 

h>6dnpvTov, dadevef, olxrpov. Lach- 
ryiuans uatus sum, et lachrymans mo- 

Mem. 8, subs. 10.] Discontents, Cares, fyc. 363 

hath not been overcast before the evening ? One is miser 
able, another ridiculous, a third odious. One complains of 
this grievance, another of that. ALiquando nervi, aliquando 
pedes vexant, (Seneca,) nunc distittatio, nunc hepatis morbus , 
nunc deest, nunc superest sanguis : now the head aches then 
the feet, now the lungs, then the liver, &c. Huic sensus 
exuberat, sed est pudori degener sanguis, fyc. He is rich, but 
base born ; he is noble, but poor ; a third hath means, but he 
wants health peradventure, or wit to manage his estate; 
children vex one, wife a second, &c. Nemo facile cum con- 
ditione sud concordat, no man is pleased with his fortune, a 
pound of sorrow is familiarly mixed with a dram of content, 
little or no joy, little comfort, but * everywhere danger, con 
tention, anxiety, in all places ; go where thou wilt, and thou 
shalt find discontents, cares, woes, complaints, sickness, dis 
eases, incumbrances, exclamations ; " If thou look into the 
market, there (saith * Chrysostom) is brawling and conten 
tion ; if to the court, there knavery and flattery, &c. ; if to a 
private man's house, there's cark and care, heaviness," &c. 
As he said of old, 2 Nil homine in terra spiral miserum 
magis alma ? No creature so miserable as man, so gener 
ally molested, 8 " in miseries of body, in miseries of mind, 
miseries of heart, in miseries asleep, in miseries awake, in 
miseries wheresoever he turns," as Bernard found, Nunquid 
tentatio est vita humana super terram ? A mere temptation 
is our life (Austin, confess, lib. 10, cap. 28), catena perpetuo- 
rum malorum, et quis potest molestias et difftcultates patif 
Who can endure the miseries of it ? f " I n prosperity we 
are insolent and intolerable, dejected in adversity, in all for 
tunes foolish and miserable." 4 In adversity I wish for pros 
perity, and in prosperity I am afraid of adversity. What 

1 Ubique periculum, ubique dolor, ubi- dum yigilat, quocunque ee yertit. Lu- 

que naufragium, in hoc ambitu quocun- susque rerum, temporumque nasclmur. 

que me vertam. Lypsius. *Hom. tin blandiente fortuna intolerandi, in 

10. Si in forum ireris, ibi rixse et pug- calamitatibus lugubres, semper stulti et 

nae; si in curiam, ibi fraus, adulatio; si miseri, Cardan. * Prospera in ad- 

in domum privatam, &c. 3 Homer, versis desidero, et adversa prosperis timeo, 

s Multis repletur homo miseriis, corporis quis inter hec medius locus, ubi non fit 

miseriis. animi miseriis, dum dormit, humana: vitae tentatio ? 

364 Causes of Meumcholy. [Part. 1. sec. 1 

mediocrity may be found ? Where is no temptation ? What 
condition of life is free ? 1 Wisdom hath labour annexed to 
it, glory envy ; riches and cares, children and incumbrances, 
pleasure and diseases, rest and beggary, go together; as if a 
man were therefore born (as the Platonists hold) to be 
punished in this life for some precedent sins. Or that, as 
8 Pliny complains, " Nature may be rather accounted a step 
mother, than a mother unto us, all things considered ; no 
creature's life so brittle, so full of fear, so mad, so furious ; 
only man is plagued with envy, discontent, griefs, covetous- 
ness, ambition, superstition." Our whole life is an Irish sea. 
wherein there is nought to be expected but tempestuous 
storms and troublesome waves, and those infinite, 

8" Tantum malorum pelagus aspioio, 
Ut non sit inde enatandi copia," 

no halcyonian times, wherein a man can hold himself secure, 
or agree with his present estate ; but as Boethius infers, 
4 " There is something in every one of us which before trial 
we seek, and having tried abhor ; 6 we earnestly wish, and ea 
gerly covet, and are eftsoons weary of it." Thus between hope 
and fear, suspicions, angers, ' Inter spemque metumqw, timores 
inter et iras, betwixt falling in, falling out, &c., we bangle 
away our best days, befool out our times, we lead a conten 
tious, discontent, tumultuous, melancholy, miserable life ; in 
somuch, that if we could foretell what was to come, and it 
put to our choice, we should rather refuse than accept of this 
painful life. In a word, the world itself is a maze, a laby 
rinth of errors, a desert, a wilderness, a den of thieves, 
cheaters, &c., full of filthy puddles, horrid rocks, precipitiums, 

1 Cardan. Con sol. Sapientiae labor an- uni animantium ambitio data, luctus, 

nexus, gloriaeinvidia, divitiis curse, soboli avaritia, uni superatitio. 3 Euripides. 

solicit udo, voluptati morbi quieti pau- " I perceive such an ocean of troubles be 

pertas, ut quasi fruendorum scelerum fore me, that no means of escape re- 

causa nasci hominem possiscum Platonis- main." * De consol. 1. 2. Nemo facilft 

tis ajcnoscere. - Mb. 7, cap. 1. Non satis cum conditione sua concordat, inest sin- 

estimare, an melior parens natura hoini- gulls quod imperiti petant, expert! hor- 

Hi, an tristior noverca fuerit: Null! fra- reant. * Ease in honcre juvat, mol 

filler vita, pavor, confusio, rabies major, displicet. * Hor. 

alem. 3, subs. 10.] Discontents, Cares, fyc. 365 

an ocean of adversity, an heavy yoke, wherein infirmities 
and calamities overtake, and follow one another, as the sea 
waves ; and if we scape Scylla, we fall foul on Charybdis, 
and so in perpetual fear, labour, anguish, we run from one 
plague, one mischief, one burden to another, duram seiirien- 
fe$ servitutem, and you may as soon separate weight from 
lead, heat from fire, moistness from water, brightness from 
the sun, as misery, discontent, care, calamity, danger from a 
man. Our towns and cities are but so many dwellings of 
human misery. " In which grief and sorrow ( l as he right 
well observes out of Solon) innumerable troubles, labours of 
mortal men, and all manner of vices, are included, as in so 
many pens." Our villages are like mole-hills, and men as 
so many emmets, busy, busy still, going to and fro, in and 
out, and crossing one another's projects, as the lines of sev 
eral sea-cards cut each other in a globe or map. " Now 
light and merry, but ( a as one follows it) by and by sorrow 
ful and heavy ; now hoping, then distrusting ; now patient, 
to-morrow crying out ; now pale, then red ; running, sitting, 
sweating, trembling, halting," &c. Some few amongst the 
rest, or perhaps one of a thousand, may be Pullus Jovis, in 
the world's esteem, GaHinee filius alb<s, an happy and fortu 
nate man, ad invidiam felix, because rich, fair, well allied, in 
honour and office ; yet peradventure ask himself, and he will 
say, that of all others, 8 he is most miserable and unhappy. 
A fair shoe, Hie soccus novus, elegans, as he 4 said, sed nescis 
ubi urat, but thou knowest not where it pincheth. It is not 
another man's opinion can make me happy ; but as 6 Seneca 
well hath it, " He is a miserable wretch that doth not account 
himself happy ; though he be sovereign lord of a world, he 
is not happy, if he think himself not to be so ; for what avail- 

1 Borrhens in 6 Job. TJrbes et oppida die, eras ejulans ; nnne pallens, rubens, 

nihil aliud stint quim humanarum currens, sedens, claudicans, tremens, 

erumnarum domicilia, qulbus luctus et &c. 8 Sua cuique calamitas prsecipua. 

moeror, et mortalium varii inflnitique la- * Cn. Graecinus. Epist. 9, 1. 7. Miser 

bores, et omnis generis vitia, quasi septis est qui se beatissimum non judicat; 

Includuntur. - Nat. Chytreus de lit. licet imperet mundo non est beatns, qui 

Europse. Lsetua mine, mox tristis; none se non putat: quid enim refert quails 

iperans, paulo post diffldens ; pattens ho- status tuus sit, si tibi Tide t ur mains ? 

366 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

eth it what thine estate is, or seem to otherc, if thou thyself 
dislike it?" A common humour it is of all men to think 
well of other men's fortunes, and dislike their own : * Cui 
nlacet alterius, sua nimirum est odio sors ; but 2 qui Jit 
Meccenas, fyc., how comes it to pass, what's the cause of it ? 
Many men are of such a perverse nature, they are well 
pleased with nothing, (saith 8 Theodoret) "neither with riches 
nor poverty, they complain when they are well and when 
they are sick, grumble at all fortunes, prosperity and adver 
sity ; they are troubled in a cheap year, in a barren, plenty 
or not plenty, nothing pleaseth them, war nor peace, with 
children, nor without." This for the most part is the hu 
mour of us all, to be discontent, miserable, and most unhappy, 
as we think at least ; and show me him that is not so, or that 
ever was otherwise. Quintus Metellus his felicity is in 
finitely admired amongst the Romans, insomuch that as 
4 Paterculus mentioneth of him, you can scarce find of any 
nation, order, age, sex, one for happiness to be compared 
unto him ; he had, in a word, Bona animi, corporis et for 
tunes, goods of mind, body, and fortune, so had P. Mutianus, 
'Crassus. Lampsaca, that Lacedemonian lady was such 
another in 8 Pliny's conceit, a king's wife, a king's mother, a 
king's daughter; and all the world esteemed as much of 
Polycrates of Samos. The Greeks brag of their Socrates, 
Phocion, Aristides ; the Psophidians in particular of their 
Aglaus, Omni vita felix, ab omni periculo immunis (which 
by the way Pausanias held impossible) ; the Romans of their 
T Cato, Curius, Fabricius, for their composed fortunes, and 
retired estates, government of passions, and contempt of the 
world ; yet none of all these were happy, or free from dis- 

1 Hor. ep. 1. 1, 4. * Hor. Ser. 1, Sat. 1. nns, quinque habuisse dicitur rerum bo- 

Tiili. de carat, grsec. affect, cap. 6, de narum maxima, quod esset ditissimus 

provident. Multia nihil placet atque quod esset nobilteimuB, eloquentissimuj, 

Rdeoet divitiasdamnant, et panpertntem, jurisconsultissimus, pontifex inaximus. 

de morbis expostulant, bene valentes * Lib. 7. Regis fllla, Regis uxnr, Hegit 

grayiter fernnt, atque ut seme! dicam, mater. 7 Qul nihil unquam mali 

nihil cos delectat, &c. Vix ullius aut dixit, aut fecit, aut sensit, qui bene 

gentis, aetatis, ordinis, hominem invenies semper fecit, quod aliter facere non pot- 

cujug felicitatem fortunes Metelli com- nit. 
paiea, yol. 1. * P. Cnusus Mutia- 

Mem. 3, sabs. 10.] Discontents, Cares, fyc. 367 

content, neither Metellus, Crassus, nor Polycrates, for he 
died a violent death, and so did Cato ; and how much evil 
doth Lactantius and Theodoret speak of Socrates, a weak 
man, and so of the rest There is no content in this life, but 
as * he said, " All is vanity and vexation of spirit ; " lame 
and imperfect. Hadst thou Samson's hair, Milo's strength, 
Scanderbeg's arm, Solomon's wisdom, Absalom's beauty, 
Croesus's wealth, Pasetis obulum, Caesar's valour, Alexander's 
spirit, Tully's or Demosthenes's eloquence, Gyges's ring, Per- 
seus's Pegasus, and Gorgon's head, Nestor's years to come, 
all this would not make thee absolute, give thee content 
and true happiness in this life, or so continue it. Even in 
the midst of all our mirth, jollity, and laughter, is sorrow and 
grief, or if there be true happiness amongst us, 'tis but for a 


2 " Desinit in piscem mulier formosa snperafc : " 

" A handsome woman with a fish's tail." 

a fair morning turns to a lowering afternoon. Brutus and 
Cassius, once renowned, both eminently happy, yet you shall 
scarce find two, (saith Paterculus) Quos fortuna maturius 
destituerit, whom fortune sooner forsook. Hannibal, a con 
queror all his life, met with his match, and was subdued at 
last, Occurrit forti, qui mage fortis erit. One is brought in 
triumph, as Caesar into Rome, Alcibiades into Athens, coronis 
aureis donatus, crowned, honoured, admired ; by and by his 
statues demolished, he hissed out, massacred, &c. 8 Magnus 
Gonsalva, that famous Spaniard, was of the prince and people 
at first honoured, approved ; forthwith confined and banished. 
Admirandas actiones ; graves plerunque sequuntur invidice, ef 
acres calumnice : 'tis Polybius his observation, grievous enmi 
ties, and bitter calumnies, commonly follow renowned actions*. 
One is born rich, dies a beggar ; sound to-day, sick to-mor 
row ; now in most flourishing estate, fortunate and happy, by 
and by deprived of his goods by foreign enemies, robbed by 
thieves, spoiled, captivated, impoverished as they of 4 " Rab- 

i Solomon, Eocles. 1, 14. * Hor. Art. Poet. * Jovius, vita ejus. 2 Sam 

368 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a. 

bah, put under iron saws, and under iron harrows, and under 
axes of iron, and cast into the tile kiln," 

1 " Quid me felicem toties jactastis amici, 
Qui cecidit, stabili non erat ille gradu." 

He that erst marched like Xerxes with innumerable armies, 
as rich as Croesus, now shifts for himself in a poor cock-boat, 
is bound in iron chains, with Bajazet the Turk, and a foot 
stool with Aurelian, for a tyrannizing conqueror to trample 
on. So many casualties there are, that as Seneca said of a 
city consumed with fire, Una dies interest inter maximam 
civitatem et nullam, one day betwixt a great city and none ; 
so many grievances from outward accidents, and from our 
selves, our own indiscretion, inordinate appetite, one day 
betwixt a man and no man. And which is worse, as if dis 
contents and miseries would not come fast enough upon us ; 
homo homini daemon, we maul, persecute, and study how to 
sting, gall, and vex one another with mutual hatred, abuses, 
injuries ; preying upon and devouring as so many 2 ravenous 
birds ; and as jugglers, panders, bawds, cozening one another ; 
or raging as 8 wolves, tigers, and devils, we take a delight to 
torment one another ; men are evil, wicked, malicious, 
treacherous, and 4 nought, not loving one another, or loving 
themselves, not hospitable, charitable, nor sociable as they 
ought to be, but counterfeit, dissemblers, ambidexters, all for 
their own ends, hard-hearted, merciless, pitiless, and to benefit 
themselves, they care not what mischief they procure to 
others. 6 Praxinoe and Gorgo in the poet, when they had 
got in to see those costly sights, they then cried bene est, and 
would thrust out all the rest ; when they are rich themselves, 
in honour, preferred, full, and have even that they would, 
they debar others of those pleasures which youth requires, 

1 Boethlns, lib. 1, Met. 1. > Om- Quod Paterculus de popnlo Romano, 

nes hie aut captantur. aut captant : aut durante bello Punico per annos 115, ant 

cadavera quae lacerantur, aut cord qul bellum Inter eos, aut belli prseparatio, 

laoerant. Petron. 8 Homo omne mon- aut inflda pax, idem ego de mundl acco- 

ifcrum est, ille nam suspirat feras, lupos- lia 5 Theocritus Idyll. 15. 
ju et ursos pectore obscuro tegit. Hens. 

Mem. 3, subs. 10. J Discontents, Cares, fyc. 369 

and they formerly have enjoyed. He sits at table in a soft 
chair at ease, but he doth not remember in the mean time that 
a tired waiter stands behind him, " an hungry fellow minis 
ters to him full, he is athirst that gives him drink (saith 
1 Epictetus) and is silent whilst he speaks his pleasure ; pen 
sive, sad, when he laughs." Plena se proluit auro ; he feasts, 
revels, and profusely spends, hath variety of robes, sweet 
music, ease, and all the pleasures the world can afford, whilst 
many an hunger-starved poor creature pines in the street, 
wants clothes to cover him, labours hard all day long, runs, 
rides for a trifle, fights peradventure from sun to sun, sick 
and ill, weary, full of pain and grief, is in great distress and 
sorrow of heart. He loathes and scorns his inferior, hates or 
emulates his equal, envies his superior, insults over all such 
as are under him, as if he were of another species, a demi 
god, not subject to any fall, or human infirmities. Generally 
they love not, are not beloved again ; they tire out others' 
bodies with continual labour, they themselves living at ease, 
caring for none else, sibi nati ; and are so far many times 
from putting to their helping hand, that they seek all means 
to depress, even most worthy and well deserving, better than 
themselves, those whom they are by the laws of nature bound 
to relieve and help, as much as in them lies, they will let 
them caterwaul, starve, beg, and hang, before they will any 
ways (though it be in their power) assist or ease ; 2 so unnat 
ural are they for the most part, so unregardful ; so hard 
hearted, so churlish, proud, insolent, so dogged, of so bad a 
disposition. And being so brutish, so devilishly bent one 
towards another, how is it possible but that we should be dis 
content of all sides, full of cares, woes, and miseries ? 

If this be not a sufficient proof of their discontent and 
misery, examine every condition and calling apart. Kings, 
princes, monarchs, and magistrates seem to be most happy, 

1 QuI sedet in mensa, non meminit sibl et liberius voluptates suas expleverint, 

otio.=o ministrare negotiosos, edenti esu- illi gnatis imponunt duriores continent!* 

rientes, bibenti sitientes, &c. 2 Quando leges. 
in adolescentia sua ipsi vixerint, lautius 

VOL. i. 24 

370 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

but look into their estate, you shall l find them to he most 
encumbered with cares, in perpetual fear, agony, suspicion, 
jealousy ; that as 2 he said of a crown, if they knew but the 
discontents that accompany it, they would not stoop to take it 
up. Quern mihi regem dabis (saith Chrysostom) non curis 
plenum ? What king canst thou show me, not full of cares ? 
8 " Look not on his crown, but consider his afflictions ; attend 
not his number of servants, but multitude of crosses." Nihii 
aliud potestas culminis, quam tempestas mentis, as Gregory 
seconds him ; sovereignty is a tempest of the soul ; Sylla-like 
they have brave titles but terrible fits : splendorem titulo, cru- 
ciatum animo ; which made * Demosthenes vow, si vel ad 
tribunal, vel ad interitum duceretur : if to be a judge, or to be 
condemned, were put to his choice, he would be condemned. 
Rich men are in the same predicament ; what their pains are, 
stulti nesciunt, ipsi sentiunt : they feel, fools perceive not, as I 
shall prove elsewhere, and their wealth is brittle, like chil 
dren's rattles ; they come and go, there is no certainty in 
them ; those whom they elevate, they do as suddenly depress, 
and leave hi a vale of misery. The middle sort of men are 
as so many asses to bear burdens ; or if they be free, and 
live at ease, they spend themselves, and consume their bodies 
and fortunes with luxury and riot, contention, emulation, &c. 
The poor I reserve for another * place, and their discontents. 
For particular professions, I hold as of the rest, there's no 
content or security in any ; on what course will you pitch ; 
how resolve ? to be a divine, 'tis contemptible in the world's 
esteem ; to be a lawyer, 'tis to be a wrangler ; to be a physi 
cian, 6 pudet lotii, 'tis loathed ; a philosopher, a madman ; au 
alchymist, a beggar ; a poet, esurit, an hungry jack ; a musi 
cian, a player ; a schoolmaster, a drudge ; an husbandman, 
an emmet ; a merchant, his gains are uncertain ; a mechani- 

1 Lugubrls Ate luctuque fero Regum aa, sed vitam afflictions refertam, not 

tumidas obsidet arces. lies est inquieta cateiras satellitum, sed curarum inulti- 

ftelicitag - Plus aloes quam nielli* tudinem. * As Plutarch relateth 

habet. Non humi jacentem tolleres. * Sect. 2, memb. 4. subsect. 6. '' Stor 

Valer. 1. 7, c. 8. 3 Non diadema arpici- cus et urina, mediconim fercula urirna 

Mem. 3, subs. 10.] Discontents, Cares, Sfc. 371 

cian, base; a chirurgeon, fulsome; a tradesman, a 1 Kar; a 
tailor, a thief ; a serving-man, a slave ; a soldier, a butcher ; 
a smith, or a metalman, the pot's never from's nose ; a cour 
tier, a parasite, as he could find no tree in the wood to hang 
himself; I can show no state of life to give content. The 
like you may say of all ages ; children live hi a perpetual 
.Javery, still under that tyrannical government of masters ; 
young men, and of riper years, subject to labour, and a thou 
sand cares of the world, to treachery, falsehood, and cozenage, 

3 " Incedit per ignes, 
Suppositos cineri doloso," 

" you incautious tread 
On fires, with faithless ashes overhead." 

* old are full of aches in their bones, cramps and convulsions, 
gilicernia, dull of hearing, weak sighted, hoary, wrinkled, 
harsh, so much altered as that they cannot know their own 
face hi a glass, a burden to themselves and others, after 
seventy years, " all is sorrow " (as David hath it), they do not 
live but linger. If they be sound, they fear diseases ; if sick, 
weary of their lives ; Non est vivere sed valere, vita. One 
complains of want, a second of servitude, 4 another of a secret 
or incurable disease ; of some deformity of body, of some 
loss, danger, death of friends, shipwreck, persecution, impris 
onment, disgrace, repulse, 8 contumely, calumny, abuse, injury, 
contempt, ingratitude, unkindness, scoffs, flouts, unfortunate 
marriage, single life, too many children, no children, false 
servants, unhappy children, barrenness, banishment, oppres 
sion, frustrate hopes and ill success, &c. 

* " Talia de genere hoc adeo sunt multa, loquacem nt 
Delassare valent Fabium." 

" But, every various instance to repeat, 
Would tire even Fabius of incessant prate." 

Talking Fabius will be tired before he can tell half of them ; 

1 Nihil lucrantur, nisi admodum men- mendicos, quos nemo audet foelices die- 

tiendo. lull. Offlc. * Hor. 1. 2, od. 1. ere. Card. lib. 8, c. 46, de rer. Tar. 

* Rams felix idemque senex. Seneca in (> Spretaeque injuria formse ' Hor . 
Her. aeteo. Omitto asgros, exules. 

372 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. l. sec. a. 

they are the subject of whole volumes, and shall (some of 
them) be more opportunely dilated elsewhere. In the mean 
time thus much I may say of them, that generally they cru 
cify the soul of man, 1 attenuate our bodies, dry them, wither 
them, shrivel them up like old apples, make them as so many 
anatomies ( 2 ossa atque pettis est totus, ita curis macet), they 
cause tempus fcedum et squalidum, cumbersome days, in- 
tjrataque tempora, slow, dull, and heavy times ; make us howl, 
roar, and tear our hairs, as sorrow did in 8 Cebes's table, and 
groan for the very anguish of our souls. Our hearts fail ua 
as David's did, Psal. xl. 12, " for innumerable troubles that 
compassed him ; " and we are ready to confess with Heze- 
kiah, Isaiah Iviii. 17, " behold, for felicity I had bitter grief; " 
to weep with Heraclitus, to curse the day of our birth with 
Jeremy, xx. 14, and our stars with Job ; to hold that axiom 
of Silenus, 4 " better never to have been born, and the best 
next of all, to die quickly ; " or if we must live, to abandon 
the world, as Timon did ; creep into caves and holes, as our 
anchorites ; cast all into the sea, as Crates Thebanus ; or as 
Theombrotus Ambrociato's four hundred auditors, precipitate 
ourselves to be rid of these miseries. 

SUBSECT. XI. Concupiscible Appetite, as Desires, Ambition, 

THESE concupiscible and irascible appetites are as the two 
twists of a rope, mutually mixed one with the other, and both 
twining about the heart; both good, as Austin holds, /. 14, 
c. 9, de civ. Dei, 6 " if they be moderate ; both pernicious if 
they be exorbitant." This concupiscible appetite, howsoever 
it may seem to carry with it a show of pleasure and delight, 
and our concupiscences most part affect us with content and a 
pleasing object, yet if they be in extremes, they rack and 
wring us on the other side. A true saying it is, " Desire 
hath no rest ; " is infinite in itself, endless ; and as ' one calls 

I Attendant vigiles corpus miserabile ci, aut cito mori. 6 BOOK 81 rectam m 
cures. * Plautua. Haec quse crines tionem sequuntur. mala si exorbitant 
cvelllt, aerumna. * Optimum iion nas- Tho. Buovie. Prob. 18. 

Mem. 8, subs. 11.] Ambition, a Cause. 373 

it, a perpetual rack, * or horsemill, according to Austin, still 
going round as in a ring. They are not so continual, as 
divers, felicius atomos denumerare possem, saith 2 Bernard, 
qudm motus cordis ; nunc hcec, nunc ilia cogito, you may as 
well reckon up the motes in the sun as them. 8 " It extends 
itself to everything," as Guianerius will have it, " that is su 
perfluously sought after ; " or to any * fervent desire, as Fer- 
nelius interprets it ; be it in what kind soever, it tortures if 
immoderate, and is (according to 6 Plater and others) an 
especial cause of melancholy. Multuosis concupiscentiis 
dilaniantur cogitationes mece, 6 Austin confessed, that he was 
torn a pieces with his manifold desires ; and so doth 7 Ber 
nard complain, " that he could not rest for them a minute of 
an hour ; this I would have, and that, and then I desire to 
be such and such." Tis a hard matter therefore to confine 
them, being they are so various and many, impossible to ap 
prehend all. I will only insist upon some few of the chief, 
and most noxious in their kind, as that exorbitant appetite 
and desire of honour, which we commonly call ambition ; 
love of money, which is covetousness, and that greedy desire 
of gain ; self-love, pride, and inordinate desire of vainglory 
or applause, love of study in excess ; love of women (which 
will require a just volume of itself), of the other I will briefly 
speak, and in their order. 

Ambition, a proud covetousness, or a dry thirst of honour, 
a great torture of the mind, composed of envy, pride, and 
covetousness, a gallant madness, one 8 defines it a pleasant 
poison, Ambrose, " a canker of the soul, an hidden plague ; " 
* Bernard, " a secret poison, the father of livor, and mother 
of hypocrisy, the moth of holiness, and cause of madness, 
crucifying and disquieting all that it takes hold of." 

1 Molam asinariam. Tract, de In- vagor, nnllo temporis m omen to qnieeco, 

ter. e. 92. 3 Circa quamlibet rem talia et tails esse cupio, illud atque iltad 

tnundi base passio fieri potest, qu su- habere desidero. Ambros. 1. 8, stiper 

pertiue diligatur. Tract. 15, c. 17. Lucam, aerugo animae. * Nihil ani- 

FerventiuH desiderium. 6 Imprimis mum cruciat, nihil molcstius toquietat, 

yero Appetitus, &c. 8, de alien, ment. secretum virus, pestls oocuita. &e..epist. 

Conf 1, c. 29. ' Per diyersa loca 126. 

374 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

1 Seneca calls it rem solicitam, timidam, vanam, ventosam, 
a windy thing, a vain, solicitous, and fearful thing. For 
commonly they that, like Sysiphus, roll this restless stone 
of ambition, are in a perpetual agony, still 2 perplexed, 
semper taciti, triste&que recedunt (Lucretius), doubtful, tim 
orous, suspicious, loath to offend in word or deed, still cog 
ging and colloguing, embracing, capping, cringing, applaud 
ing, flattering, fleering, visiting, waiting at men's doors, with 
all affability, counterfeit honesty and humility. 8 If that will 
not serve, if once this humour (as 4 Cyprian describes it) 
possess his thirsty soul, ambitionis salsugo ubi bibulam ani- 
mam possidet, by hook and by crook he will obtain it, " and 
from his hole he will climb to all honours and offices, if it be 
possible for him to get up, flattering one, bribing another, he 
will leave no means unessay'd to win all." 6 It is a wonder 
to see how slavishly these kind of men subject themselves, 
when they are about a suit, to every inferior person ; what 
pains they will take, run, ride, cast, plot, countermine, protest 
and swear, vow, promise, what labours undergo, early up, 
down late ; how obsequious and affable they are, how popular 
and courteous, how they grin and fleer upon every man they 
meet ; with what feasting and inviting, how they spend them 
selves and their fortunes, in seeking that many times, which 
they had much better be without ; as 8 Cyneas the orator told 
Pyrrhus; with what waking nights, painful hours, anxious 
thoughts, and bitterness of mind, inter tpemque metumque, 
distracted and tired, they consume the interim of their time. 
There can be no greater plague for the present. If they do 
obtain their suit, which with such cost and solicitude they 
have sought, they are not so freed, their anxiety is anew to 

1 Ep. 88. > Nihil infellcius his, tar, frequentat curias, visitat, optimal** 
quantus Us timer, quanta dubltatio, amplezatur, applaudlt, adulatur: per 
quantusconatus, quanta solicitude, nulla las et nefas e latebris, in omnem gradum 
ill is 4 molestiis vacua hora. 3 Semper ubt adltus patet se ingerit, discurrit. 
ittonitus, semper pavidus quid dlcat, fa- 6 Turbae cogit ambitio regem inservtre, 
elatre: ne displiceat huinilitatem simu- ut Homerus Agamemnonem querentnn 
lat, honeotatem mentitur. * Cypr. inducit. IMutarchus. Quin con- 
Prolog, ad ser. To. 2, cunctoa honorat, Tiremur, et in otio nog oblectemur, quo 
uniTeraig inclinat, subsequitur, obsequl- niam in promctu id nobis git, &o. 

Mem. 3, subs. 11.] Ambition, a Cause. 373 

begin, for they are never satisfied, nihil aliud nisi imperiwn 
spirant, their thoughts, actions, endeavours are all for sov 
ereignty and honour, like 1 Lues Sforsia that huffing duke of 
Milan, " a man of singular wisdom, but profound ambition, 
born to his own, and to the destruction of Italy," though it 
be to their own ruin, and friends' undoing, they will contend, 
they may not cease, but as a dog in a wheel, a bird in a cage, 
or a squirrel in a chain, so 2 Budaeus compares them ; 8 they 
climb and climb still, with much labour, but never make an 
end, never at the top. A knight would be a baronet, and 
then a lord, and then a viscount, and then an earl, &c. ; a 
doctor, a dean, and then a bishop ; from tribune to praetor ; 
from bailiff to major ; first this office, and then that ; as 
Pyrrhus in 4 Plutarch, they will first have Greece, then Af 
rica, and then Asia, and swell with ^Esop's frog so long, till 
in the end they burst, or come down with Sejanus, ad Gemo- 
mas scalas, and break their own necks ; or as Evangelus the 
piper in Lucian, that blew his pipe so long, till he fell down 
dead. If he chance to miss, and have a canvass, he is in a 
hell on the other side ; so dejected, that he is ready to hang 
himself, turn heretic, Turk, or traitor in an instant. Enraged 
against his enemies, he rails, swears, fights, slanders, detracts, 
envies, murders ; and for his own part, si appetitum explere 
non potest, furore corripitur ; if he cannot satisfy his desire 
(as 6 Bodine writes) he runs mad. So that both ways, hit or 
miss, he is distracted so long as his ambition lasts, he can 
look for no other but anxiety and care, discontent and grief 
in the mean tune, 'madness itself, or violent death in the 
end. The event of this is common to be seen in populous 
cities, or in princes' courts, for a courtier's life (as Budaeus 
describes it) "is a 7 gallimaufry of ambition, lust, fraud, im- 

1 Jo-Hug hist. 1. 1, vir singular! pruden- bitio in insaniara fecile delabitur, si ex- 

tia, sed profunda ambitione, ad exitium cedat. Patritius, 1. 4, tit. 20, de regta 

It , line natug. * Ut hedera arbori ad- instil. Lib. 6, de rep. cap. 1. 7 Im- 

hseret, rfc ambitio, &c. Lib. 8, de primls Tero appetitns. seu concupiscen- 

eontemptu rerum fortuitarum. Magno tia nimia rei alicujus, honestae Tel in- 

oonatu et impetu moventur, super eodem honestte, phantasiam Isedunt ; unde 

centre rotati . non proflciunt . nee ad flnem multi ambitiosi, philauti, irati, arari, in- 

perreniu n t . Vita Pyrrhl. 6 Am- san', &c. Felix Plater, 1. 3, de mentts alien 

376 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a 

posture, dissimulation, detraction, envy, pride ; * the court, a 
common conventicle of flatterers, timeservers, politicians," 
&c. ; or as 2 Anthony Perez will, " the suburbs of hell itself." 
If you will see such discontented persons, there you shall 
likely find them. 8 And which he observed of the markets 
of old Rome, 

" Qui perjurum convenire vult hominem, mitto in Comitium; 
Qui mendacem et gloriosum, apud Cluasinae sacrum; 
Dites, damnosos maritos, sub basilic^ quserito," &c. 

Perjured knaves, knights of the post, liars, crackers, bad 
husbands, &c., keep their several stations ; they do still, and 
always did in every commonwealth. 

SUBSECT. XII. fctAopyvpta, Covetotisness, a Cause. 

PLUTARCH, in his 4 book whether the diseases of the body 
be more grievous than those of the soul, is of opinion, " if 
you will examine all the causes of our miseries in this life, 
you shall find them most part to have had their beginning 
from stubborn anger, that furious desire of contention, or 
some unjust or immoderate affection, as covetousness," &c. 
" From whence are wars and contentions amongst you ? ' 
* St. James asks ; I will add usury, fraud, rapine, simony, 
oppression, lying, swearing, bearing false witness, &c., are 
they not from this fountain of covetousness, that greediness 
in getting, tenacity in keeping, sordity in spending ; that they 
are so wicked, 6 " unjust against God, their neighbour, them 
selves ; " all comes hence. " The desire of money is the 
root of all evil, and they that lust after it, pierce themselves 
through with many sorrows," 1 Tim. vi. 10. Hippocrates 
therefore in his Epistle to Crateva, an herbalist, gives him 
this good counsel, that if it were possible, * u amongst other 

1 Aulica vita colluvies ambitionis, cupid- ta cupidltate, originem traxisse scies. 

itatis, Kimulationis, imposture?, fniudis, Idem fere Chrysostoinus com. in c. 6, ad 

invidiae, superbiae Titaunicae, diyersori- Roman, ser. 11. * Cap. 4, 1. 6 Ut 

um, aula, et commune conventiculum git iniquus in deum, in proximnm, in 

aasentandi, artificum, &c. Budteus de seipsurn. * Si vero, Crateva, inter caet- 

asse. lib. 6. - In his Aphor. 3 Plau- eras berbarum radices, avaritiae rodicem 

tus Curcul. Act. 4, Seen. 1. 4 Tom. 2. secare posses amaram, ut nullae reliquiat 

8i examines, omnes miseriae causas vel a essent, prob6 scito, &c. 
fnrioao contendendi studio, Tel ab injus- 

Mem. 3, subs. 12.] Covetousness, a Cause. 377 

herbs, he should cut up that weed of covetousness by the 
roots, that there be no remainder left, and then know this for 
a certainty, that together with their bodies, thou mayst 
quickly cure all the diseases of their minds." For it is 
indeed the pattern, image, epitome of all melancholy, the 
fountain of many miseries, much discontented care and woe ; 
this " inordinate or immoderate, desire of gain, to get or 
keep money," as l Bonaventure defines it ; or, as Austin 
describes it, a madness of the soul; Gregory, a torture; 
Chrysostom, an insatiable drunkenness; Cyprian, blindness, 
speciosum supplicium, a plague subverting kingdoms, families, 
an * incurable disease ; Budaeus, an ill habit, 2 " yielding to 
no remedies;" neither, JEsculapius nor Plutus can cure 
them ; a continual plague, saith Solomon, and vexation of 
spirit, another hell. I know there be some of opinion, that 
covetous men are happy, and worldly-wise, that there is more 
pleasure in getting of wealth than in spending, and no delight 
in the world like unto it. 'Twas f Bias's problem of old 
" With what art thou not weary ? with getting money. What 
is more delectable ? to gain." What is it, trow you, that 
makes a poor man labour all his lifetime, carry such great 
burdens, fare so hardly, macerate himself, and endure so 
much misery, undergo such base offices with so great pa 
tience, to rise up early, and lie down late, if there were not 
an extraordinary delight in getting and keeping of money ? 
What makes a merchant that hath no need, satis superque 
domi, to range all over the world, through all those intem 
perate J zones of heat and cold ; voluntarily to venture his 
life, and be content with such miserable famine, nasty usage, 
in a stinking ship ; if there were not a pleasure and hope to 
get money, which doth season the rest, and mitigate his inde 
fatigable pains ? What makes them go into the bowels of 

1 Cap. 6. Dietse salutis : avaritia eat tur quam iusania : quoniam hac omnel 

amor immoderatus pecunise Tel acquiren- fere modici laborant. Hip. ep. Abilerit. 

d, Tel retinendse. * Ferum profeeto t Extremes currit mercator ad Indos. 

dirumque ulcua anlmi, remediis non ce- Hor. t Qua re non es lassus? lucrurn 

dens medendo exasperatur. - Malus facieudo : quid inaxime delectabile? lu 

est morbus maleque afflcit avaritia siqui- crari. 
Jem censeo. &c., avaritia difflcilius cura- 

378 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. seo. 2 

the earth, an hundred fathom deep, endangering their dearest 
lives, enduring damps and filthy smells, when they have 
enough already, if they could be content, and no such cause 
to labour, but an extraordinary delight they take in riches. 
This may seem plausible at first show, a popular and strong 
argument ; but let him that so thinks, consider better of it, 
and he shall soon perceive, that it is far otherwise than he 
supposeth ; it may be haply pleasing at the first, as most part 
all melancholy is. For such men likely have some lucida 
intervatta, pleasant symptoms intermixed ; but you must note 
that of * Chrysostom, " Tis one thing to be rich, another tc 
be covetous ; " generally they are all fools, dizzards, mad 
men, l miserable wretches, living beside themselves, sine arte 
fruendi, in perpetual slavery, fear, suspicion, sorrow, and dis 
content, plus aloes quam mellis habent ; and are indeed, 
" rather possessed by their money, than possessors ; " as 
8 Cyprian hath it, mancipati pecuniis ; bound prentice to 
their goods, as f Pliny ; or as Chrysostom, servi divitiarum, 
slaves and drudges to their substance ; and we may conclude 
of them all, as "Valerius doth of Ptolomaeus king of Cy 
prus, " He was in title a king of that island, but in his mind, 
a miserable drudge of money ; " 

t " potiore metallis 
Libertate carens " 

wanting his liberty, which is better than gold. Damasippus 
the Stoic, in Horace, proves that all mortal men dote by fits, 
some one way, some another, but that covetous men 4 are 
madder than the rest ; and he that shall truly look into their 
estates, and examine their symptoms, shall find no better of 
them, but that they are all 6 fools, as Nabal was, Re et 
nomine (1 Reg. 25). For what greater folly can there be, 

* Horn. 2, aliud avarus aliud dives, rex titulo, sed anlmo pecunlse miserabito 

' Divitisc ut gplnae aiiimuin homiois mancipium. t Hor. 10, Mb. 1. Dan- 

ttmoribus, solicitudinibus, angoribus da eat helleborl multo pars maxima ara- 

niiriOce pungunt, vexant, cruciant. ris. 5 Luke, xii. 20. Stulte, hM 

3reg in horn. * Epist. ad Donat. cap. 2. nocte eripiam aniinara tuam 
' Lib 0, ep. 80. * Lib. 9, cap i, insults 

Mem. 3, subs. 12. J Covet&usness, a Cause. 37 y 

or * madness, than to macerate himself when he need not ? 
and when, as Cyprian notes, 1 " he may be freed from his 
burden, and eased of his pains, will go on still, his wealth 
increasing, when he hath enough, to get more, to live besides 
himself," to starve his genius, keep back from his wife 2 and 
children, neither letting them nor other friends use or enjoy 
that which is theirs by right, and which they much need per 
haps ; like a hog, or dog in the manger, he doth only keep it, 
because it shall do nobody else good, hurting himself and. 
others ; and for a little momentary pelf, damn his own soul ! 
They are commonly sad and tetric by nature, as Ahab'a 
spirit was, because he could not get Naboth's vineyard, 
(3 Reg. 21,) and if he lay out his money at any time, though 
it be to necessary uses, to his own children's good, he brawls 
and scolds, his heart is heavy, much disquieted he is, and 
loath to part from it : Miser dbstinet et timet uti, Hor. He is 
of a wearish, dry, pale constitution, and cannot sleep for 
cares and worldly business ; his riches, saith Solomon, will 
not let him sleep, and unnecessary business which he heapeth 
on himself ; or if he do sleep, 'tis a very unquiet, interrupt, 
unpleasing sleep ; with his bags in his arms, 

" congestis undique saccis 
Indormit inhians," 

And though he be at a banquet, or at some merry feast, " he 
sighs for grief of heart (as * Cyprian hath it) and cannot 
sleep though it be upon a down bed ; his wearish body takes 
no rest, * troubled in his abundance, and sorrowful in plenty, 
unhappy for the present, and more unhappy in the life to 
come." Basil. He is a perpetual drudge, 6 restless in his 
thoughts, and never satisfied, a slave, a wretch, a dust-worm, 

* Opes quidem mortalibus snnt demen- * Epist. 2, lib. 2. Suspirat in convifio, 

tia. Theog. ' Ed. 2, lib. 2. Exonerare bibat licet gemniis et toro molliore mar- 

cum se possit et relevare ponderibus per- cidum corpus condiderit, Tigilat in plu- 

git magis fortunis angentibus pertinaci- ma. * Angustatur ex abundantia, 

ter iucubare. - Non amicis, non libe- contristatur ex opulenti >, infelix prsesen- 

ris, non ipsi sibi quidquam imperti t ; tibus bonis, infelicior in futuris. s II- 

oossidet ad hoc tantum, ne possidere al- lortun cogitatio nunquam cessat qu/ 

teri liceat, &c. Hieron. ad Paulin. tarn pecnnias supplere diligunt. Guianer 

deest quod habet quam quod non habet. tract. 16, c. 17- 

380 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a. 

semper quod idolo suo immolet, sedulus observed, Cypr. prolog. 
ad sermon, still seeking what sacrifice he may offer to his 
golden god, per fas et nefas, he cares not how, his trouble is 
endless, l crescunt divitice, tamen curtce nescio quid semper 
abest rei : his wealth increaseth, and the more he hath, the 
more 2 he wants ; like Pharaoh's lean kine, which devoured 
the fat, and were not satisfied. 8 Austin therefore defines 
covetousness, quarumlibet rerum inhonestam et insatiabilem 
cupiditatem, a dishonest and insatiable desire of gain ; and 
in one of his epistles compares it to hell ; 4 " which devours 
all, and yet never hath enough, a bottomless pit," an endless 
misery ; in quern scopulum avaritice cadaverosi senes ut pluri- 
mum impingunt, and that which is their greatest corrosive, 
they are in continual suspicion, fear, and distrust. He thinks 
his own wife and children are so many thieves, and go about 
to cozen him, his servants are all false : 

" Rem suam periisse, seque eradicarier, 
Et divum atque hominum clamat continub fidem, 
De suo tigillo fumus si qua exit foras." 

" If his doors creak, then out he cries anon, 
His goods are gone, and he is quite undone." 

Timidus Plutus, an old proverb, As fearful as Plutus ; so 
doth Aristophanes and Lucian bring him in fearful still, pale, 
anxious, suspicious, and trusting no man, 6 " They are afraid 
of tempests for their corn ; they are afraid of their friends 
lest they should ask something of them, beg or borrow ; they 
are afraid of their enemies lest they hurt them, thieves lest 
they rob them ; they are afraid of war and afraid of peace, 
afraid of rich and afraid of poor ; afraid of all." Last of 
all, they are afraid of want, that they shall die beggars, 
which makes them lay up still, and dare not use that they 

1 Hor. 8, Od. 24. Quo pins sunt potes, Adag. chil. 8, c.vnt. 7, pro. 72. Null! flden- 

Slusuitiuntur aquae. * Hor. 1. 2, Sat. 6. tea omnium formidant opes, ideo pavi- 

si angulug ille prorimus accedat, qul dum malum vocat Euripides : metuunt 

nunc deformat agellum. 8 Lib. 3, de tempestates ob frumentum, amicoB ne 

lib. arbit. Iinmoritur studiis, et amore rogent, inimicoa ne laedant, fures ne ra- 

aenescit habendi. Avarus vir Infer- plant, bellum timent, p&cem timent 

no eat Bimills, &c., modum non habet, guuimos. medios, inflmos- 
hoc egentior quo plum habet. & Erasm. 

Mem. 3, subs. 12.] Covetousness, a Cause. 381 

have ; what if a dear year come, or dearth, or some loss ? 
and were it not that they are loath to * lay out money on a 
rope, they would be hanged forthwith, and sometimes die to 
save charges, and make away themselves, if their corn and 
cattle miscarry ; though they have abundance left, as a Agel- 
lius notes. 8 Valerius makes mention of one that in a fam 
ine sold a mouse for two hundred pence, and famished him 
self; such are their cares, 4 griefs, and perpetual fears. These 
symptoms are elegantly expressed by Theophrastus in his 
character of a covetous man ; 6 " lying in bed, he asked his 
wife whether she shut the trunks and chests fast, the carcass 
be sealed, and whether the hall door be bolted ; and though 
she say all is well, he riseth out of his bed in his shirt, bare 
foot and barelegged, to see whether it be so, with a dark lan 
tern searching every corner, scarce sleeping a wink all night." 
Lucian, in that pleasant and witty dialogue called Gallus, 
brings in Mycillus the cobbler disputing with his cock, some- 
tunes Pythagoras ; where after much speech pro and con to 
prove the happiness of a mean estate, and discontents of a 
rich man, Pythagoras's cock in the end, to illustrate by exam 
ples that which he had said, brings him to Gnyphon the usu 
rer's house at midnight, and after that to Eucrates; whom 
they found both awake, casting up their accounts, and telling 
of their money, 6 lean, dry, pale and anxious, still suspecting 
lest somebody should make a hole through the wall, and so 
get in ; or if a rat or mouse did but stir, starting upon a 
sudden, and running to the door to see whether all were fast. 
Plautus, in his Aulularia, makes old Euclio 7 commanding 
Staphyla his wife to shut the doors fast, and the fire to be 

i Hall Char. * Agellius, lib. 3, cap. obiens et lustrans, et vix somno indul- 

1, interdum eo sceleris perveuiuut ob lu- gens. * Curis extenuatus, vigilans et 

srum, at vitam propriam commutent. secum supputans. 7 Cave quemquam 

* Lib. 7, cap. 6 * Omnes perpetuo alienuru in secies intromiseris. Ignem 

morbo agitantur, suspicatur omnes timi- eztingui volo, ne causae quidquam sit 

dus, sibique ob aurum iosidiari putat, quod te quisquam quaeritet. Si bona 

nunquam quiescens, Plin Prooem. lib. fortwna veniat ne intromiseris; Occluda 

14. 6 Cap. 18, in lectojacens interro- sis fores ambobus pessulis. Discrutior 

gat uxorem an arcam probe clausit, an animi quia domo abeundum est mihi : 

sapsula, &c lecto surgeng nudus et Nimis hercule invitus abeo, nee quid 

ibsque calceis, accensa lucerna omnia agam scio. 

382 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2 

put out, lest anybody should make that an errand to come to 
his house ; when he washed his hands, * he was loath to fling 
away the foul water, complaining that he was undone, be 
cause the smoke got out of his roof. And as he went from 
home, seeing a crow scratch upon the muck-hill, returned in 
all haste, taking it for malum omen, an ill sign, his money 
was digged up ; with many such. He that will but observe 
their actions, shall find these and many such passages not 
feigned for sport, but really performed, verified indeed by 
such covetous and miserable wretches, and that it is, 

* " manifesta phrenesis 
Ut locuples moriaris egentis vivere fato." 

A mere madness, to live like a wretch, and die rich. 

STJBSECT. XIII. Love of Gaming, fyc., and Pleasures im 
moderate ; Causes. 

IT is a wonder to see, how many poor, distressed, miser 
able wretches, one shall meet almost in every path and street, 
begging for an alms, that have been well descended, and 
sometimes in flourishing estate, now ragged, tattered, and 
ready to be starved, lingering out a painful life, in discontent 
and grief of body and mind, and all through immoderate lust, 
gaming, pleasure and riot. 'Tis the common end of all sen 
sual epicures and brutish prodigals, that are stupefied and 
carried away headlong with their several pleasures and lusts. 
Cebes in his table, S. Ambrose in his second book of Abel 
and Cain, and amongst the rest Lucian in his tract de Mercede 
conductis, hath excellent well deciphered such men's pro 
ceedings in his picture of Opulentia, whom he feigns to dwell 
on the top of a high mount, much sought after by many 
suitors ; at their first coming they are generally entertained 
by pleasure and dalliance, and have all the content that pos- 
eibly may be given, so long as their money lasts ; but when 
their means fail, they are contemptibly thrust out at a back 
door, headlong, and there left to shame, reproach, despair. 

I Plorat aquam profundere, &c., periit dum fumus de tigillo exit foras. * JUT. 8. 14 

Biem. 3, subs. 13.] Love of Gaming, SfC. 383 

And he at first that had so many attendants, parasites, and 
followers, young and lusty, richly arrayed, and all the dainty 
fare that might be had, with all kind of welcome and good 
respect, is now upon a sudden stript of all, 1 pale, naked, old, 
diseased and forsaken, cursing his stars, and ready to stran 
gle himself; having no other company but repentance, sor 
row, grief, derision, beggary and contempt, which are hia 
daily attendants to his life's end. As the 2 prodigal son 
had exquisite music, merry company, dainty fare at first; 
but a sorrowful reckoning in the end; so have all such 
vain delights and their followers. *Tristes voluptatum ex- 
ituSj et quisquis voluptatum suarum reminisci volet, intel- 
liget, as bitter as gall and wormwood is their last ; grief of 
mind, madness itself. The ordinary rocks upon which such 
men do impinge and precipitate themselves, are cards, dice, 
hawks and hounds, Insanum venandi studium, one calls it, 
insante substructions: their mad structures, disports, plays, 
&c., when they are unseasonably used, imprudently han 
dled, and beyond their fortunes. Some men are consumed 
by mad fantastical buildings, by making galleries, cloisters, 
terraces, walks, orchards, gardens, pools, rillets, bowers, and 
such like places of pleasure ; Inutiles domos, * Xenophon 
calls them, which howsoever they be delightsome things in 
themselves, and acceptable to all beholders, an ornament 
and befitting some great men ; yet unprofitable to others, 
and the sole overthrow of their estates. Forestus in his ob 
servations hath an example of such a one that became melan 
choly upon the like occasion, having consumed his substance 
in an unprofitable building, which would afterward yield him 
no advantage. Others, I say, are 5 overthrown by those mad 
sports of hawking and hunting; honest recreations, and fit 
for some great men, but not for every base inferior person ; 
rhilst they will maintain their falconers, dogs, and hunting- 

1 Ventricosus, ruidus, pallidus, Iseva nom. Quid si mine ostendam eos qul 

pudorem occultans, dextra seipsum magna vi argenti domus inutiles sedifi- 

Strangulans, o-^currit autem exeunti cant, iuquit Socrates. Sarisburien- 

poenitentia his miserum conflciens, &c. sis. Polycrat. 1. 1, c. 14, venatores omnef 

1 Luke XT. 3 Boethius. * In Oeco- adhuc iiistitutioueui redolent ceutauro- 

384 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a, 

nags, their wealth, saith * Salmutze, " runs away with hounds, 
and their fortunes fly away with hawks." They persecute 
beasts so long, till in the end they themselves degenerate into 
beasts, as a Agrippa taxeth them, 8 Actaeon-like, for as he was 
eaten to death by his own dogs, so do they devour them 
selves and their patrimonies, in such idle and unnecessary 
disports, neglecting in the mean time their more necessary 
business, and to follow their vocations. Over-mad, too, some 
times, are our great men hi delighting, and doting too much 
on it. * " When they drive poor husbandmen from their 
tillage," as 6 Sarisburiensis objects, Polycrat. 1. 1, c. 4, " fling 
down country farms, and whole towns, to make parks, and 
forests, starving men to feed beasts, and 6 punishing in the 
mean time such a man that shall molest their game, more 
severely than him that is otherwise a common hacker, or a 
notorious thief." But great men are some ways to be ex 
cused, the meaner sort have no evasion why they should not 
be counted mad. Poggius the Florentine tells a merry 
story to this purpose, condemning the folly and impertinent 
business of such kind of persons. A physician of Milan, 
saith he, that cured mad men, had a pit of water in his 
house, in which he kept his patients, some up to their knees, 
some to the girdle, some to the chin, pro modo intanue, as 
they were more or less affected. One of them by chance, 
that was well recovered, stood in the door, and seeing a 
gallant ride by with a hawk on his fist, well mounted, with 
hi> spaniels after him, would needs know to what use all this 
preparation served ; he made answer to kill certain fowls ; 
the patient demanded again, what his fowl might be worth 

rum. Rare invenitur quisquam eorum agricolonis prsecluduntur sylvse et prata 

modestus et gravU, raro continent*, et ut pastoribus ut augeantur poscua feris. 

credo sobrius imquam. 1 Pancirol. Majestatis reus agricola si gustarit. 

Tit. 23, avolant opes cum accipitre. * A novalibus suis arceiitur agricola), 

1 Insignia Tenatorum stultitia, et super- dura ferae habeant vagandi libertatem : 

Tacanea cura eoruin, qui dum nimium istis, ut pascua augpantur, prsedia sub- 

venationi insistunt, ipsi abjecta omni hu- trahuntur, &c. Sarisburiensis. Fe- 

manitate in feras degenerant. ut Acteon, ris quam hominibus sequiores. Carabd. 

&c. 3 Sabin. in Ovid. Metamor. de Guil. Conq. qui 86 Ecclesias matrices 

1 Agrippa de vanit. sclent. Insauum ve- de populatus est ad forestam novam. 

uandi studium, dum a novalibus arcen- Mat. Paris, 
tur agricola) subtrahunt praedia rusticis, 

Mem. 3, sub*. 13.] Love of Gaming, $c. 385 

which he killed in a year ; t he replied five or ten crowns ; 
and when he urged him farther what his dogs, horse, and 
hawks stood him in, he told him four hundred crowns ; with 
that the patient bade be gone, as he loved his life and 
welfare, for if our master come and find thee here, he will 
put thee in the pit amongst mad men up to the chin ; taxing 
the madness and folly of such vain men that spend them 
selves in those idle sports, neglecting their business and 
necessary affairs. Leo decimus, that hunting pope, is much 
discommended by l Jovius in his life, for his immoderate de 
sire of hawking and hunting, insomuch that (as he aaith) 
he would sometimes live about Ostia weeks and months to 
gether, leave suitors 2 unrespected, bulls and pardons un 
signed, to his own prejudice, and many private men's loss. 
8 " And if he had been by chance crossed in his sport, or his 
game not so good, he was so impatient, that he would revile 
and miscall many times men of great worth with most bitter 
taunts, look so sour, be so angry and waspish, so grieved and 
molested, that it is incredible to relate it." But if he had 
good sport, and been well pleased, on the other side, incredib- 
ili munificentia, with unspeakable bounty and munificence 
he would reward all his fellow hunters, and deny nothing to 
any suitor when he was in that mood. To say truth, 'tis the 
common humour of all gamesters, as Galata3us observes, if 
they win, no men living are so jovial and merry, but 4 if they 
lose, though it be but a trifle, two or three games at tables, 
or a dealing at cards for twopence a game, they are so chol 
eric and testy that no man may speak with them, and break 
many times into violent passions, oaths, imprecations, and 
unbeseeming speeches, little differing from mad men for the 
time. Generally of all gamesters and gaming, if it be ex 
cessive, thus much we may conclude, that whether they win 
or lose for the present, their winnings are not Munera for- 

1 Tom. 2, de vitis illustrium, 1. 4, de vit. ret, et incredibile eat quali vultfls animi- 

Leop. 10. 2 Venationibus adeo perdite que habit u dolorem iracundiamque pra&- 

tudebat et aucupiis. 3 Aut infeliciter ferret, &c. Unicuique autem hoe 

yeuatus tarn impatiens inde, at suinmos nutura insitum eat, ut doieat sicubi errar- 

inppe Tiros acerbissiuiis coutumeliis onera- erit aut deceptus git. 

VOL. i. 26 

386 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a. 

tun<z, sed insidia, as that wise Seneca determines, not for 
tune s gifts, but baits, the common catastrophe is * beggary, 
* Ut pestis wtam, sic adimit aha pecuniam, as the plague 
takes away life, doth gaming goods, for *omnes nudi, inopet 
et egeni ; 

* " Alea Scylla vorax, species certissima fdrti, 

Non contenta bonis animum quoque perfida mergit, 
Fceda, furax, infamis, inere, furiosa, ruina." 

For a little pleasure they take, and some small gaina and 
gettings now and then, their wives and children are wringed 
in the mean time, and they themselves with loss of body and 
soul rue it in the end. I will say nothing of those prodigi 
ous prodigals, perdenda pecunice genitos, as he 6 taxed An 
thony, Qui patrimonium sine ulld fori calumnid amittunt, 
saith ' Cyprian, and 7 mad Sybaritical spendthrifts, Quique 
una comedunt patrimonia ccend ; that eat up all at a break 
fast, at a supper, or amongst bawds, parasites, and players, 
consume themselves in an instant, as if they had flung it 
into 8 Tiber, with great wagers, vain and idle expenses, &c., 
not themselves only, but even all their friends, as a man 
desperately swimming drowns him that comes to help him, 
by suretyship and borrowing they will willingly undo all their 
associates and allies. 9 Irati pecuniis, as he saith, angry 
with their money ; 10 " what with a wanton eye, a liquorish 
tongue, and a gamesome hand, when they have indiscreetly 
impoverished themselves, mortgaged their wits together with 
their lands, and entombed their ancestors' fair possessions 
in their bowels, they may lead the rest of their days in 
prison, as many times they do ; they repent at leisure ; and 
when all is gone begin to be thrifty; but Sera est infunfo 
parsimonia,, 'tis then too late to look about ; their n end ia 

1 J iiyen . Sat. 8. Nee enim loculis com- 27. * Sallns t. Tom. 3, Ser. de Ale*, 
itantibus itur ad casnm tabulae, posita " Plntus in Aristoph. calls all such game- 
fed luditur area. Lemnius, instit. ca. 44, sters madmen. Si in insanum hominem 
mendaciorum quldem, et perjurlorum et contigero. Spontaneum ad Be trahunt 
paupertatis mater est alea, nullam ha- furorein, et 08, et nares, et oculoe rlyot 
bens patrimonii rererentiam, quum illud faclunt furoris et diversoria, Chryg. horn. 
eff-jiderit, sensim in furta delabitur et ra- 17. 8 Pascasius Justus. 1. 1, de alea. 
plnas. Saris. Polycrat. 1. l,c.6. 2 Dam- Seneca. w Hall. In Sat. 11. Sed 
hoderus. 8 Dan. Soutor. Petrar. dial, deflciente nromena : et erescente gula, 

Mem. 3, subs. 13.] Love of Gaming, fyc. 387 

misery, sorrow, shame, and discontent. And well they de 
serve to be infamous and discontent. * Catamidiari in Am- 
vhitheatro, as by Adrian the emperor's edict they were of 
old, decoctores bonorum suorum. so he calls them, prodigal 
fools, to be publicly shamed, and hissed out of all societies, 
rather than to be pitied or relieved. 2 The Tuscans and Boe- 
tians brought their bankrupts into the market place in a bier 
with an empty purse carried before them, all the boys fol 
lowing, where they sat all day circumstante plebe, to be infa 
mous and ridiculous. At 8 Padua in Italy they have a stone 
called the stone of turpitude, near the senate house, where 
spendthrifts, and such as disclaim non-payment of debts, do 
sit with their hinder parts bare, that by that note of disgrace, 
others may be terrified from all such vain expense, or bor 
rowing more than they can tell how to pay. The 4 civilians 
of old set guardians over such brain-sick prodigals, as they 
did over madmen, to moderate their expenses, that they 
should not so loosely consume their fortunes, to the utter un 
doing of their families. 

I may not here omit those two main plagues, and com 
mon dotages of human kind, wine and women, which have 
infatuated and besotted myriads of people ; they go commonly 


* " Qui vino indulget, quemqne alea docoquit, ille 
In venerem putret." 

To whom is sorrow, saith Solomon, Pro. xxiii. 29, to whom 
is woe, but to such a one as loves drink ? it causeth torture 
(vino twtus et ira), and bitterness of mind, Sirac. 31, 21. 
Vtnumfuroris, Jeremy calls it, 15 cap. wine of madness, as 
well he may, for insanire facit sanos, it makes sound men 
Bick and sad, and wise men * mad, to say and do they know 
not what. Accidit hodie terribilis casus (saith 7 S. Austin), 

qnis to manet exitus rebus In rentrem die consumes, a third is decomposed by 

mersis. 1 Spartian. Adriano. Alex, venery." Poculum quasi sinus In 

ab Alex. lib. 6, o. 10. Idem Gerbelius, quo saepe naufragium faciunt, jactun 

lib. 6, Gi.u disc. 3 Fines Moris, turn pecuniae turn mentis. Erasm. in 

* Justinian, in Digestis. 6 Persius, Sat. Prov. calicum remiges. chil. 4, cent. 7, 

5. *'On indulges hi wine, another the Pro. 41. 7 Ser. 38, ad frat. in Emno 

388 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. ec. 2 

hear a miserable accident; Cyrillus's son this day in hia 
drink, Matrem prcegnantem nequiter oppressit, sororem vio- 
lare voluit, patrem occiditfere, et duos alias sorores ad mor~ 
tern vulneravit, would have violated his sister, killed his 
father, &c. A true saying it was of him, Vino dari Icetitiam 
et dolorem, drink causeth mirth, and drink causeth sorrow, 
drink causeth " poverty and want," (Prov. xxi.) shame and 
disgrace. Mulii ignobiles evasere ob vini potum, et (Austin) 
amissis honoribus profugi aberrdrunt ; many men have 
made shipwreck of their fortunes, and go like rogues and 
beggars, having turned all their substance into aurum potab- 
ile, that otherwise might have lived in good worship and 
happy estate, and for a few hours' pleasure, for their Hilary 
term's but short, or * free madness, as Seneca calls it, pur 
chase unto themselves eternal tediousness and trouble. 

That other madness is on women, Apostatare facit cor, 
faith the wise man, 3 Atque homini cerebrum minuit. Pleas 
ant at first she is, like Dioscorides Rhododaphne, that fair 
plant to the eye, but poison to the taste, the rest as bitter aa 
wormwood in the end (Prov. v. 4) and sharp as a two-edged 
sword, (vii. 27) " Her house is the way to hell, and goes 
down to the chambers of death." What more sorrowful can 
be said ? they are miserable in this life, mad, beasts, led like 
* u oxen to the slaughter ; " and that which is worse, whore- 
masters and drunkards shall be judged, amittunt gratiam, 
saith Austin, perdunt gloriam, incurrunt damnationem <zter~ 
nam. They lose grace and glory ; 

4 " brevis ilia voluptas 
Abrogat seternum cceli decus " 

they gain hell and eternal damnation. 

1 Liber* unius hone insanlam aeterao mentary plea/rare biota out th 
temporU tiedio pennant. * Menander. glory of a heavenly lift." 
Pror. 6. Merlin, cocc. " That mo- 

Mem. 3, subs. 14.] Philautia, or Self-love, $c. 389 

SUBSECT. XIV. Philautia, or Self-love, Vainglory, Praise, 
Honour, Immoderate Applause, Pride, overmuch Joy, fyc^ 

SELF-LOVE, pride, and vainglory, 1 ceecus amor sui, which 
Chrysostom calls one of the devil's three great nets ; a " Ber 
nard, an arrow which pierceth the soul through, and slays it ; 
a sly, insensible enemy, not perceived," are main causes. 
Where neither anger, lust, covetousness, fear, sorrow, &c., 
nor any other perturbation can lay hold ; this will slyly and 
insensibly pervert us, Quem non gula vicit, Philautia supera- 
vit, (saith Cyprian,) whom surfeiting could not overtake, self- 
love hath overcome. * " He hath scorned all money, bribes, 
gifts, upright otherwise and sincere, hath inserted himself to 
no fond imagination, and sustained all those tyrannical con 
cupiscences of the body, hath lost all his honour, captivated 
by vainglory." Chrysostom. sup. lo. Tu sola animum men- 
temque peruris, gloria. A great assault and cause of our pres 
ent malady, although we do most part neglect, take no notice 
of it, yet this is a violent batterer of our sou's, causeth mel 
ancholy and dotage. This pleasing humour; this soft andj 
whispering popular air, Amabilis insania ; this delectable 
frenzy, most irrefragable passion, Mentis gratissimus error, 
this acceptable disease, which so sweetly sets upon us, ravish- 
eth our senses, lulls our souls asleep, puffs up our hearts as 
so many bladders, and that without all feeling, * insomuch as 
" those that are misaffected with it, never so much as once 
perceive it, or think of any cure." We commonly love him 
best in this 8 malady that doth us most harm, and are very 
willing to be hurt ; adulationibus nostris libenter favemus 
(saith * Jerome) we love him, we love him for it : 7 Bon- 
ciari, suave suave fait a te tali hoc tribui ; 'Twas sweet to 

1 Hor. * Sagitta quse animam pene- centias sustinuerint, hi multeities cap- 

trat. leviter penetrat, Bed non leve infli- ti a vana gloria onmia perdiderunt. 

git Tulnu--. sup. cant. 3 Qui omnem * Hao correpti non cogitant de medela. 

pecnnlarum contemptnm habent, et nnl- 6 Dii talem a terns ayeitite pestem. 

U hnaginationis totius mundi se iinmis- Ep. ad Eustochium, de cuitod. virgin 

cuerint, et tyrannical corporis concupis- 7 Lypa. Ep. ad Bonciarium. 

390 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 1 

hear it And as l Pliny doth ingenuously confess to his dear 
friend Augurinus, " all thy writings are most acceptable, buf 
those especially that speak of us." Again, a little after to 
Maximus, * ** I cannot express how pleasing it is to me to 
hear myself commended." Though we smile to ourselves, at 
least ironically, when parasites bedaub us with false enco 
miums, as many princes cannot choose but do, Quum tale 
quid nihil intra se repererint, when they know they come as 
lar short, as a mouse to an elephant, of any such virtues; 
yet it doth us good. Though we seem many times to be 
angry, * " and blush at our own praises, yet our souls in 
wardly rejoice, it puffs us up ; " 'tis fattax suavitas, blandui 
damon, " makes us swell beyond our bounds, and forget our 
selves." Her two daughters are lightness of mind, immod 
erate joy and pride, not excluding those other concomitant 
vices, which * lodocus Lorichius reckons up ; bragging, hy 
pocrisy, peevishness, and curiosity. 

Now the common cause of this mischief, ariseth from our- 
eelves or others, * we are active and passive. It proceeds 
inwardly from ourselves, as we are active causes, from an 
overweening conceit we have of our good parts, own worth, 
(which indeed is no worth,) our bounty, favour, grace, valour, 
strength, wealth, patience, meekness, hospitality, beauty, tem 
perance, gentry, knowledge, wit, science, art, learning, our 
f excellent gifts and fortunes, for which, Narcissus-like, we 
admire, flatter, and applaud ourselves, and think all the world 
esteems so of us ; and as deformed women easily believe 
those that tell them they be fair, we are too credulous of our 
own good parts and praises, too well persuaded of ourselves. 
We brag and venditate our 6 own works, and scorn all others 
in respect of us ; Inflati scientia, (saith Paul), our wisdom, 
our learning, all our geese are swans, and we as basely es- 

1 Ep. lib. 9. Omnla tua gcripta pul- laudem mam intrinaecuf animn Uetan- 

eherrima existimo, maximd tamen ilia tur. * Thesaur. Theo. <Necenimmihl 

quee de nohis. * Bxprimere non pos- cornea flbra est. Per. t B manlbua illii, 

uin quitn sit jucundum, &c. * Hie- Nascentur violne. Pen. 1, Sat. Om- 

ron. et licet nos indignoa dicimus et call- nia cnim nostra supra modum placent. 

dus rubor ora perfundat, at tamen ad Fab. 1.10, e. 8. Ridentur, mala com- 

Mem. 8, subs. 14.] PhilaiUia, or Self-love, SfC. 391 

teem and vilify other men's, as we do over-highly prize and 
value our own. We will not suffer them to be in se- 
cundis, no, not in tertiis ; what, Mecum confertur Ulysses ? 
they are Mures, Muscce, culices pree se, nits and flies com 
pared to his inexorable and supercilious, eminent and arro 
gant worship ; though indeed they be far before him. Only 
wise, only rich, only fortunate, valorous, and fair, puffed up 
with this tympany of self-conceit ; * as that proud Pharisee, 
they are not (as they suppose) " like other men," of a purer 
and more precious metal ; * Soli rei gerendi sunt ejficaces, 
which that wise Periander held of such; *meditantur omne 
qui prius negotium, fyc. Novi guendam (saith f Erasmus) I 
knew one so arrogant that he thought himself inferior to no 
man living, like * Callisthenes the philosopher, that neither 
held Alexander's acts, or any other subject worthy of his pen, 
such was his insolency ; or Seleucus king of Syria, who 
thought none fit to contend with him but the Romans. * Eos 
solos dignos ratus quibuscum de imperio certaret. That 
which Tully writ to Atticus long since, is still in force, 
1 " There was never yet true poet nor orator, that thought 
any other better than himself." And such for the most part 
are your princes, potentates, great philosophers, historiog 
raphers, authors of sects or heresies, and all our great schol 
ars, as 8 Hierom defines ; " a natural philosopher is a glorious 
creature, and a very slave of rumour, fame, and popular opin 
ion," and though they write de contemptu gloria, yet as he 
observes, they will put their names to their books. Vobis el 
famce me semper dedi, saith Trebellius Pollio, I " have wholly 
consecrated myself to you and fame." " 'Tis all my desire, 
night and day, 'tis all my study to raise my name." Proud 
T Pliny seconds him ; Quanquam ! S?c., and that vainglori- 

ponunt Carolina, rernm gaudent scriben- existimaret, lo. Vossius, lib. 1. cap. 9, de 

tes, et se venerantur, et ultra. Si taceas hist. * Plutarch. Tit. Oatonis. * \e- 

laudant, quicquid scripsere beati. Hor. mo unquam Poeta aut Orator, qui queii- 

ep. 2,1.2. i Luke zriii. 10. * De quam se meliorem arbitraretur. Con- 

meliore luto finxit pracordia Titan, sol. ad Pammachiuni Mundi philoso- 

Auson sap. t Chil. 3, cent. 10, pro. phus. gloriae animal, et popularis aura 

97. Qui se crederet neminem ulla in re et rumorum venale mancipium. " Epist. 

pnestantiorem. * Tan to fastu scrips! t, 6, Capitoni suo : Diebus ac noctibus, hoe 

ut Alexandri gesta inferiora scriptis suis solum cogito si qua me possum lewe 

392 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

ous 1 orator, is not ashamed to confess in an Epistle of his to 
Marcus Lecceius Ardeo incredibili cupiditate, fyc. " I burn 
with an incredible desire to have my a name registered in thy 
book." Out of this fountain proceed all those cracks and brags, 

* speramus carmina fingi Posse linenda cedro, et leni ser- 

vanda cupresso 4 Non usitatd nee tenui ferar pennd 

nee in terra morabor longius. Nil parvum aut humili modo, 

nil mortale loquor. Dicar qua violens obstrepit Ausidas. 

Exegi monumentum cere perennius. Jamque opus exegi, quod 
nee Jovis ira, nee ignis, fyc., cum venit itte dies, fyc., parte 
tamen meliore mei super oka perennis astra ferar, nomenque 
frit indelebik nostrum. (This of Ovid I have paraphrased 
hi English.) 

" And when I am dead and gone, 

My corpse laid under a stone, 

My fame shall yet survive. 

And I shall be alive, 

In these my works forever, 

My glory shall persever," &o. 

And that of Ennius, 

" Nemo me lachrymis decoret, neque funera fletu 
Faxit, cur? volito docta per ora virum." 

u Let none shed tears over me, or adorn my bier with sorrow 
because I am eternally in the mouths of men." With 
many such proud strains, and foolish flashes too common with 
writers. Not so much as Democharis on the * Topics, but 
he will be immortal. Typotius de famd, shall be famous, 
and well he deserves, because he writ of fame ; and every 

trivial poet must be renowned. " Plausuque petit clares- 

cere vulgi." " He seeks the applause of the public." This 
puffing humour it is, that hath produced so many great tomes, 
built such famous monuments, strong castles, and Mausolean 
tombs, to have their acts eternized, " Digito monstrari, el 

homo Id veto meo sufflclt, &c. 1 Tul- slus forat. uneb. de Seal. *Hor. art 

lias. * Ut nomen meam scriptls tuis Poet. Od. Vit. 1. 8. Jamque opui 

Ulustrexar. Inqules animus studio seter- exegi. Vade, liber foelix ; Palingeu. lib. 

nltatis, noctes et dies angebatur. Hen- 18. * In lib. 8. 

Mem 8 subs. 14.] Vainglory, Pride, fyc. 393 

dicier hie est ; " " to be pointed at with the finger, and to have 
it said, ' there he goes,' " to see their names inscribed, as 
Phryne on the walls of Thebes, Phryne fecit ; this causeth 
so many bloody battles, " et nodes cogit vigilare sercnas ; " 
u and induces us to watch during calm nights." Long jour 
neys, "Magnum iter intendo, sed dot mihi gloria vires" " I 
contemplate a monstrous journey, but the love of glory 
strengthens me for it," gaining honour, a little applause, 
pride, self-love, vainglory. This is it which makes them 
take such pains, and break out into those ridiculous strains, 
this high conceit of themselves, to x scorn all others ; ridiculo 
fastu et intolerando contemptu ; as 2 Palaemon the grammarian 
contemned Varro, secum et natas et morituras literas jactans, 
and brings them to that height of insolency, that they cannot 
endure to be contradicted, 8 or " hear of anything but their 
own commendation," which Hierom notes of such kind of 
men. And as 4 Austin well seconds him, " 'tis their sole 
study day and night to be commended and applauded." 
When as indeed, in all wise men's judgments, quibus cor sapit, 
they are 8 mad, empty vessels, funges, beside themselves, de 
rided, et ut Camelus mproverbio queer ens cornua, etiam quas 
habebat aures amisit, 6 their works are toys, as an almanac 
out of date, 7 authoris pereunt garrulitate sui, they seek fame 
and immortality, but reap dishonour and infamy, they are a 
common obloquy, insensati, and come far short of that which 
they suppose or expect. 8 puer ut sis vitalis metuo. 

" How much I dread 
Thy days are short, some lord shall strike thee dead." 

Of so many myriads of poets, rhetoricians, philosophers, 
sophisters, as * Eusebius well observes, which have written 
in former ages, scarce one of a thousand's works remains, 

1 De ponte dejicere. * Sueton. lib. TnM.ntn.rn istam, domine, longfe fee a me. 

degram. 8 Nihil libenter audiunt, nisi Austin, cons. lib. 10, cap. 87. " A* 

laudes suas. * Epis. 56. Nihil aliud Camelus, in the novel, who lost his ear* 

dies uoctesque cogitant nisi ut in studiis while he was looking for a pair of horns." 

suis laudentur ab hominibus. 6 Quw 1 Mart. 1. 6, 61. 8 Hor. Sat. 1, ) . 2 

major dementia aut dici, ant excogitari * lab. cont. Philos. cap. 1. 
potest, quiai sic ob gloriam cruciari? 

394 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. MO. 1 

nomina et libri simul cum corporibus interierunt, their books 
and bodies are perished together. It is not as they vainly 
think, they shall surely be admired and immortal, as one told 
Philip of Macedon insultingly, after a victory, that his 
shadow was no longer than before, we may say to them, 

" Nos demiratnur, sed non cum deside vulgo, 
Sed velut Harpyas, Gorgonas, et Furias." 

" We marvel too, not as the vulgar we, 
But as we Gorgons, Harpies, or Furies see." 

Or if we do applaud, honour, and admire, quota pars, how 
small a part, in respect of the whole world, never so much as 
hears our names, how few take notice of us, how slender a 
tract, as scant as Alcibiades's land in a map ! And yet 
every man must and will be immortal, as he hopes, and ex 
tend his fame to our antipodes, when as half, no not a quarter 
of his own province or city, neither knows nor hears of him ; 
but say they did, what's a city to a kingdom, a kingdom to 
Europe, Europe to the world, the world itself that must have 
an end, if compared to the least visible star in the firmament, 
eighteen times bigger than it ? And then if those stars be 
infinite, and every star there be a sun, as some will, and as 
this sun of ours hath his planets about him, all inhabited, 
what proportion bear we to them, and where's our glory ? 
Orbem terrarum victor Romanus habebat, as he cracked in 
Petronius, all the world was under Augustus ; and so in Con- 
stantine's time, Eusebius brags he governed all the world, 

universum mundum prtedarc admodum administravit, et 

omnis orbis gentes Imperatori subjecti ; so of Alexander it is 
given out, the four monarchies, &c., when as neither Greeks 
nor Romans ever had the fifteenth part of the now known 
world, nor half of that which was then described. What 
braggadocios are they and we then ? quam brevis hie de no- 
Iris semio, as * he said, *pudebit aucti nominis, how short a 
time, how little a while doth this fame of ours continue ? 
Every private province, every small territory and city, when 

I Tul. 80111. Scip Boethius. 

Mem 8, subs. 14.J Vainglory^ Pride, Sfc. 395 

we have all done, will yield as generous spirits, as brave ex 
amples in all respects, as famous as ourselves, Cadwallader ir 
Wales, Hollo in Normandy, Robin Hood and Little John, are 
as much renowned in Sherwood, as Caesar in Rome, Alexan 
der in Greece, or his Hephestion, 1 Omnis tetas omnisque pop- 
ulus in exemplum et admirationem veniet, every town, city, 
book, is full of brave soldiers, senators, scholars ; and though 
8 Bracydas was a worthy captain, a good man, and as they 
thought, not to be matched in Lacedremon, yet as his mother 
truly said, plures habet Sparta Bract/da met lores, Sparta had 
many better men than ever he was ; and howsoever thou ad- 
mirest thyself, thy friend, many an obscure fellow the world 
never took notice of, had he been in place or action, would 
have done much better than he or he, or thou thyself. 

Another kind of mad men there is opposite to these, that 
are insensibly mad, and know not of it, such as contemn all 
praise and glory, think themselves most free, when as indeed 
they are most mad ; calcant sed olio fastu ; a company of 
cynics, such as are monks, hermits, anachorites, that contemn 
the world, contemn themselves, contemn all titles, honours, 
offices ; and yet in that contempt are more proud than any 
man living whatsoever. They are proud in humility, proud 
in that they are not proud, scepe homo de vanes glories con" 
temptu, vanius gloriatur, as Austin hath it, confess, lib. 10, 
cap. 38, like Diogenes, intus gloriantur, they brag inwardly, 
and feed themselves fat with a self-conceit of sanctity, which 
is no better than hypocrisy. They go in sheep's russet, many 
great men that might maintain themselves in cloth of gold, 
and seem to be dejected, humble by their outward carriage, 
when as inwardly they are swoln full of pride, arrogancy, and 
self-conceit. And therefore Seneca adviseth his friend Lu- 
cilius, * " in his attire and gesture, outward actions, especially 
to avoid all such things as are more notable in themselves ; as 

1 Putean. Cisalp. hist. lib. 1. 2 Pin- aunt, asperum cultum et vi tiosum caput, 

tarch. Lycurgo. * Eplst 13. Illud negligentiorem barbam, indicium argen- 

te admoneo, ne eorum more facias, qui to odium, cubile hum! positurn, et quic- 

non proficere, Bed couspici cupiunt, quae quid ad laudem perrersa Tia sequitur 

la habit u tuo, aut geuere vita notabilia erita. 

396 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. we. a. 

a rugged attire, hirsute head, horrid beard, contempt of 
money, coarse lodging, and whatsoever leads to fame that op 
posite way." 

All this madness yet proceeds from ourselves, the main 
engine which batters us is from others, we are merely passive 
in this business ; from a company of parasites and flatterers, 
that with immoderate praise, and bombast epithets, glozing 
titles, false eulogiums, so bedaub and applaud, gild over many 
a silly and undeserving man, that they clap him quite out of 
his wits. Res imprimis violenta est, as Hierom notes, this 
common applause is a most violent thing, laudum placenta, a 
drum, fife, and trumpet cannot so animate ; that fattens men, 
erects and dejects them in an instant. * Palma negata ma- 
crum, donata reducit opimum. It makes them fat and lean, as 
frost doth conies. 2 " And who is that mortal man that can 
so contain himself, that if he be immoderately commended 
and applauded, will not be moved ? " Let him be what be 
will, those parasites will overturn him ; if he be a king, he is 
one of the nine worthies, more than a man, a god forthwith, 
* edictum Domini Deique nostri ; and they will sacrifice 

unto him, 

t " divinos si tu patiaris honores, 
Ultrb ipsi dabimus meritasque sacrabimus aras." 

If he be a soldier, then Themistocles, Epaminondas, Hector, 
Achilles, duo fulmina oetti, triumviri terrarum, tyc., and the 
valour of both Scipios is too little for him, he is invictissimus, 
serenissimus, multis tropheeis omatissimus, natures dominus, 
although he be lepus galeatus, indeed a very coward, a milk 
sop, J and as he said of Xerxes, postremus in pugnd, primus in 
fogd, and such a one as never durst look his enemy in the 
face. If he be a big man, then is he a Samson, another 
Hercules ; if he pronounce a speech, another Tully or Demos 
thenes ; as of Herod in the Acts, " the voice of God and not 

1 Per. * Quis vero tarn bene modu- you will accept divine honours, we will 

lo siio metiri ee noyit, ut eum assiduw et willingly erect and consecrate altar* to 

immodicga laudationea non moreant? you." $ Justiu. 
Hen. Steph * Mart. t Stroza. " If 

Mem. 8, subs. W- 1 Vainglory, Pride, SfC, 397 

of man ; " if he can make a verse, Homer, Virgil, &c. And 
then my silly weak patienv t?tes all these eulogiums to him 
self; if he be a scholar so commeuded for his much reading, 
excellent style, method, &c., he will eviscerate himself like a 
spider, study to death, Laudatas ostesdit avis Junonia pen- 
nas, peacock-like he will display all his feathers. If he be a 
soldier, and so applauded, his valour ei tolled, though it be 
impar congressiis, as that of Troilus, aid Achilles, Infelix 
puer, he will combat with a giant, run first upon a breach, 
as another * Philippus, he will ride into he thickest of his 
enemies. Commend his housekeeping, and he will beggar 
himself; commend bis temperance, he will starve himself. 

" landataqne virtus 
Crescit, et immensum gloria calcar habet." * 

he is mad, mad, mad, no woe with him ; impatient con- 

sortis erit, he will over the 3 Alps to be talked of, or to main 
tain his credit. Commend an ambitious man, some proud 
prince or potentate, si plus cequo laudetur (saith 8 Erasmus) 
cristas erigit, exuit hominem, Deum se putat, he sets up his 
crest, and will be no longer a man but a god. 

t " nihil est quod credere de se 
NOD andet qunm landatur diis sequa potestas."J 

How did this work with this Alexander, that would needs be 
Jupiter's son, and go like Hercules in a lion's skin ? Domi- 
tian a god ( Dominus Deus nosier sic fieri jubet), like the 
| Persian kings, whose image was adored by all that came 
into the city of Babylon. Commodus the emperor was so 
gulled by his flattering parasites, that he must be called Her 
cules. 4 Antonius the Roman would be crowned with ivy, 

1 Livius. Gloria tantum elatus, non ceas, et declamatio flag. JUT. Sat. 10. 

Ira, in medios hostes irruere, quod com- 8 In Moriae Encom. t Juvenal. Sat. 4. 
pletis muris consplci se pugnantem, at" There la nothing which OYer-lauded 

muro spectantibus, egregium dncebat. power will not presume to imagine of it- 

*" Applauded virtue grows apace, and self." } Sueton. c. 12, in Domitiano. 

glory includes within it an immense im- || Brisonius. * Antonius ab assentatori- 

pulse." 2 1 demens, et srevas curre per bos evectus Librum se patrem appellari 

Alpe. Aude Aliquid, &c., ut paerls pla- jussit, et pro dec se venditavit redimitu* 

898 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

carried in a chariot, and adored for Bacchus. Cotys, king of 
Thrace, was married to * Miner *, and sent three several 
messengers one after another, to see if she were come to his 
bed-chamber. Such a o'ie was 'Jupiter Menecrates, Maxi- 
minus Jovianus, Diocle.ianus Herculeus, Sapor the Persian 
king, brother of the f .un and moon, and our modern Turks, 
that will be gods on -jarth, kings of kings, God's shadow, com 
manders of all that may be commanded, our kings of China 
and Tartary in this present age. Such a one was Xerxes, 
that would whip th 3 sea, fetter Neptune, stttltd jactantid, and 
send a challenge to Mount Athos ; and such are many sottish 
princes, brought into a fool's paradise by their parasites, 'tis a 
common humour, incident to all men, when they are in great 
places, or come to the solstice of honour, have done, or de 
served well, to applaud and flatter themselves. Stultitiam 
suam produnt, fyc., (saith * Platerus) your very tradesmen if 
they be excellent, will crack and brag, and show their folly 
in excess. They have good parts, and they know it, you 
need not tell them of it ; out of a conceit of their worth, they 
go smiling to themselves, a perpetual meditation of their tro 
phies and plaudits, they run at last quite mad, and lose their 
wits. 8 Petrarch, lib. 1, de contemptu mundi, confessed as 
much of himself, and Cardan, in his fifth book of wisdom, 
gives an instance in a smith of Milan, a fellow-citizen of his, 
4 one Galeus de Rubeis, that being commended for refining 
of an instrument of Archimedes, for joy ran mad. Plutarch 
in the life of Artaxerxes, hath such a like story of one Cha- 
mus, a soldier, that wounded king Cyrus in battle, and " grew 
thereupon so 6 arrogant, that in a short space after he lost his 
wits." So many men, if any new honour, office, preferment, 

hedera, et corona velatus Korea, et thyr- 11. Oraculura est, vivida seepe Ingenia 
fum tenens, cothurnisque succinetus luxuriare hac et evanescere, multosqu* 
surra velut Liber pater vectus est Alex- sensum penitus amisisse. Homines intu- 
andrtoe. Pater, vol. post. > Minervte entur, ac A ipsi non essent homines. 
nuptias ambit, tanto furore percitos, at 4 Galeus de Rubeis, oi vis noster faber fer 
satellites mitteret ad videndum num dea rarius, ob Inventionem instrument! Co 
in thalamla renisset, ko * JElian. 11. cleae olim Archimedis dicti, pras laetitta 
12. * De mentis alienat. cap. 3. 3 Se- insanivit. & Insania poetmodum cor- 
quiturque superbia formam. Livius, 11. reptus, ob nlmiam inde arrogantiam. 

Mem. 3, subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 399 

booty, treasure, possession, or patrimony, ex insperato fall 
unto them, for immoderate joy, and continual meditation of it, 
cannot sleep * or tell what they say or do, they are so rav 
ished on a sudden ; and with vain conceits transported, there 
is no rule with them. Epaminondas, therefore, the next day 
after his Leuctrian victory, 2 " came abroad all squalid and 
submiss," and gave no other reason to his friends of so doing, 
than that he perceived himself the day before, by reason of 
his good fortune, to be too insolent, overmuch joyed. That 
wise and virtuous lady, * Queen Katherine, Dowager of Eng 
land, in private talk, upon like occasion, said, "that 4 she 
would not willingly endure the extremity of either fortune ; 
but if it were so, that of necessity she must undergo the one, 
she would be in adversity, because comfort was never want 
ing in it, but still counsel and government were defective in 
the other ; " they could not moderate themselves. 

SUBSECT. XV. Love of Learning, or overmuch Study. 
With a Digression of the Misery of Scholars, and why the 
Muses are Melancholy. 

LEONARTUS FUCHSIUS, Instil, lib. iii. sect. 1, cap. 1, Faelix 
Plater, lib. iii. de mentis alienat., Here, de Saxonia, Trad, 
post, de melanch. cap. 3, speak of a 6 peculiar fury, which 
comes by overmuch study. Fernelius, lib. 1, cap. 18, 'puts 
study, contemplation, and continual meditation, as an especial 
cause of madness ; and in his 86 consul, cites the same words. 
Jo. Arculanus, in lib. 9, Rhasis ad Alnansorem, cap. 16, 
amongst other causes reckons up studium vehemens ; so doth 
Levinus Lemnius, lib. de occul. not. mirac. lib. 1, cap. 16. 
7 " Many men (saith he) come to this malady by continual 

1 Bene ferre magnam disce fortunam. hac null! unquam dcfuit solatium, In al 

Hor. Fortunam reverenter babe, qni- ten multis consilium, &c. Led. Vires. 

cunqne repente Dives ab exili progrediere * Peculiaris furor, qui ex literis fit. 

loco. Ausonius. Proeessit squalidus Nihil magis auget, ac assidua studia, et 

et submissus, ut besterni die! gandinm profundae eogitationes. 1 Non desunt, 

intemperans hodie castigaret. * Uxor qui ex jugi studio, et intempestiva lucu- 

Henr. 8. 4 Xeu trius se fortunre extra- bmtione, hue devenerunt, hi pro cteterif 

mom libenter expert uram dixit: sed si enim plerunque melancholia solent infet- 

necessitaH alteriua sub ude imponeretur, tari. 
opt* re 8e difflcihm et adrersam : quod in 

400 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2 

* study, and night-waking, and of all other men, scholars are 
most subject to it ; " and such, Rhasis adds, l " that have com 
monly the finest wits." Cont. lib. 1, tract. 9. Marsilius Fi- 
cinus, de sanit. tuendd, Ub. 1, cap. 7, puts melancholy amongst 
one of those five principal plagues of students, 'tis a common 
Maul unto them all, and almost in some measure an insepar 
able companion. Varro belike for that cause calls Tristes 
Philosophos et severos, severe, sad, dry, tetric, are common 
epithets to scholars ; and 2 Patritius therefore, in the institu 
tion of princes, would not have them to be great students. 
For (as Machiavel holds) study weakens their bodies, dulls 
the spirits, abates their strength and courage ; and good 
scholars are never good soldiers, which a certain Goth well 
perceived, for when his countrymen came into Greece, and 
would have burned all their books, he cried out against it, by 
no means they should do it, 8 " leave them that plague, 
which in time will consume all their vigour, and martial 
spirits." The 4 Turks abdicated Cornutus the next heir from 
the empire, because he was so much given to his book ; and 
'tis the common tenet of the world, that learning dulls and 
diminisheth the spirits, and so per consequents produceth mel 

Two main reasons may be given of it, why students should 
be more subject to this malady than others. The one is, they 
live a sedentary, solitary life, sibi et musis, free from bodily 
exercise, and those ordinary disports which other men use ; 
and many times if discontent and idleness concur with it, 
which is too frequent, they are precipitated into this gulf on 
a sudden; but the common cause is overmuch study; too 
much learning (as 6 Festus told Paul) hath made thee mad ; 
'tis that other extreme which effects it. So did Trincavellius, 
Kb. 1, consiL 12 and 13, find by his experience, in two of his 

* Study to a continual and earnest 81. Qnccis hanc pestem relinqulte, qu 

meditation, applied to something with dnbimn non est quin brevi omnem ils 

great desire. Tally. l Etilli qui sunt yigorem ereptnra, Martiosque spiritus ex- 

Bubtilis ingenli, et multae praemeJitatlo- hausturasit; nt ad arma tractanda plane 

nis. de fccili incldnnt in melancholiam. inhabiles futuri Bint. * Knoles, Turk. 

i>Obstudlorum8olicitudinem,lib.6,Tit.6. Hist. Acts, xxri. 24. 
Oaspar Ens, Thesaur. Polit. Apoteles. 

Mem. a, sabs. 15.J Study, a Cause. 401 

patients, a young baron, and another that contracted this 
malady by too vehement study. So Forestus, observat. L 10, 
observ. 13, in a young divine in Louvaine, that was mad, and 
said, l " he had a Bible in his head ; " Marsilius Ficinus de 
tanit. tuend. lib. 1, cap. 1, 3, 4, and lib. 2, cap. 16, gives 
many reasons, 2 " why students dote more often than others." 
The first is their negligence ; 8 " other men look to their tools, 
a painter will wash his pencils, a smith will look to his ham 
mer, anvil, forge ; a husbandman will mend his plough-irons, 
and grind his hatchet, if it be dull ; a falconer or huntsman 
will have an especial care of his hawks, hounds, horses, 
dogs, &c. ; a musician will string and unstring his lute, dec. ; 
only scholars neglect that instrument, their brain and spirits 
(I mean) which they daily use, and by which they range over 
all the world, which by much study is consumed." Vide 
(saith Lucian) ne funiculum nimis intendendo, aliquando ab- 
rumpas : u See thou twist not the rope so hard, till at length 
it 4 break." Ficinus, in his fourth chap, gives some other 
reasons ; Saturn and Mercury, the patrons of learning, they 
are both dry planets ; and Origan us assigns the same cause, 
why Mercurialists, are so poor, and most part beggars ; for 
that their president Mercury had no better fortune himself. 
The destinies of old put poverty upon him as a punishment ; 
since when, poetry arid beggary are Gemelli, twin-born brats, 
inseparable companions ; 

'" And to this day is every scholar poor; 

Gross gold from them runs headlong to the boor: " 

Mercury can help them to knowledge, but not to money. 
The second is contemplation. 6 " which dries the brain and 

1 Nimiis studiis melancholicus evasit, &c., soil mnsarum mystse tarn negligeii- 

dicens se Biblium in capite habere. 2 Cur tea sunt. ut instrumentum illud quo 

melancholia assiduSL, crebrisque delira- mundum univorsum metiri sclent, spiri- 

raentis yexentur eorum animi ut desipere tnm scilicet, penitus negligere videantur 

eogantur. 3 Solera quilibet artifex in- 4 Arcus et anna Hbi non sunt imitanda 

strumenta sua diligentissime curat, pent- Dianas. Si nunquam cesses tendere mol 

cellos pictor ; malleos incudesque faber Us erit, Ovid. 6 Ephemer. Con 

ferrarins ; miles equos, anna ycnator, au- templatio cerebrum exsiccat et extinguM 

oeps ares et canes, cy tharam cy tharaedus, calorem natoralem, unde cerebrum Mgi- 
v JL. i. 26 

402 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. sc. a 

extinguished natural heat ; for whilst the spirits are intent 
to meditation above in the head, the stomach and liver are 
left destitute, and thence come black blood and crudities by 
defect of concoction, and for want of exercise the superfluous 
vapours cannot exhale," &c. The same reasons are repeated 
by Gomesius, lib. 4, cap. 1, de sale l Nymannus oral, de Imag. 
Jo. Voschius, lib. 2, cap. 5, de peste ; and something more 
they add, that hard students are commonly troubled with 
gouts, catarrhs, rheums, cachexia, bradiopepsia, bad eyes, 
stone and colic, 2 crudities, oppilations, vertigo, winds, con 
sumptions, and all such diseases as come by overmuch sitting ; 
they are most part lean, dry, ill-coloured, spend their fortunes, 
lose their wits, and many times their lives, and all through 
immoderate pains, and extraordinary studies. If you will 
not believe the truth of this, look upon great Tostatus and 
Thomas Aquinas's works, and tell me whether those men 
took pains ? peruse Austin, Hierom, &c., and many thousands 

" Qui cupit optatam cursu contingere metam, 
Multa tulit, fecitque pner, sudavit et alsit." 

" He that desires this wished goal to gain, 
Must sweat and freeze before he can attain," 

and labour hard for it So did Seneca, by his own confession, 
ep. 8. * " Not a day that I spend idle, part of the night I 
keep mine eyes open, tired with waking, and now slumbering 
to their continual task." Hear Tully, pro Archid Poetd : 
" whilst others loitered, and took their pleasures, he was con 
tinually at his book," so they do that will be scholars, and 
that to the hazard (I say) of their healths, fortunes, wits, and 
lives. How much did Aristotle and Ptolemy spend ? uniiu 

dum et siccum evadit quod eat melanchol- cachectic! et nunquam bene eolorati, 

tcum. Art-edit ad hoc. quod natura in propter debilltatem digestives facultatis, 

contemplatione, cerebro prorsus cordique multiplicantur in iis superflultates. Jo. 

Intenta, stomachura heparque destitult, Voschius, parte 2, cap. 5, de peste. 

unde ex alimentis male coctis, sanguis * Nullus mini per otium dies exit, partem 

crass us et niger effloitur, dum nimio otio noctis studiis dedtco, non vero somno, 

membrorum superflui vapores non exha- oed oculos rigilia fatlgatos eadentesqu* 

lant. i Cerebrum exsiccatur, corpora in operam detineo. 
aenrim gracilescunt. * Htudiosi sunt 

Mem. 3, subs. 16.] Study, a Cause. 403 

regni predum they say, more than a king's ransom ; how 
many crowns per annum, to perfect arts, the one about his 
History of Creatures, the other on his Almagest ? How 
much time did Thebet Benchorat employ, to find out the 
motion of the eighth sphere ? forty years and more, some 
write ; how many poor scholars have lost their wits, or be 
come dizzards, neglecting all worldly affairs and their own 
health, wealth, esse and bene esse, to gain knowledge, for 
which, after all their pains, in this world's esteem they are 
accounted ridiculous and silly fools, idiots, asses, and (as oft 
they are) rejected, contemned, derided, doting, and mad. 
Look for examples in Hildesheim, spicel. 2, de mania et 
delirio ; read Trincavellius, L 3, consil. 36, et c. 17. Mon- 
tanus, consil. 233. J Garceus, de Judic. genit. cap. 33. Mer- 
curialis, consil. 86, cap. 25. Prosper 2 Calenius in his Book 
de atrd Ule ; Go to Bedlam and ask. Or if they keep their 
wits, yet they are esteemed scrubs and fools by reason of 
their carriage " after seven years' study " 

" statu& taciturnius exit, 
Plerumqne et risu populum quatit." 

" He becomes more silent than a statue, and generally excites 
people's laughter." Because they cannot ride a horse, which 
every clown can do ; salute and court a gentlewoman, carve 
at table, cringe and make conges, which every common 
swasher can do, 8 hos populus ridet, &c., they are laughed to 
scorn, and accounted silly fools by our gallants. Yea, many 
times, such is their misery, they deserve it ; * a mere scholar, 
a mere ass. 

" Obstipo capite, et flgentes lumine terrain, 

Murmura cum secum, et rabiosa silentia rodunt, 
Atque experrecto tmtinantur verba labello, 

1 Johannes Hanuschius Bohemus, nat. mistocles said, he could make a small 

1516, eruditus vir, nimiis studiis in Phre- town become a great city. * Pen. Sat. 

nesin incidit. Montanus instances in a * Ingenium gibi quod Tanas desumpsU 

Frenchman of Tolosa. * Cardinalis Athenas et septem studiis annos dedit, 

Osecius ; ob laborem, yigiliam, et diutur- insenuitque. Libria et curls statua taci- 

na studia foetus Melancholicus. 3 Pera. turnius exit, Plerunque et risu populun 

Bat. 3. They cannot fiddle ; but, as The- quatit, Hor. ep. 1, lib. 2. 

404 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2 

jEgroti veteris meditantes somnia, gigid 

De n ih ilo nihilum; in nihilum nil posso reverti." 

1 " who do lean awry 

Their heads, piercing the earth with a fixt eye; 
When, by themselves, they gnaw their murmuring, 
And furious silence, as 'twere balancing 
Each word upon their outstretched lip, and when 
They meditate the dreams of old sick men, 
As ' Out of nothing, nothing can be brought; 
And that which is, can ne'er be turn'd to nought.' " 

Thus they go commonly meditating unto themselves, thus 
they sit, such is their action and gesture. Fulgosus, I. 8, c. 7, 
makes mention how Th. Aquinas, supping with king Lewis 
of France, upon a sudden knocked his fist upon the table, 
and cried, conclusum est contra Manichceos ; his wits were a 
wool-gathering, as they say, and his head busied about other 
matters, when he perceived his error, he was much 2 abashed. 
Such a story there is of Archimedes in Vitruvius, that hav 
ing found out the means to know how much gold was mingled 
with the silver in king Hiero's crown, ran naked forth from 
the bath and cried efyw?/"*, I have found ; 8 " and was commonly 
BO intent to his studies, that he never perceived what was 
done about him ; when the city was taken, and the soldiers 
now ready to rifle his house, he took no notice of it." St. 
Bernard rode all day long by the Lemnian lake, and asked 
at last where he was, Marullus, lib. 2, cap. 4. It was De- 
mocritus's carriage alone that made the Abderites suppose him 
to have been mad, and sent for Hippocrates to cure him ; if 
he had been in any solemn company, he would upon all 
occasions fall a laughing. Theophrastus saith as much of 
Heraclitus, for that he continually wept, and Laertius of 
Menedemus Lampsacus, because he ran like a madman 
4 saying, " he came from hell as a spy, to tell the devils what 
mortal men did." Your greatest students are commonly no 
better, silly, soft fellows in their outward behaviour, absurd, 

1 Translated by M. B. Holiday. *Tho- &c. * Sub Furlae Iarv4 circnmlvit ur- 

ruas rubore confusus dixit ae de argumen- bem, dlcltans Be ezploratorem ab inferia 

to cogit3i88e. 3 Plutarch, vitl Mamelll. venisse, delaturum daemonibus mortal! 

Nee senslt urbem captain, nee milltes in am peccata. 
domum irrueutes, adeo intentus studlii, 

Mem. 3, subs. 16.] Study, a Cause, 405 

ridiculous to others, and no whit experienced in worldly busi 
ness ; they can measure the heavens, range over the world, 
teach others wisdom, and yet in bargains and contracts they 
are circumvented by every base tradesman. Are not these 
men fools ? and how should they be otherwise, " but as so 
many sots in schools, when (as * he well observed) they 
neither hear nor see such things as are commonly practised 
abroad ? " how should they get experience, by what means ? 
2 " I knew in my time many scholars," saith JEneas Sylvius 
(in an epistle of his to Gasper Scitick, chancellor to the em 
peror), " excellent well learned, but so rude, so silly, that 
they had no common civility, nor knew how to manage their 
domestic or public affairs." " Paglarensis was amazed, and 
said his farmer had surely cozened him, when he heard him 
tell that his sow had eleven pigs, and his ass had but one 
foal." To say the best of this profession, I can give no other 
testimony of them in general, than that of Pliny of Isaeus ; 
* " He is yet a scholar, than which kind of men there is 
nothing so simple, so sincere, none better, they are most part 
harmless, honest, upright, innocent, plain-dealing men." 

Now, because they are commonly subject to such hazards 
and inconveniences as dotage, madness, simplicity, &c., Jo. 
Voschius would have good scholars to be highly rewarded, 
and had in some extraordinary respect above other men, "to 
have greater * privileges than the rest, that adventure them 
selves and abbreviate their lives for the public good." But 
our patrons of learning are so far nowadays from respecting 
the muses, and giving that honour to scholars, or reward 
which they deserve, and are allowed by those indulgent privi 
leges of many noble princes, that after all their pains taken 
in the universities, cost and charge, expenses, irksome hours, 

1 Petronius. Ego arbitror In scholia cum accusavit, qui suem fnetam undecim 

gtultissimos fieri, quia nihil eorum quae porcellos, asinam unum duntaxat pul- 

in usu habemus aut audiunt ant vident. lum enixam retulerat. 3 Lib. 1, Epist. 

* Novi meU diebug, plerogque studiis lite- 3 Adhuc scholasticus tantum est ; quo 

rariun deditos, qui disciplinis admodum genere hominum, nihil aut est simplici- 

abundabant. sed nihil civilitatis habentes, us. aut slncerius aut melius. i Jnr 

nee rem publ. nee domesticam regere n6- priyilegiandl, qui ob commune brnunf 

rant. Stupuit Paglareusis et furti Till- abbreriant sibi vitam. 

406 Causes of Melancholy. [Part I. sec. 2 

laborious tasks, wearisome days, dangers, hazards (barred 
interim from all pleasures which other men have, mewed up 
like hawks all their lives), if they chance to wade through 
them, they shall in the end be rejected, contemned, and which 
is their greatest misery, driven to their shifts, exposed tc 
want, poverty, and beggary. Their familiar attendants are, 

* " Pallentes morbi, luctus, curaeqne laborque 

Et metus, et malesuada fames, et turpis egestas, 
Terribiles visu formae " 

" Grief, labour, care, pale sickness, miseries, 
Fear, filthy poverty, hunger that cries, 
Terrible monsters to be seen with eyes." 

If there were nothing else to trouble them, the conceit of 
this alone were enough to make them all melancholy. Most 
other trades and professions, after some seven years' appren 
ticeship, are enabled by their craft to live of themselves. A 
merchant adventures his goods at sea, and though his hazard 
be great, yet if one ship return of four, he likely makes a 
saving voyage. An husbandman's gains are almost certain 
quibus ipse Jupiter nocere non potest (whom Jove himself 
can't harm), ('tis f Cato's hyperbole, a great husband him 
self) ; only scholars, methinks, are most uncertain, unrespected, 
subject to all casualties and hazards. For first, not one of a 
many proves to be a scholar, all are not capable and docile, 1 ex 
omni ligno non Jit Mercurius; we can make majors and officers 
every year, but not scholars ; kings can invest knights and 
barons, as Sigismund the emperor confessed ; universities can 
give degrees ; and Tu quod es, e populo quilibet esse potest , 
but he nor they, nor all the world, can give learning, make 
philosophers, artists, orators, poets ; we can soon say, as 
Seneca well notes, virum bonum, 6 divitem, point at a 
rich man, a good, a happy man, a prosperous man, sumptuose 
vestitum, Calamistratum, bene olentem, magno temporis im~ 
pendio constat hcec laudatio, 6 virum literarum, but 'tis not 

* Virg. 6 /En. t Plntarch. vita gules : Rex et Poeta quotavmls non na 

HJus, Certum agrlcolationis lucrum, &c. citur. 
> Quotannis fiunt consoles et procon- 

Mem. 3, subs. 15.] Study, a Game. 407 

so easily performed to find out a learned man. Learning is 
not so quickly got, though they may be willing to take pains 
to that end sufficiently informed, and liberally maintained by 
their patrons and parents, yet few can compass it. Or if 
they be docile, yet all men's wills are not answerable to their 
wits, they can apprehend, but will not take pains ; they are 
either seduced by bad companions, vel in puettam impingunt, 
vel in poculum (they fall in with women or wine), and so 
spend their time to their friends' grief and their own un 
doings. Or put case they be studious, industrious, of ripe 
wits, and perhaps good capacities, then how many diseases 
of body and mind must they encounter ? No labour in the 
world like unto study. It may be, their temperature will not 
endure it, but striving to be excellent to know all, they lose 
health, wealth, wit, life and all. Let him yet happily escape 
all these hazards, <ereis intestinis, with a body of brass, and ia 
now consummate and ripe, he hath profited in his studies, and 
proceeded with all applause ; after many expenses, he is fit 
for preferment, where shall he have it ? he is as far to seek 
it as he was (after twenty years' standing) at the first day of 
his coming to the University. For what course shall he 
take, being now capable and ready ? The most parable and 
easy, and about which many are employed, is to teach a 
school, turn lecturer or curate, and for that he shall have fal 
coner's wages, ten pound per annum, and his diet, or some 
small stipend, so long as he can please his patron or the 
parish ; if they approve him not (for usually they do but a 
year or two), as inconstant as * they that cried " Hosanna " 
one day, and " Crucify him " the other ; serving-man-like, 
he must go look a new master; if they do, what is his 

i " Hoc quoque te manet ut pueroa elementa docentem 
Occupet extremis in vicis alba senectus." 

" At last thy snow-white age in suburb schools, 
Shall toil in teaching boys their grammar rules." 

* Mat. 21. 1 Hor. epist. 20, 1. 1. 

408 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

Like an ass, he wears out his time for provender, and can 
show a stum rod, togam tritam el laceram, saith * Haedus, an 
old torn gown, an ensign of his infelicity, he hath his labour 
for his pain, a modicum to keep him till he be decrepit, and 
that is all. Grammaticus non est fcelix, &c. If he be a 
trencher chaplain in a gentleman's house, as it befell * Eu- 
phormio, after some seven years' service, he may perchance 
have a living to the halves, or some small rectory with the 
mother of the maids at length, a poor kinswoman, or a 
cracked chambermaid, to have and to hold during the time 
of his life. But if he offend his good patron, or displease 
his lady mistress in the mean time, 

2 " Ducetur Planta velnt ictus ab Hercule Cacus, 
Poneturque foras, si quid tentaverit unquam 
Hiscere " 

as Hercules did by Cacus, he shall be dragged forth of doors 
by the heels, away with him. If he bend his forces to some 
other studies, with an intent to be a secretis to some noble 
man, or in such a place with an ambassador, he shall find 
that these persons rise like apprentices one under another, 
and in so many tradesmen's shops, when the master is dead, 
the foreman of the shop commonly steps in his place. Now 
for poets, rhetoricians, historians, philosophers, 8 mathemati 
cians, sophisters, &c. ; they are like grasshoppers, sing they 
must in summer, and pine in the winter, for there is no pre 
ferment for them. Even so they were at first, if you will 
believe that pleasant tale of Socrates, which he told fair 
Phaedrus under a plane-tree, at the banks of the river Iseus ; 
about noon when it was hot, and the grasshoppers made a 
noise, he took that sweet occasion to tell him a tale, how 
grasshoppers were once scholars, musicians, poets, &c., be 
fore the Muses were born, and lived without meat and drink, 
and for that cause were turned by Jupiter into grasshoppers. 
And may be turned again, In Tythoni Cicadas, aut Lycio- 
rum ranas, for any reward I see they are like to have ; or 

Ub. 1, de oontem. amor. 1 SatyricAn. * JUT. Sat 5. * An collt astra 

Mem. 8, sabs. 16.] Study, a Cause. 409 

else in the mean time, I would they could live as they did, 
without any viaticum, like so many * manucodiatae, those In 
dian birds of paradise, as we commonly call them, those 1 
mean that live with the air and dew of heaven, and need no 
other food ? for being as they are, their * " rhetoric only 
serves them to curse their bad fortunes," and many of them 
for want of means are driven to hard shifts ; from grasshop 
pers they turn humble-bees and wasps, plain parasites, and 
make the muses, mules, to satisfy their hunger-starved 
paunches, and get a meal's meat. To say truth, 'tis the com 
mon fortune of most scholars, to be servile and poor, to com 
plain pitifully, and lay open their wants to their respectless 
patrons, as f Cardan doth, as } Xilander and many others ; 
and which is too common in those dedicatory epistles, for 
hope of gain, to lie, flatter, and with hyperbolical eulogiums 
and commendations, to magnify and extol an illiterate un 
worthy idiot, for his excellent virtues, whom they should 
rather as 2 Machiavel observe, vilify and rail at downright 
for his most notorious villanies and vices. So they prostitute 
themselves as fiddlers, or mercenary tradesmen, to serve 
great men's turns for a small reward. They are like In 
dians, they have store of gold, but know not the worth of it ; 
for I am of Synesius's opinion, * " King Hiero got more by 
Simonides's acquaintance, than Simonides did by his ; " they 
have their best education, good institution, sole qualification 
from us, and when they have done well, their honour and im 
mortality from us ; we are the living tombs, registers, and as 
so many trumpeters of their fames ; what was Achilles with 
out Homer ? Alexander without Arrian and Curtius ? who 
had known the Caesars, but for Suetonius and Dion ? 

|| " Vixerant fortes ante Agamemnona 
Multi : sed omnes illachrymabiles 

1 Aldrovandus de Avibus. 1. 12, Gesner, potius vituperare oporteret. Or M 

&c. * Literas habent queis sibi et horses know not their strength, they con- 

fortunae euae maledicant. Sat. Menip. rider not their own worth. * Plura ei 

t Lib. de libris I'ropriis, fol. 24. I Pree- Simonidis familiaritate Hiero consequ- 

Jat. translut. Plutarch. * Polit. dis- utus est, quam ex HieronU Simonidea 

pat. laudibus eztollunt eos ac si virtuti- || Hor. lib. 4, od. 9. 
bus pollerent quos ob infinite scelera 

110 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

Urgentnr, ignotique longa 
Nocte, carent quia vate sacro." 

" Before great Agamemnon reign'd, 

Reign' d kings as great as he, and brave, 
Whose huge ambition's now contain'd 

In the small compass of a grave: 
In endless night they sleep, unwept, unknown, 
No bard they had to make all time their own." 

they are more beholden to scholars, than scholars to them ; but 
they undervalue themselves, and so by those great men are 
kept down. Let them have that encyclopaedias, all the 
learning in the world; they must keep it to themselves, 
* " live in base esteem, and starve, except they will submit," 
as Budaeus well hath it, " so many good parts, so many en 
signs of arts, virtues, be slavishly obnoxious to some illiterate 
potentate, and live under his insolent worship, or honour, like 
parasites," Qui tanquam mures alienum panem comedunt. 
For to say truth, artes hce non sunt lucrative, as Guido 
Bonat that great astrologer could foresee, they be not gainful 
arts these, sed esurientes etfamelica, but poor and hungry. 

t " Dat Galenus opes, dat Justinianus honores, 
Sed genus et species cogitur ire pedes: " 

" The rich physician, hononr'd lawyers ride, 
Whilst the poor scholar foots it by their side." 

Poverty is the muses' patrimony, and as that poetical divin 
ity teacheth us, when Jupiter's daughters were each of them 
married to the gods, the muses alone were left solitary, Heli 
con forsaken of all suitors, and I believe it was, because they 
had no portion. 

" Calliope longum cselebs cur vixit in sevum ? 
Netnpe nihil dotis, quod numeraret, erat." 

" Why did Calliope live so long a maid? 
Because she had no dowry to be paid." 

Ever since all their followers are poor, forsaken, and left 

* Inter Inertes et plebelos fere jacet, terras Inaolentlsque potentfae, I jb 1, d 

ulttmum locum habens, nisi tot artis vir- contempt, rerum fortuitarum. f Bu- 

tutisque insignia, turplter, obnoxle, chanan. eleg. lib. 
inpparisitando fascibus subjecerit pro- 

Mem. 8, subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 411 

unto themselves. Insomuch, that as l Petronius argues, you 
shall likely know them by their clothes. "There came," 
saith he, "by chance into my company, a fellow not very 
spruce to look on, that I could perceive by that note alone he 
was a scholar, whom commonly rich men hate ; I asked him 
what he was, he answered, a poet; I demanded again why 
he was so ragged, he told me this kind of learning never 
made any man rich." 

a " Qui Pelago credit, magno se foenore tollit, 
Qni pngnas et rostra petit, prsecingitur auro: 
Vilis adulator picto jacet ebrins ostro, 
Sola pruinosis horret facundia pannis." 

" A merchant's gain is great, that goes to sea; 

A soldier embossed all in gold ; 
A flatterer lies fox'd in brave array; 
A scholar only ragged to behold." 

All which our ordinary students, right well perceiving in the 
universities, how unprofitable these poetical, mathematical, 
and philosophical studies are, how little respected, how few 
patrons ; apply themselves in all haste to those three commo 
dious professions of law, physic, and divinity, sharing them 
selves between them, 8 rejecting these arts in the mean time, 
history, philosophy, philology, or lightly passing them over, 
as pleasant toys fitting only table-talk, and to furnish them 
with discourse. They are not so behoveful; he that can 
tell his money hath arithmetic enough ; he is a true geometri 
cian, can measure out a good fortune to himself; a perfect 
astrologer that can cast the rise and fall of others, and mark 
their errant motions to his own use. The best optics are, to 
reflect the beams of some great men's favour and grace to 
shine upon him. He is a good engineer, that alone can make 
an instrument to get preferment. This was the common 
tenet and practice of Poland, as Cromerus observed not long 

1 In Satyric6n. intrat senex, sed cultu Arbiter. * Oppressus panpertate anl- 

nnn ita speciosus, ut facile appareret mug, nlhfl eximium aut sublime cogitare 

sum hac nota literatum esse, quos divites potest, amoenitates liters rum, aut ele- solent. Ego inquit Poeta sum: gantiam, quoniam nihil prsesidii in hit 

Quare ergo tarn male vestitus es ? Prop- ad vttse commodum videt, primd negli- 

ter hoc ipsum ; amor ingenii neminem gere, mox odisse incipit. Hens. 
nnquam divitem fecit. 2 Petronius 

412 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec 2. 

since, in the first book of his history ; their universities were 
generally base, not a philosopher, a mathematician, an anti 
quary, &c., to be found of any note amongst them, because 
they had no set reward or stipend, but every man betook 
himself to divinity, hoc solum in votis habens, opimum sacer- 
dotium, a good parsonage was their aim. This was the prac 
tice of some of our near neighbours, as * Lipsius inveighs, 
" they thrust their children to the study of law and divinity, 
before they be informed aright, or capable of such studies." 
Scilicet omnibus artibus antistat spes lucri, et formosior est 
cumulus auri, quam quicquid Greed Latinique delirantes 
scripserunt. Ex hoc numero deinde veniunt ad gubemacula 
reipub. inter sunt et prtesunt consiliis regum, 6 pater, 6 patria ? 
so he complained, and so may others. For even so we find, 
to serve a great man, to get an office in some bishop's court 
(to practise in some good town), or compass a benefice is the 
mark we shoot at, as being so advantageous, the highway to 

Although many times, for aught I can see, these men fail 
as often as the rest in their projects, and are as usually frus 
trate of their hopes. For let him be a doctor of the law, an 
excellent civilian of good worth, where shall he practise and 
expatiate ? Their fields are so scant, the civil law with us so 
contracted with prohibitions, so few causes, by reason of 
those all-devouring municipal laws, quibus nihil illiteratius, 
saith * Erasmus, an illiterate and a barbarous study (for 
though they be never so well learned in it, I can hardly 
vouchsafe them the name of scholars, except they be other 
wise qualified), and so few courts are left to that profession, 
euch slender offices, and those commonly to be compassed at 
such dear rates, that I know not how an ingenious man should 
thrive amongst them. Now for physicians, there are in 
every village so many mountebanks, empirics, quacksalvers 
paracelsians, as they call themselves, Caucifici et sanicida, 
BO t Clenard terms them, wizards, alchemists, poor vicars, 

Eplstol. qnawt. lib. 4, Ep. 21. 1 Ciceron. dial. t Bpist. lib. 2. 

Mem. 3, subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 413 

cast apothecaries, physicians' men, barbers, and good wives, 
professing great skill, that I make great doubt how they shali 
be maintained, or who shall be their patients. Besides, there 
are so many of both sorts, and some of them such harpies, 
so covetous, so clamorous, so impudent ; and as l he said, litig 
ious idiots, 

" Quibus loquacis affatim arrogantiae est, 

Peritise parum aut nihil, 
Nee ulla mica literarii sails, 

Crumenimulga nacio: 
Loquuteleia turba, litium strophse, 

Maligna litigantium cohors, togati vultures, 
Lavernae alumni, Agyrtse," &o. 

" Which have no skill but prating arrogance, 
No learning, such a purse-milking nation : 
Gown'd vultures, thieves, and a litigious rout 
Of cozeners, that haunt this occupation," &o. 

that they cannot well tell how to live one by another, but as 
he jested in the Comedy of Clocks, they were so many, 
a major pars populi arida replant fame, they are almost 
starved a great part of them, and ready to devour their fel 
lows, * El noxia cattiditale se corripere, such a multitude of 
pettifoggers and empirics, such impostors, that an honest man 
knows not in what sort to compose and behave himself in 
their society, to carry himself with credit in so vile a rout, 
scientice namen, tot sumplibus partum et vigilns, projiteri 
dispudeat, poslquam, fyc. 

Last of all come to our divines, the most noble profession 
and worthy of double honour, but of all others the most dis 
tressed and miserable. If you will not believe me, hear a 
brief of it, as it was not many years since publicly preached 
at Paul's cross, * by a grave minister then, and now a rever 
end bishop of this land : " We that are bred up in learning, 
and destinated by our parents to this end, we suffer our child 
hood in the grammar-school, which Austin calls *nagnam ty- 
rannidem, et grave malum, and compares it to the torments of 

' Ja. Do usa Epodon. lib. 2, car. 2. * Job. Howson, 4 Novembris, 1597. th 
Plautus. * Barcl. Argeuis, lib. 3. sermon was printed by Arnold Hartfield 

414 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. & 

martyrdom ; when we come to the university, if we live of 
the college allowance, as Phalaris objected to the Leontines, 
ndvruv tvderjt TT^V tytov ndl $6(iav, needy of all things but hunger 
and fear, or if we be maintained but partly by our parents' 
cost, do expend in unnecessary maintenance, books and de 
grees, before we come to any perfection, five hundred pounds, 
or a thousand marks. If by this price of the expense of 
time, our bodies and spirits, our substance and patrimonies, 
we cannot purchase those small rewards, which are ours by 
law, and the right of inheritance, a poor parsonage, or a 
vicarage of fifty pounds per annum, but we must pay to the 
patron for the lease of a life (a spent and out-worn life) 
either in annual pension, or above the rate of a copyhold, 
and that with the hazard and loss of our souls, by simony and 
perjury, and the forfeiture of all our spiritual preferments, 
in esse and posse, both present and to come. What father 
after awhile will be so improvident to bring up his son to his 
great charge, to this necessary beggary ? "What Christian 
will be so irreligious, to bring up his son in that course of 
life, which by all probability and necessity, coget ad turpia, 
enforcing to sin, will entangle him in simony and perjury," 
when as the poet said, Invitatus ad hcec aliquis de ponte ne- 
gabit : u a beggar's brat taken from the bridge where he sits 
a-begging, if he knew the inconvenience, had cause to refuse 
it" This being thus, have not we fished fair all this while, 
that are initiate divines, to find no better fruits of our labours, 
1 hoc est cur pattes, cur quis non prandeat hoc est f do we 
macerate ourselves for this ? Is it for this we rise so early all 
the year long ? * " leaping (as he saith) out of our beds, when 
we hear the bell ring, as if we had heard a thunderclap." 
If this be all the respect, reward and honour we shall have, 
* /range leves calamos, et scinde Thalia libettos : let us give 
over our books, and betake ourselves to some other course of 
life ; to what end should we study ? ' Quid me litterulas 

1 Pen. Sat. 8 * E lecto exsilientes. fulmine territi. 1. * Mart. * Mart 
ad tubitum tiutinnabuli plans um quasi 

Mem. 3, subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 415 

stulti docuere parentes, what did our parents mean to make us 
scholars, to be as far to seek of preferment after twenty years' 
study, as we were at first; why do we take such pains? 
Quid tantum insanisjuvat impattescere chartist If there be 
no more hope of reward, no better encouragement, I say 
again, Frange leves calamos, et scinde Thalia libettos ; let's 
turn soldiers, sell our books, and buy swords, guns, and pikes, 
or stop bottles with them, turn our philosopher's gowns, as 
Cleanthes once did, into millers' coats, leave all, and rather 
betake ourselves to any other course of life, than to continue 
longer in this misery. * Prcestot dentiscolpia radere, qudm 
literariis monumentis magnatum favorem emendicare. 

Yea, but methinks I hear some man except at these words, 
that though this be true which I have said of the estate of 
scholars, and especially of divines, that it is miserable and 
distressed at this time, that the church suffers shipwreck of 
her goods, and that they have just cause to complain ; there 
is a fault, but whence proceeds it ? If the cause were justly 
examined, it would be retorted upon ourselves, if we were 
cited at that tribunal of truth, we should be found guilty, and 
not able to excuse it That there is a fault among us, I con 
fess, and were there not a buyer, there would not be a seller ; 
but to him that will consider better of it, it will more than 
manifestly appear, that the fountain of these miseries pro 
ceeds from these griping patrons. In accusing them, I do 
not altogether excuse us ; both are faulty, they and we ; yet 
in my judgment, theirs is the greater fault, more apparent 
causes, and much to be condemned. For my part, if it be 
not with me as I would, or as it should, I do ascribe the 
cause, as * Cardan did in the like case ; meo infortunio potitu 
quam ittorum sceleri, to t muie wn infelicity rather than 
their naughtiness ; although I have been baffled in my time 
by some of them, and have as just cause to complain as 

* Sat. Menip. ' Lib. 8, de cons, insulsus, recudi non possum Jam senior 

t I bad no money, I wanted impudence, ut sim tails, et flngi nolo, utcunque 

I could not scramble, temporize, dissem- male cedatin rem inearn et obscurus ind 

ble : non pranderet olus, &P , vis dicam, delitescam. 
id palpandum et adulandum penitua 

416 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a. 

another ; or rather indeed to mine own negligence ; for I was 
ever like that Alexander in * Plutarch, Crassus his tutor in 
philosophy, who, though he lived many years familiarly with 
rich Crassus, was even as poor when from (which many 
wondered at) as when he came first to him ; he never asked, 
the other never gave him anything ; when he travelled with 
Crassus he borrowed a hat of him, at his return restored it 
again. I have had some such noble friends' acquaintance 
and scholars, but most part (common courtesies and ordinary 
respects excepted), they and I parted as we met, they gave 
me as much as I requested, and that was And as Alex 
ander ab Alexandra, Genial, dier. L 6, c. 16, made answer to 
Hieronimus Massainus, that wondered, quum plures ignavos 
et ignobiles ad dignitates et sacerdotia promotes quotidie vide- 
ret, when other men rose, still he was in the same state, 
eodem tenore et fortund cui mercedem laborum studiorumque 
deberi putaret, whom he thought to deserve as well as the rest. 
He made answer, that he was content with his present estate, 
was not ambitious, and although objurgabundus suam segnitiem 
accusaret, cum obscurce sortis homines ad sacerdotia et pon- 
tificatus evectos, tyc., he chid him for his backwardness, yet 
he was still the same ; and for my part (though I be not 
worthy perhaps to carry Alexander's books), yet by some 
overweening and well-wishing friends, the like speeches have 
been used to me ; but I replied still with Alexander, that I 
had enough, and more peradventure than I deserved ; and 
with Libanius Sophista, that rather chose (when honours and 
offices by the emperor were offered unto him) to be talis 
Sophista, quam talis Magistratus. I had as lief be still De- 
mocritus junior, and privus privatus, si mihi jam daretur 

optio, quam talis fortasse Doctor, talis Dominus. Sed 

quorsum heec ? For the rest 'tis on both sides facinus detes- 
tandum, to buy and sell livings, to detain from the church, 
that which God's and men's laws have bestowed on it ; but 

Tit. Cnori. nee facili judlcare poteat utrum pauperior cum prime ad Craaaum, 

Mem. 8, subs. 15.] Study, a Came. 417 

in them most, and that from the covetousness and ignorance 
of such as are interested in this business ; I name covetous- 
ness in the first place, as the root of all these mischiefs, 
which, Achan-like, compels them to commit sacrilege, and to 
make simoniacal compacts (and what not) to their own ends, 
1 that kindles God's wrath, brings a plague, vengeance, and a 
heavy visitation upon themselves and others. Some, out of 
that insatiable desire of filthy lucre, to be enriched, care not 
how they come by it per fas et nefas, hook or crook, so they 
have it And others when they have with riot and prodi 
gality embezzled their estates, to recover themselves, make a 
prey of the church, robbing it, as 2 Julian the apostate did, 
spoil parsons of their revenues (in keeping half back 8 as a 
great man amongst us observes) ; " and that maintenance on 
which they should li ve ; " by means whereof, barbarism is 
increased, and a great decay of Christian professors ; for who 
will apply himself to these divine studies, his son, or friend, 
when after great pains taken, they shall have nothing where 
upon to live ? But with what event do they these things ? 

* " Opesque totis viribus venamini, 
At inde mess is accidit miserrima." 

They toil and moil, but what reap they ? They are com 
monly unfortunate families that use it, aceursed in their prog 
eny, and, as common experience evinceth, accursed themselves 
in all their proceedings. " With what face (as 4 he quotes 
out of Aust.) can they expect a blessing or inheritance from 
Christ in heaven, that defraud Christ of his inheritance here 
on earth ? " I would all our simoniacal patrons, and such as 
detain tithes, would read those judicious tracts of Sir Henry 
Spelman, and Sir James Sempill, knights ; those late elabo 
rate and learned treatises of Dr. Tilflye, and Mr. Montague, 
which they have written of that subject. But though they 

iDeum habentiratum, sibique mortem In his Reports, second part, fol. 44. 
seternam acquirunt, aliis miserabilem rni- * Euripides. * Sir Henry Spelman, de 
nam. Semiring in Josimm, 7. Euripides, non temerandis Ecclp-siis. 
8 Nicephorus, lib.10, cap. 6. 3 Lord Cook, 

VOL. I. 27 

418 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. 1. sec. 

should read, it would be to small purpose, clames licet et mare 
ccelo confundas ; thunder, lighten, preach hell and damnation, 
tell them 'tis a sin, they will not believe it ; denounce and 
terrify, they have l cauterized consciences, they do not attend, 
as the enchanted adder, they stop their ears. Call them base, 
irreligious, profane, barbarous, pagans, atheists, epicures, (as 
some of them surely are,) with the bawd in Plautus, Euge, 
optime, they cry and applaud themselves with that miser, 
2 simul ac nummos contemplor in area ; say what you will, 
quocunque modo rent; as a dog barks at the moon, to no 
purpose are your sayings ; Take your heaven, let them have 
money. A base, profane, epicurean, hypocritical rout ; for 
my part, let them pretend what zeal they will, counterfeit re 
ligion, blear the world's eyes, bombast themselves, and stuff 
out their greatness with church spoils, shine like so many pea 
cocks ; so cold is my charity, so defective in this behalf, that 
I shall never think better of them, than that they are rotten 
at core, their bones are full of epicurean hypocrisy, and athe 
istical marrow, they are worse than heathens. For as Diony- 
sius Halicarnasseus observes, Antiq. Rom. lib. 7, 8 Primum 
locum, Sfc. " Greeks and Barbarians observe all religious 
rites, and dare not break them for fear of offending their 
gods ; but our simoniacal contractors, our senseless Achans, 
our stupefied patrons, fear neither God nor devil, they have 
evasions for it, it is no sin, or not due jure divino, or if a sin, 
no great sin, &c. And though they be daily punished for it, 
and they do manifestly perceive, that as he said, frost and 
fraud come to foul ends ; yet as 4 Chrysostom follows it, Nutta 
ex poend sit correctio, et quasi adversis malitia hominum pro- 
vocetur, crescit quotidie quod puniatur ; they are rather 
worse than better, iram atque animos a crimine sumunt, 
and the more they are corrected, the more they offend ; but 
let them take their course, 6 Rode, caper, vites, go on still aa 

1 1 Tim. 4. 2. * Hor. * Primum Barbari, &c. < Tom. 1, de steril. trj- 

locum apud omnes gentes habet patritiua um annorum sub Ella sermons, i Orid. 

deorum cultus, et geniorum, nam hunc Fast, 
iiutferimi custodlunt, tam Oneci quam 

Mem. 3, subs. 16.] Study, a Cause. 419 

they begin, 'tis no sin, let them rejoice secure, God's ven 
geance will overtake them in the end, and these ill-gotten 
goods, as an eagle's feathers, l will consume the rest of their 
substance ; it is 2 aurum Tholosanum, and will produce no 
better effects. 8 " Let them lay it up safe, and make their 
conveyances never so close, lock and shut door," saith Chrys- 
ostom, " yet fraud and covetousness, two most violent thieves, 
are still included, and a little gain evil gotten will subvert the 
rest of their goods." The eagle in JEsop, seeing a piece of 
flesh, now ready to be sacrificed, swept it away with her 
claw? , and carried it to her nest ; but there was a burning 
coal stuck to it by chance, which unawares consumed her 
young ones, nest, and all together. Let our simoniacal 
church-chopping patrons, and sacrilegious harpies, look for no 
better success. 

A second cause is ignorance, and from thence contempt, 
tuccessit odium in literas ab ignorantid vulgi ; which * Junius 
well perceived ; this hatred and contempt of learning pro 
ceeds out of 6 ignorance ; as they are themselves barbarous, 
idiots, dull, illiterate, and proud, so they esteem of others. 
Sint Meceenates, non deerunt, Flacd, Marones : Let there be 
bountiful patrons, and there will be painful scholars in all 
sciences. But when they contemn learning, and think them 
selves sufficiently qualified, if they can write and read, scram 
ble at a piece of evidence, or have so much Latin as that 
emperor had, 6 qui nescit dissimulare, nescit vivere, they are 
unfit to do their country service, to perform or undertake 
any action or employment, which may tend to the good of a 
commonwealth, except it be to fight, or to do country justice, 
with common sense, which every yeoman can likewise do. 
And so they bring up their children, rude as they are them 
selves, unqualified, untaught, uncivil most part. * Quis 

1 De male qnaesitis yiz gandet tertius ritiam, &c. In 5, Corinth. * Acad. 

haeres. - Strabo. lib. 4, Oeog. * Ni- cap. 7. * An neminem habet inimi- 

hil facilius opes evertet, quam avaritia et cum prater ignorantem. 6 He thai 

fraude parta. Et si eniin seram addas cannot dissemble cannot lire. *Epist 

tali arcse, et exteriore janua et vecte earn quest, lib. 4 ep'st. 21, Lipsiiw 
eommunias, in t i\s taiuen fraudem et ava- 

420 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a 

nostrd juventute legitime instituitur literis ? Quis oratores 
aut philosophos tangit f quis historian* legit, ittam rerum 
agendarum quasi animam ? preecipitant parentes vota tua, fyc., 
'twas Lipsius's complaint to his illiterate countrymen, it may 
be ours. Now shall these men judge of a scholar's worth, 
that have no worth, that know not what belongs to a student's 
labours, that cannot distinguish between a true scholar and a 
drone ? or him that by reason of a voluble tongue, a strong 
voice, a pleasing tone, and some trivially polyanthean helps, 
steals and gleans a few notes from other men's harvests, and 
so makes a fairer show than he that is truly learned indeed ; 
that thinks it no more to preach, than to speak, l " or to run 
away with an empty cart," as a grave man said ; and there 
upon vilify us, and our pains ; scorn us, and all learning. 
4 Because they are rich, and have other means to live, they 
think it concerns them not to know, or to trouble themselves 
with it ; a fitter task for younger brothers, or poor men's sons, 
to be pen and inkhorn men, pedantical slaves, and no whit 
beseeming the calling of a gentleman, as Frenchmen and 
Germans commonly do, neglect therefore all human learning, 
what have they to do with it ? Let mariners learn astron 
omy ; merchants' factors study arithmetic ; surveyors get 
them geometry; spectacle-makers optics; landleapers geog 
raphy ; town-clerks rhetoric, what should he do with a spade, 
that hath no ground to dig ; or they with learning, that hath 
no use of it? thus they reason, and are not ashamed to let 
mariners, apprentices, and the basest servants, be better 
qualified than themselves. In former times, kings, princes, 
and emperors, were the only scholars, excellent in all 

Julius Caesar mended the year, and writ his own Commen 


# " media inter prselia semper, 
Stellarum ccelique plagis, superisque yacayit." 

l Dr. King. In his lost lecture on Jonah, barbaro fastu literas eontamnunt *Lv 
sometime right reverend lord bishop of can. lib. 8. 
Tiondon. * Quibus opes et otium, hi 

JUem. 3, subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 421 

1 Antonius, Adrian, Nero, Seve. Jul. &c. Michael the 
emperor, and Isacius, were so much given to their studies, 
that no base fellow would take so much pains ; Orion, Per 
seus, Alphonsus, Ptolomeus, famous astronomers; Sabor, 
Mithridates, Lysimachus, admired physicians ; Plato's kings 
all ; Evax, that Arabian prince, a most expert jeweller, and 
an exquisite philosopher ; the kings of Egypt were priests of 
old, chosen and from thence, Idem rex hominum, Phcebique 
gacerdos ; but those heroical times are past ; the Muses are 
now banished in this bastard age, ad sordida tuguriola, to 
meaner persons, and confined alone almost to universities. 
In those days, scholars were highly beloved, * honoured, 
esteemed ; as old Ennius by Scipio Africanus, Virgil by 
Augustus ; Horace by Mecaenas ; princes' companions ; dear 
to them, as Anacreon to Polycrates ; Philoxenus to Diony- 
sius, and highly rewarded. Alexander sent Xenocrates the 
Philosopher fifty talents, because he was poor, visit rerum, 
out eruditione prcestantes viri, mensis olim regum adhibiti, 
as Philostratus relates of Adrian and Lampridius of Alex 
ander Severus ; famous clerks came to these princes' courts, 
velui in Lycceum, as to a university, and were admitted to 
their tables, quasi divum epvlis accumbentes ; Archilaus, 
that Macedonian king, would not willingly sup without Eurip 
ides (amongst the rest he drank to him at supper one night 
and gave him a cup of gold for his pains), delectatus poelee 
suavi sermone ; and it was fit it should be so ; because, as 
* Plato in his Protagoras well saith, a good philosopher as 
much excels other men, as a great king doth the commons of 
his country ; and again, 4 quoniam illis nihil deest, et minime 
egere solent, et disciplinas qnas proftientur, soli d contemptu 
vindicare possunt, they needed not to beg so basely, as they 
compel * scholars in our times to complain of poverty, or 

1 Spartian. Soliciti de rebus nimia. quibus ornabant herons. Eraam. ep. Jo. 

Nicet. 1, Anal. Pumis lueubrationum Fabio epis. Vien. * Probus Tir et Phi- 

nordebant. 8 Grammaticis olim et dia- losophus niagis praestat inter alios homi- 

lectires juri-que professoribua. qui sped- nes, quam rex incli t us inter plebeins 

men eruditionis dedissent. eadem dignl- 4 Heinsius, praefat. Poematom. * 8er 

tatis insignia decreverunt Imperatores, Tile nomen Scholaris jam. 

422 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a 

crouch to a rich chuff for a meal's meat, but could vindicate 
themselves, and those arts which they professed. Now they 
would and cannot ; for it is held by some of them, as an 
axiom, that to keep them poor, will make them study ; . they 
must be dieted, as horses to a race, not pampered, l Alendos 
volunt, non saginandos, ne melioris mentis flammula extin- 
guatur ; a fat bird will not sing, a fat dog cannot hunt, and 
so by this depression of theirs, 2 some want means, others 
will, all want 8 encouragement, as being forsaken almost; and 
generally contemned. 'Tis an old saying, Sint Meccencdes, 
non deerunt, Flacci, Marones, and 'tis a true saying still. 
Yet oftentimes, I may not deny it, the main fault is in our 
selves. Our academics too frequently offend in neglecting 
patrons, as * Erasmus well taxeth, or making ill choice of 
them ; negligimus oblatos aut amphctimur parum aptos, or 
if we get a good one, non studemus mwtuis officiis favorem 
efus alere, we do not ply and follow him as we should. 
Idem mihi accidit Adolescenti (saith Erasmus) acknowledg 
ing his fault, et gravissime peccavi, and so may f I say my 
self, I have offended in this, and so peradventure have many 
others. We did not spondere magnatum favoribus, qui ccepe- 
runt nos amplecti, apply ourselves with that readiness we 
should ; idleness, love of liberty, immodicus amor libertatis 
effecit ui diu cum perfidis amicis, as he confesseth, et perti- 
naci paupertate coUuctarer, bashfulness, melancholy, timo- 
rousness, cause many of us to be too backward and remiss. 
.So some offend in one extreme, but too many on the other, we 
are most part too forward, too solicitous, too ambitious, too 
impudent ; we commonly complain deesse Mcecenates, of want 
of encouragement, want of means, when as the true defect is 
in our own want of worth, our insufficiency ; did Maecenas 
take notice of Horace or Virgil till they had shown them 
selves first ? or had Bavius and Mevius any patrons ? Egre- 

1 Seneca. * Haud facile emergunt, 4, Cent. 1, adag. 1. t Had I done ai 

&e. * Media quod noctis ab bora se- others did, put myself forward, I might 

duti qu& nemo faber, qua nemo sedebat, have haply beet as great a man as man; 

qui docet obliquo lanam deducere ferro : of my equal*. 
rmca tamen merces. JUT. Sat. 7. * 

Mem. 3, subs. 16.] Study, a Cause. 423 

yiutn specimen dent, saith Erasmus, let them approve them 
selves worthy first, sufficiently qualified for learning and 
manners, before they presume or impudently intrude and 
put themselves on great men as too many do, with such base 
flattery, parasitical colloguing, such hyperbolical elogies they 
do usually insinuate, that it is a shame to hear and see. 
Immodicce laudes ccmciliant invidiam, potius quarn laudem, 
and vain commendations derogate from truth, and we think 
in conclusion, non melius de laudato, pejus de laudante, ill of 
both, the commender and commended. So we offend, but 
the main fault is in their harshness, defect of patrons. How 
beloved of old, and how much respected was Plato to Diony- 
sius ? How dear to Alexander was Aristotle, Demeratus to 
Philip, Solon to Croesus, Anexarcus and Trebatius to Augus 
tus, Cassius to Vespatian, Plutarch to Trajan, Seneca to 
Nero, Simonides to Hiero ? how honoured ? 

i" Sed bsBC prius fuere, mine recondite 
Senent quiete," 

those days are gone ; Et spes, el ratio studiorum in Caesare 
tantum ;* as he said of old, we may truly say now, he is our 
amulet, our 2 sun, our sole comfort and refuge, our Ptolemy, 
our common Maecenas, Jacobus munificus, Jacobus pacijicus, 
mysta Musarum, Hex Platonicus : Grande decus, columenque 
nostrum ; a famous scholar himself, and the sole patron, 
pillar, and sustainer of learning ; but his worth in this kind 
is so well known, that as Paterculus of Cato, Jam ipsum 
laudare nefas sit ; and which f Pliny to Trajan, Seria te 
carmina, honorque cetemus annalium, non hcec brevis et pu 
denda prcedicatio colet. But he is now gone, the sun of ours 
set, and yet no night follows, Sol occubuit, nox mtta sequuta 
est. We have such another in his room, J aureus alter. 
Avulsus, simili frondescit virga metaUo, and long may he 
reign and flourish amongst us. 

l Catullus, Juren. * All our hopes Phoebus hie noster. polo intuitu lubentt 
and inducements to study are centred lu orem reddat t Panegyr. J VlrgU 
Oesar alone. * Nemo eat quern ton 

424 Caiues of Melancholy. [Part. 1. sec. 2. 

Let me not be malicious, and lie against my genius, I may 
not deny, but that we have a sprinkling of our gentry, here 
and there one, excellently well learned, like those Fuggeri 
in Germany ; Dubartus, Du Plessis, Sadael, in France ; 
Picus Mirandula, Schottus, Barotius, in Italy ; Apparent rari 
nantes in gurgite vasto. But they are but few in respect of 
the multitude, the major part (and some again excepted, that 
are indifferent) are wholly bent for hawks and hounds, and 
carried away many times with intemperate lust, gaming and 
drinking. If they read a book at any time (si quod est in 
terim otiid venatu, puculis, aled, scortis) 'tis an English Chron 
icle, Sir Huon of Bordeaux, Amadis de Gaul, &c., a play 
book, or some pamphlet of news, and that at such seasons 
only, when they cannot stir abroad, to drive away time, 
1 their sole discourse is dogs, hawks, horses, and what news ? 
If some one have been a traveller in Italy, or as far as the 
emperor's court, wintered in Orleans, and can court his mis 
tress in broken French, wear his clothes neatly in the new 
est fashion, sing some choice outlandish tunes, discourse of 
lords, ladies, towns, palaces, and cities, he is complete and to 
be admired ; 2 otherwise he and they are much at one ; no 
difference between the master and the man, but worshipful 
titles ; wink and choose betwixt him that sits down (clothes 
excepted) and him that holds the trencher behind him ; yet 
these men must be our patrons, our governors too some 
times, statesmen, magistrates, noble, great, and wise by in 

Mistake me not (I say again) Vos, 6 Patritius sanguis, 
you that are worthy senators, gentlemen, I honour your 
names and persons, and with all submissiveness, prostrate 
myself to your censure and service. There are amongst you, 
I do ingenuously confess, many well-deserving patrons, and 
true patriots, of my knowledge, besides many hundreds which 
I never saw, no doubt, or heard of, pillars of our common- 

1 Rarufl enim ferme sennus communls nus genere, et prseclaro nomine tantum 
in ilia Fortuna. JUT. Sat. 8. a Quia Insignia. JUT. Sat. 8. 

enim geuerasum dizerit hunc que Indig- 

Mem. 3, subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 425 

wealth, l whose worth, bounty, learning, forwardness, true 
zeal in religion, and good esteem of all scholars, ought to be 
consecrated to all posterity ; but of your rank, there are a de 
bauched, corrupt, covetous, illiterate crew again, no better 
than stocks, merum pecus (testor Deum, non mihi videri dig- 
nos ingenui hominis appellatione), barbarous Thracians, et 
quis iUe thrax qui hoc neget ? a sordid, profane, pernicious 
company, irreligious, impudent, and stupid, I know not what 
epithets to give them, enemies to learning, confounders of the 
church, and the ruin of a commonwealth ; patrons they are 
by right of inheritance, and put in trust freely to dispose of 
such livings to the church's good ; but (hard task-masters they 
prove) they take away their straw, and compel them to make 
their number of brick ; they commonly respect their own 
ends, commodity is the steer of all their actions, and him they 
present in conclusion, as a man of greatest gifts, that will 
give most; no penny, 2 no pater-noster, as the saying is. 
Nisi preces auro fulcias, amplius irritas : ut Cerberus qffa, 
their attendants and officers must be bribed, feed, and made, 
as Cerberus is with a sop by him that goes to hell. It was 
an old saying, Omnia Romte venalia (all things are venal at 
Rome), 'tis a rag of Popery, which will never be rooted out, 
there is no hope, no good to be done without money. A 
clerk may offer himself, approve his 8 worth, learning, hon 
esty, religion, zeal, they will commend him for it ; but * probi- 
tas laudatur et alget. If he be a man of extraordinary parts, 
they will flock afar off to hear him, as they did in Apuleius, 
to see Psyche : multi mortales confluebant ad videndum sceculi 
decus, speculum gloriosum, laudatur ab omnibus, spectatur ab 
omnibus, nee quisquam non rex, non regius, cupidus ejus nup- 
tiarum petitor accedit ; mirantur quidem divinam formam 
omnes, sed ut simulacrum fabre politum mirantur; many 
mortal men came to see fair Psyche the glory of her age. 

1 1 have often met with myself, and Musis venias comitatus, Horn ere, Nil to* 

conferred with divers worthy gentlemen men attuleris. ibis, Homere, foras. 8 Et 

in the country, no whit inferior, if not to legat historicos auctores, noverit omne* 

be preferred, for divers kinds of learning, Tanquam ungues digitoeque sues JUT 

to many of our academics. - Ipse licet Sat. 7. * Juvenal 

426 Cause* of Melancholy. [Part I. sec. z. 

they did admire her, commend, desire her for her divine 
beauty, and gaze upon her ; but as on a picture ; none would 
marry her, quod indotata, fair Psyche had no money. * So 
they do by learning ; 

s " didicit jam dives avarus 
Tantum admirari, tantum laudare disertos, 
Ut pueri Janonis avem * 

" Your rich men have now learn'd of latter day 

T' admire, commend, and come together 
To hear and see a worthy scholar speak, 
As children do a peacock's feather." 

He shall have all the good words that may be given, 'a 
proper man, and 'tis pity he hath no preferment, all good 
wishes, but inexorable, indurate as he is, he will not prefer 
him, though it be in his power, because he is indotatus, he 
hath no money. Or if he do give him entertainment, let 
him be never so well qualified, plead affinity, consanguinity, 
sufficiency, he shall serve seven years, as Jacob did for Ra 
chel, before he shall have it. * If he will enter at first, he 
must yet in at that Simoniacal gate, come off soundly, and 
put in good security to perform all covenants, else he will not 
deal with, or admit him. But if some poor scholar, some 
parson chaff, will offer himself; some trencher chaplain, that 
will take it to the halves, thirds, or accept of what he will 
give, he is welcome ; be conformable, preach as he will have 
him, he likes him before a million of others ; for the best is 
always best cheap ; and then as Hierom said to Cromatius, 
patella, dignum operculum, such a patron, such a clerk ; the 
cure is well supplied, and all parties pleased. So that is still 
verified in our age, which * Chrysostom complained of in his 
time, Qui opulentiores sunt, in ordinem parasitorum cogunt 
eot, et ipsos tanquam canes ad mensas suas enutriunt, eorum- 

1 Tn yero licet Orpheus sis, saxa aono bique congiarium eat. * Quatuor ad 

testudinis emolliens, nisi plumbea eorum portas Ecclesias HUB ad omnes ; sangui- 

conla. auri vel argent) malleo emoliias, nis aut Simonis, prsesulis atque Drl 

fcc. Salisburiensis, Policrat. Ub. 6, e. 10. Holcot. * Lib. contra Gentiles da Bab 

* Juven. Sat. 7. 3 Euge bene, no need, ila martyie. 
Dousa efod. lib. 2,-dos ipsa scientia si- 

Mem. 3, subs. 16.] Study, a Cause. 427 

que impudentes Venires iniquarum ccenarum reliquiis differ* 
tiunt, iisdem pro arbitrio abutentes : Rich men keep these 
lecturers, and fawning parasites, like so many dogs at their 
tables, and filling their hungry guts with the offals of their 
meat, they abuse them at their pleasure, and make them say 
what they propose. l " As children do by a bird or a but 
terfly in a string, pull in and let him out as they list, do they 
by their trencher chaplains, prescribe, command their wits, 
let in and out as to them it seems best." If the patron be 
precise, so must his chaplain be ; if he be papistical, his clerk 
must be so too, or else be turned out These are those clerks 
which serve the turn, whom they commonly entertain, and 
present to church livings, whilst in the mean time we that are 
University men, like so many hide-bound calves hi a pasture, 
tarry out our tune, wither away as a flower ungathered in a 
garden, and are never used ; or as so many candles, illumin 
ate ourselves alone, obscuring one another's light, and are 
not discerned here at all, the least of which, translated to a 
dark room, or to some country benefice, where it might shine 
apart, would give a fair light, and be seen over all. Whilst 
we lie waiting here as those sick men did at the Pool of * Be- 
thesda, till the Angel stirred the water, expecting a good 
hour, they step between, and beguile us of our preferment. 
I have not yet said, if after long expectation, much expense, 
travel, earnest suit of ourselves and friends, we obtain a small 
benefice at last ; our misery begins afresh, we are suddenly 
encountered with the flesh, world, and devil, with a new 
onset ; we change a quiet life for an ocean of troubles, we 
come to a ruinous house, which before it be habitable, must 
be necessarily to our great damage repaired ; we are com 
pelled to sue for dilapidations, or else sued ourselves, and 
icarce yet settled, we are called upon for our predecessor's 
arrearages ; first-fruits, tenths, subsidies, are instantly to be 

1 Praescribunt, imperant, in ordinem tunt, ant attnihunt, nos a llbidlne sua 

?ogunt, ingenium nostrum prout ipsis pendere aequnm censeutes. Heinsius 

ridebitur, astringunt et relaxant ut pa- * Job. 5 
pilionem puerl aut bruchum fllo demit- 

428 Cause* of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 2. 

paid, benevolence, procurations, &c., and, which is most to ba 
feared, we light upon a cracked title, as it befell Clenard, of 
Brabant, for his rectory and charge of his Begince ; he was 
no sooner inducted, but instantly sued, caepimusque (* saith 
he) strenue litigare, et implacabili betto confligere ; at length, 
after ten years' suit, as long as Troy's siege, when he had 
tired himself, and spent his money, he was fain to leave all 
for quietness' sake, and give it up to his adversary. Or else 
we are insulted over, and trampled on by domineering officers, 
fleeced by those greedy harpies to get more fees ; we stand 
in fear of some precedent lapse ; we fall amongst refractory, 
seditious sectaries, peevish puritans, perverse papists, a las 
civious rout of atheistical Epicures, that will not be reformed, 
or some litigious people (those wild beasts of Ephesus must 
be fought with) that will not pay their dues without much 
repining, or compelled by long suit ; Laid dericis oppido 
infesti, an old axiom, all they think well gotten that is had 
from the church, and by such uncivil, harsh dealings, they 
make their poor minister weary of his place, if not his life ; 
and put case they be quiet honest men, make the best of it, 
as often it falls out, from a polite and terse academic, he must 
turn rustic, rude, melancholize alone, learn to forget, or else 
as many do, become maltsters, graziers, chapmen, &c., (now 
banished from the academy, all commerce of the muses, and 
confined to a country village, as Ovid was from Borne to 
Pontus,) and daily converse with a company of idiots and 

Nos interim quod attinet (nee enim immunes ab hoc noxd 
turmts) idem reatus manet, idem nobis, et si non multo gravitis, 
crimen objini potest: nostrd enim cidpd sit, nostrd incurid, 
nostrd avaritid, quod tarn frequentes, foedaque fiant in Ec- 
clesid nundinationes, (templum est vaenale, deusque) tot sordet 
invehantur, tanta grassetur impietas, tanta nequitia, tarn in- 
tanus miseriarum Euripus, et turbarum testuarium, nostro 

Eplst. lib 2. Jam stiflectus in locum demortui, protin as exortus 
to., post nuitos labores, sumptus, fcc. 

Mem. 3, subs. 15.J Study, a Cause. 429 

infjuam, omnium ( Academicorum imprimis) vitio sit. Quod 
tot Resp. malis afficiatur, a nobis seminarium ; ultro malum 
hoc accersimus, et qudvis contumelia, qudvis interim miserid 
digni, qui pro virili non occurrimus. Quid enim fieri posse 
speramus, quum tot indies sine delectu pauperes alumni, terra 
filii, et cujuscunque ordines homunciones ad gradus certatim 
admittantur ? qui si definitionem, distinctionemque unam out 
alteram memoriter edidicerint, et pro more tot annos in dia- 
lecticd posuerint, non refert quo profectu, quales demum sint, 
idiotce, nugatores, otiatores, aleatores, compotores, indigni, libid- 
inis voluptatumque administri, " Sponsi Penelopes, nebulones 
Alcinoique" modd tot annos in academid insumpserint, et se 
pro togatis venditarint; lucri causa, et amicorum intercessu 
prasentantur : addo etiam et magnijicis nonnunquam elogiis 
morum et scienticc: et jam valedicturi testimonialibus hisce 
litteris, amplissime conscriptis in eorum gratiam honorantur, 
ab Us, qui fidei sues et existimationis jacturam procul dubio 
faciunt. Doctores enim et professores (quod ait l iHe) id 
unum curant, ut ex professionibus frequentibus, et tumultuariia 
potius quam legitimis, commoda sua promoveant, et ex dis 
pendio publico suum faciant incrementum. Id solum in votit 
habent annui plerumque magistratus, ut ab incipientium nu- 
mero *pecunias emungant, nee multum interest qui sint, litera- 
tores an literati, modd pingues, nitidi, ad aspectum speciosi, 
et quod verbo dicam, pecuniosi sint. 8 Philosophastri licen- 
tiantur in artibus, artem qui non habent, * Eosque sapientea 
esse jubent, qui nulla przediti sunt sapientia, et nihil ad 
gradum praeterquam velle adferunt. Theologastri (solvant 
modo) satis superque docti, per omnes honorum gradus eve- 
huntur et ascendunt. Atque hinc jit quod tarn viles scurrce, 
tot passim idiotce, literarum crepusculo positi, larvce pastorum, 
circumforanei, vagi, barbi, fungi, crassi, asini, merum pecus, 
in sacrosanctos theologies aditus, iUotis pedibus irrumpant, 

1 Jun. Acad. cap. 6. * Aeciplamua dia Latina, ta SAt Christi Oxon. public* 

pecuniam, demittamus aginurn ut apud habita, Anno 1617, Feb. 16. * Sat 

Patavinos, Italos. 3 jjog non ita pri- Meuip. 

cUm perstrinxi in Philosophastro, Comae- 

430 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. 1 

prater inverecundam frontem adferentes nihil, vidgares qua** 
dam quisquilias, et scholarium queedam nugamenta, indigna 
qiue vel recipiantur in triviis. Hoc ittud indignum genus 
hominum et famelicum, indigum, vagum, ventris mancipium, 
ad stivam potius relegandum, ad haras aptius quam ad aras, 
quod divinas hasce literas turpiter prostituit ; hi sunt qui 
pulpita complent, in cedes nobilium irrepunt, et quum reliquis 
vitte destituanlur subsidies, ob corporis et animi egestatem, 
aliarum in repub. partium minime capaces sint ; ad sacram 
hanc anchoram confugiunt, sacerdotium quovismodo captantes, 
non ex sinceritate, quod l Paulus ait, sed cauponantes verbum 
Dei. Ne quis interim viris bonis detractum quid putet, quos 
habet ecclesia Anglicana quamplurimos, egregie doctos, iUus- 
tres, intactae famee homines, et plures forsan quam qutevis 
Europee provincia ; ne quis a Jlorentissimis Academiis, qua 
viros undiqudque doctissimos, omni virtutum genere suspic- 
iendos, abunde producunt. Et multo plures utraque habi- 
tura, multo splendidior futura, si non hce sordes splendidum 
lumen ejus obfuscarent, obstaret corruptio, et cauponantes 
qu&dam harpyce, proletariique bonum hoc nobis non invi- 
derent. Nemo enim tarn ccecd mente, qui non hoc ipsum 
videat : nemo tarn stolido ingenio, qui non inteUigat ; tarn per- 
tinaci judicio, qui non agnoscat, ab his idiotis circumforaneis, 
sacram pottui Theologiam, ac ccelestes Musas quasi prophanum 
quiddam prostitui. Viles animae et effrontes (sic enim Lu- 
therus a alicubi vocat) lucelli causa, ut muse* ad mulctra, ad 
nobilium et heroum mensas advolant, in spem sacerdotii, 
cujuslibet honoris, qfficii, in quamvis aulam, urbem se inge- 

runt, ad quodvis se ministerium componunt. " Ut nervis 

alienis mobile lignum *Ducitur " ffor. Lib. II. Sat. 

7, ' ofiam sequentes, psittacorum more, in praedae spem quid- 
vis effutiunt : obsecundantes Parasiti ( 4 Erasmus ait) quidvis 
docent, dicunt, scribunt, suadent, et contra conscientiam pro- 
bant, non ut salutarem reddant gregem, sed ut magnificam sibi 
parent fortunam. 5 Opiniones quasvis et decreta contra ver- 

1 a Cor. 11. 17. * Comment, in Gal. * Heinslug. Eccleslaat. * Lnth 

Mem 8, subs. 15.] Study, a Cause. 431 

bum Dei astruunt, ne non offendant patronum, sed ut retin- 
eant favorem procerura, et populi plausum, sibique ipsis opes 
accumulent. Eo etenim pkrunque animo ad Theologian* 
accedunt, non ut rem divinam, sed ut suam faciant ; non ad 
Ecclesice bonum promovendum, sed expilandwn; qucerentes, 
quod Paulus ait, non quae Jesu Christi, sed quae sua, non 
domini thesaurum, sed ut sibi, suisque thesaurizent. Nee 
tantum Us, qui vilioris fortunes, et abjectee sortis sunt, hoc in 
usu est : sed et medios, summos, elatos, ne dicam JBpiscopos, 
hoc malum invasit. l " Dicite, pontifices, in sacris quidfacit 
aurum ? " 2 summos saepe viros transversos agit avaritia, et qui 
reliquis morum probitate prcelucerent ; hi facem prceferunt 
ad Simoniam, et in corruptionis hunc scopulum impingentes, 
non tondent pecus, sed deglubunt, et quocunque se conferunt, 
expilant, exhauriunt, abradant, magnum fainae suce, si non 
animce naufragium facientes ; ut non ab infimis ad summos, 
sed a summis ad infimos malum promandsse videatur, et 
ittud verum sit quod itte olim lusit, emerat ille prius, vendere 
jure potest. Simoniacus enim (quod cum Leone dicam) 
gratiam non accepit, si non accipit, non habet, et si non habet, 
nee gratus potest esse ; tantum enim absunt istorum nonnutti, 
qui ad clavum sedent, a promovendo reliquos, ut penitus im- 
pediant, probe sibi conscii, quibus artibus iUic pervenerint. 
* Nam qui ob literas emersisse illos credat, desipit ; qui vero 
ingenh', eruditionis, experientiae, probitatis, pietatis, et Musa- 
rum id esse pretium putat (quod olim reverd fuit, hodie pro- 
mittitur) planissime insanit. Utcunque vel undecunque malum 
hoc originem ducat, non ultra quceram, ex his primordii* 
ccepit vitiorum colluvies, omnis calamitas, omne miseriarum 
agmen in Ecclesiam invehitur. Hinc tarn frequens simonia, 
hinc ortcB querelce, fraudes, impostures, ab hoc fonte se deriva- 
runt omnes nequitice. Ne quid obiter dicam de ambitionc, 
adulatione plusquam aulicA, ne tristi domiccenio laborent, de 
luxu, de fcedo nonnunquam vitee . exemplo, quo nonnutto 
ojffendunt, de compotatione Sybaritica, fyc., hinc ille squalor 

i Pen. Sat. 2. * Sallugt. ' 3at. Me nip. 

432 Causes of Melancholy. [Part. I. sec. a 

academicus, tristes bac tempestate Camenae, quum quivii 
homunculus, artium ignarus, his artibus assurgat, hunc in 
modum promoveatur et ditescat, ambitiosis appettationibus in- 
signis, et multis dignitatibus augustus vulgi oculos perstringat, 
bene se habeat, et grandia gradiens majestatem quandam ac 
amplitudinem prce se ferens, miramque solicitudinem, barbd 
reverendus, toga nitidus, purpurd coruscus, supettectilis splen- 
dore, et famulorum numero maxime conspicuus. Quales 
statuae (quod ait l itte) quae sacria in aedibus columnis im- 
ponuntur, velut oneri cedentes videntur, ac si insudarent, 
quum revera sensu sint carentes, et nihil saxeam adjuvent 
firmitatem : atlantes videri volunt, quum sint statuce lapidete, 
umbratiles reverd homunciones, fungi, forsan et bardi, nihil a 
saxo differentes. Quum interim docti viri, et vitce sanctions 
ornamentis praditi, qui cesium diei sustinent, his iniqud sorte 
serviant, minimo forsan salario contenti, puris nominibus 
nuncupati, humiles, obscuri, multoque digniores licet, egentes, 
inhonorati vitam privam privatam agant, tenuique sepulti 
sacerdotio, vel in cottegiis suis in eetemum incarcerati, in- 
glorie delitescant. Sed nolo diutius hanc movere sentinam, 
hinc itta lachrymce, lugubris musarum habitus, * hinc ipsa 
religio (quod cum Secellio dicam) in ludibrium et contemptum 
adducitur, abjectum sacerdotium (atque hcec ubi fiunt, ausim 
dicer e, et putidum *putidi dicterium de clero usurpare) puti- 
dum vulgus, inops, rude, sordidum, melancholicum, miserum, 
despicdbile, contemnendum.^ 

1 Budjcus, de Asse, lib. 5. * Lib. de them, and are deserving of every oppro 
rep. Gallornm. * Cam plan. t As for brium and suffering, since we do not after- 
ourselves (for neither are we free from this wards encounter them according to our 
fault) the same guilt, the same crime, may strength. For what better can we expect 
be objected against us; fur It is through when so many poor, beggarly fellow*, 
our fault, negligence and avarice, that so men of every order, are readily and with 
in any and such shameful corruptions oc- out election, admitted to degrees? Who, 
cur in the church (both the temple and if they can only commit to memory a 
the Deity are offered for sale), that such few definitions and divisions, and pass the 
Hordidness is introduced, such impiety customary period in the study of logic*, 
committed, such wickedness, such a mad no matter with what effect, whatever sort 
gulf cf wretchedness and irregularity they prove to be, Idiots, triflers, idlers, 
these I say arise from all our faults, but gamblers, sots, sensualists, 
more particularly from ours of the Uni 
versity. We are the nursery In which " mere ciphers in the book of life 
those ills are bred with which the state Like those who boldly woo'd Ulysses't 
ts afflicted ; we voluntarily introduce wife ; 

Mem. 4, subs. 1.] 

Nurse, a Cause. 



SUBSECT. I. Non-necessary, remote, outward, adventitious, 
or accidental causes : as first from the Nurse. 

OF those remote, outward, ambient, necessary causes, I 
have sufficiently discoursed in the precedent member, the 

Born to consume the fruits of earth : in 

As vain and idle as Pheacia's youth ; " 

only let them have passed the stipulated 
period in the University . aud professed 
themselves collegians ; either for the sake 
of profit, or through the influence of 
their friends, they obtain a presentation ; 
nay, sometimes even accompanied by 
brilliant eulogies upon their morals and 
acquirements ; and when they are about 
to take leave, they are honoured with the 
most flattering literary testimonials in 
their favour, by those who undoubtedly 
sustain a loss of reputation in granting 
them. For doctors and professors (as an 
author says) are anxious about one thing 
only, viz : that out of their various call 
ings they may promote their own advan 
tage, and convert the public loss into 
their private gains. For our annual offi 
cers wish this only, that those who com 
mence, whether they are taught or un 
taught is of no moment, shall be sleek, 
fat, pigeons, worth the plucking. The 
Philosophastic are admitted to a degree 
in Arts, because they have no acquaint 
ance with them. And they are desired 
to be wise men, because they are endowed 
with no wisdom, and bring no qualifica 
tion for a degree, except the wish to have 
it. The Theologastic (only let them pay) 
thrice learned, are promoted to every 
academic honour. Hence it is that so 
many vile buffoons, so many idiots, every 
where, placed in the twilight of letters, 
the mere ghosts of scholars, wanderers 
in the market place, vagrants, barbels, 
mushrooms, dolts, asses, a growling herd, 
with unwashed feet, break into the sacred 
precincts of theology, bringing nothing 
along with tlvnu but an impudent front, 
gome vulgar trifles and foolish scholastic 
technicalities, unworthy of respect even 
at the crossing of the highways. This is 
the unworthy, vagrant, voluptuous race, 
fitter for the hogsty (haram) than the 
altar (aram), that basely prostitute divine 
literature; these are they who fill the 
pulpits, creep into the palaces of our no- 
VOL. I. 28 

bility after all other prospects of existence 
fail them, owing to their imbecility of 
body and mind, and their being incapa 
ble of sustaining any other parts in the 
commonwealth ; to this sacred refuge 
they fly, undertaking the office of the 
ministry, not from sincerity, but as St. 
Paul says, huckstering the word of God. 
Let not any one suppose that it is here 
intended to detract from those many 
exemplary men of which the Church of 
England may boast, learned, eminent, 
and of spotless fame, for they are more 
numerous in that than in any other 
church of Europe ; nor from those most 
learned universities which constantly 
send forth men endued with every form 
of virtue. And these seminaries would 
produce a still greater number of inesti 
mable scholars hereafter if sordiduess did 
not obscure the splendid light, corrup 
tion interrupt, and certain truckling 
harpies and beggars envy them their use 
fulness. Nor cat, any one be so blind as 
not to perceive this any so stolid as not 
to understand it any so perverse as not 
to acknowledge how sacred Theology has 
been contaminated by those notorious 
idiots, and the celestial Muse treated with 
profanity. Vile and shameless souls (says 
Luther) for the sake of gain, like flies to 
a milkpail, crowd round the tables of the 
nobility hi expectation of a church liv 
ing, any office, or honour, and flock into 
any public hall or city ready to accept 
of any employment that may offer. 

" A thing of wood and wires by others 

Following the paste as the parrct, they 
stutter out anything hi hopes of reward; 
obsequious parasites, says Erasmus, teach, 
gay. write, admire, approve, contrary to 
their conviction, anything you please, 
not to benefit the people but to improve 
their own fortunes. They subscribe to 
any opinions and decisions contrary to 
the word of God, that they may not of 
fend their patron but retain the favour 
of the great, the applause of the multi- 


Games of Melancholy. 

[Part. L sec. 2 

non-necessary follow ; of which, saith * Fuc